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ndex Supplement to the Notes and Queries, with No. 290, July 19, 1879. 


SOT- ^ U< VV 

of Entercommumcatioit 



" When found, make a note of." CAPTAIN CUTTLE. 





Index Supplement to the Notes and Queries, with No. 2SO, July 19, 1379, 

M. II 




5th s. XI. JAN. 4, 79.] 



1TOTES : William Parry's Narrative of Sir Anthony Sherleys 
Travels, 1601, 1 Twelfth Day Manus Christi. &c., 3 Lady 
A. Hamilton and the "Secret History "The Family Names 
of the Princess <ie Talleyrand, 4 Celts and Saxons Motto for 
an Jndex, 5 Banker Poets Devon Provincialisms Milk 
and Water A Survival Brass at Cuxton, Kent A Cure for 
Hydrophobia, 6 -Arms of Cyprus, 1. 

OTJEEIES -Major Andrg Bacon on " Hudibras " The 
Society of Jesus in India-Decoys, 7 Dr. S. Musgrave 
Welsh Proverbs Portia Grist- Mills An Irish Bishop 
Butler Periwig Wells Family The Evil Eye in Morocco 
Braham's " Entusymusy," 8 Varia Abp. Sheldon 
Edward Longshanks Spinhola The Fleet Prison "How 
Lord Nairn was Saved" Miss Porter's " Scottish Chiefs" 
Smollett s " Adventures of an Atom''" Briefe an Pilatus " 
Title of Book Wanted Authors Wanted, 9. 

[REPLIES : Elizabeth Blunt, 9 Ancient Monuments of the 
Moreton Family, 11 Epigram on Beau Nash, 12 Rev. B 
Benn, 13 Tokens for the Sacrament The Parish Bull 
"Nobody and Somebody "More Family, 15 The "un- 
known acre" of Newbury The Beaumonts of Folkingham 
" Quod taciturn Velis "Henry Andrews, Almanac Maker, 
16 Isabella Daughter of Edward III. Territorial Title of 
a Peer, 17 Renton Family Rosemary v. Mint Trin. Coll. 
Dublin " The Blossoms " "SLatutes" Abp. Stuart Bp. 
Shipley Weather Lore "The Fair One with the Golden 
Locks" " Piece "Yankee, 18 Watch-case Verses "A 
house to let "Milton's " Paradise Lost," 19. 

:&TOTES ON BOOKS : Pascoe's "Dramatic List' 
" Songs of a Wayfarer." 

Notices to Correspondents, &c. 



In 1601 William Pcarry published a short 
account of Sir Anthony Sherley's travels through 
a part of Asia Minor and Persia. Parry, who was 
one of Sir Anthony's company, returned to Eng- 
land in the middle of September, 1601, and on 
November 11 succeeding the following entry 
appears in the Stationers' Registers (Mr. Arber's 
Transcript, vol. iii. p, 195) : 

"11 Nouembris[1601]. 

" William Aspley ffelix Norton Entred for their Copy 
vnder the handes of master ZACHARIAH PASFEILD and 
the wardens A booke Called A true Discourse of 
ANTHONY SHXRLTM travayles &c. [by WILLIAM 
PARRY] vj d ." 

The tract was included by Mr. Collier in his 
privately- printed Illustrations of Early English 
Popular Literature (2 vols., 4to., 1862-64), and it 
is from this source that the extracts now given 
have been taken. Its contents are at present o 
considerable interest when that part of the world is 
occupying so much public attention. For the sake 
of completeness the contents of the title-page maj 
be quoted : 

"A new and large discourse of the Trauels of si- 
Anthony Sherley Knight, by Sea and ouer Land, to the 

ersian Empire. Wherein are related many straunge 
md wonderfull accidents : and also tbe Description and 
onditions of those Countries and People be passed by : 
nth bis returne into Christendome. Written by William 
*arry, Gentleman, who accompanied Sir Antbony in his 
Tntuells. London Printed by Valentine Simines for 
Felix Norton. 1601." 

The company started from Venice in May, 1599, 
nd the circumstances in which the travellers 
reached Cyprus may account for their gladness in 
departing from it : 

" Hauing spent those twelue dayes as aforesaide in 
Dandia among those merry Greekes, we eftsoones im- 
aarked our selues for Ciprus, to which we were some 
nine dayes passing : where (as tbe saying is) tbe Italians 
'with whom we passed to Zant) did our errand (like 
inights errand) against our corning. They made reporte 
x> the Turkes inhabiting tbe same He, that we were all 
airats, and that they should do wel to lay hands on vs, 
md to carry vs to the great Turk, their emperor, because, 
oesides that, we were pirats, and came into Turky but as 
spies. Wherevpon the Turkes laid handes vpon vs, euen 
vpon our first arriuall, threatning to haue brought vs to 
Constantinople : bowbeit they staied vs in Ciprus two 
daies, in which time they were indifferently well 
qualified in hope of money we promised them, and which 
they had to their full contentment ere we parted from 
them."- P. 11. 

From Cyprus Sir Anthony and his company 
passed over, in a ten-ton boat, to the Syrian shore, 
and in due time reached Aleppo. At the latter 
place they 

"remayned about some sixe weekes at tbe English 
bouses, and feasted (for the most parte) while wee there 

continued Leauing heere awhile to prosecute our 

iorney, I will speake somewhat of the fashion and dis- 
position of the people and country, whose behaviours in 
point of ciuilitie (besides that they are damned Infidells 
and zodomiticall Mabomets) doe answer the hate we 
Christians doe iustly holde them in. For they are, 
beyond all measure, a most insolent, superbous and in- 
sulting people, euer more prest to offer outrage to any 
Christian, if be be not well guarded with a Janizarie or 
Janizaries. They sit at their meat (which is serued to 
them vpon the ground) as Tailers sit vpon their stalls, 
crossa-legd ; for the most part passing the day in banquet- 
ing and carowsing vntill they surfet, drinking a certaine 
liquor which they do call Coffe, which is made of a seede 
much like mustard seede, which wil soone intoxicate the 
brairie, like our Metheglin. They will not permitte any 
Christian to come within their churches, for they holde 
their profane and irreligious Sanctuaries defiled thereby. 
They haue no vse of Belles, but some priest, three times 
in the day, mounts the toppe of their church, and there 
with an exalted voyce cries out, and inuocates Mahomet 
to come in post, for they haue long expected his second 
comming. And if within this sixe yeeres (as they say) he 
come not (being tbe vtmost time of his appoyntment and 
promise made in that bebalfe) they haue no hope of his 
comming. But they feare (according to a prophecie they 
haue) the Christians at tbe end therof sbal subdue them 

all, and conuert them to christianize The country 

aboundeth with great store of all kinds of fruit, where- 
upon (for the most parte) they Hue, their cheefest meate 
being Rice. Their flesh is Mutton and Hennes ; which 
Muttons haue huge broade fatte tailes. This meate 
most commonly they haue but once in the day, all the 
rest they eate fruite as aforesaide. They eate very little 
beefe, vnlisse it bee the poorest sort. Camels for their 


[5 th 8. XL JAN. 4, 79. 

carriage they haue in great abundance, but when both 
them and their horses are past the best, and vnfit 
for carriage, the poorest of their people eate 
them." Pp. 15-17. 

The next stage further inland involved the 
travellers in some trouble : 

"From Aleppo we set forwards in the middest of 
August, accompanied with our English merchants three 
dayes, to wit, vntill we came to a town called Beerah 
or Birrah, by which runnes the most famous riuer 
Euphrates, parting Mesopotamia and Syria; where we 
rested sixe or seauen dayes. whilest boates were pre- 
paring for vs and other Turkish merchants : that being 
done, we parted from our merchants, and betooke our 
selues to the saide riuer of Euphrates, on the which we 
were some three and twenty dayes passing downe the 
same. In which time we came by a castle called Racca, 
where we were to take in fresh ineate, and men to row. 
But loe ! there happened that a Turke, being in one of 
the boats in our company, discharged his peece towards 
the shoare at randon, where he most vnhappily slew 
a Turke of the towne (the bullet entring his braine) ; by 
reason whereof our boate, aswell as the rest was stayed, 
and we constrained to make satisfaction for the mans 
death : which cost sir Anthony for his company some 
hundred crownes. Which being payed, and wee dis- 
charged, we held on our course from thence some two or 
three dayes passage ; where we were eftsoones stayed by 
the King of the Arabs, there liuing vpon the rivers side 
in tents : before whome we were brought, whose handes 
we kist; and demaunding what we were, and what 
businesse we had in those paries, we replied we were 
Englishmen and Merchants by our trades, comming for 
traffike into those paries of the world. Wherevpon this 
good king tolde vs that he must needes see our mer- 
chandize, which we (God wot) durst not contradict ; and 
eo he borrowed (without a priuy seale, or bill of his hand) 
some thirtie yardes of cloth of siluer vntill our returne. 
That being done, we had licence to departe to our boate. 
In whose campe we sawe nothing but a multitude of 
cammelles, mules, asses, horses, sheepe and goats : from 
thence wee passed to another called Anna." Pp. 19-20, 

Hitherto we follow our travellers down the 
Euphrates to its junction with the Tigris and 
towards the Persian Gulf ; but all at once we are 
sent back to the town of Deir, or, as Parry calls 
it, the town of Dire. He tells us that leaving Anna 
(or Anah) they came next to the town of Dire. 
A reference, however, to any modern reliable map 
will show that the last-named town is much 
further up the river that is, nearer Aleppo. The 
inference I gather from this is that Parry, after 
his return to England, wrote his narrative from 
memory, which would account for the confusion of 
places. This, however, is of little consequence, as 
the fact now to be quoted is of some interest from 
a scientific point of view : 

" From thence to a towne called Dire, by which there 
is a lake or poole of very pitch, which in their language 
they call the mouth of Hell. It sweiles in the middest 
thereof to the bignesse of an hogshead, and so breaketh 
with a great puffe, falling flat, and thus continually it 
worketh : whereof there ia no bottome to be found, albeit 
it often hath beene tried by all meanes." P. 20. 
This "lake or poole of very pitch" could be no 
other than one of the many bitumen springs which 
have been known to exist for ages in Asia Minor 

and Persia. In a lengthened communication to 
the Times of July 25, 1878, Mr. Grattan Geary 
states that in the immediate vicinity of Erbil 
(Arbela) " are fountains of petroleum which have 
been running ever since Alexander the Great's 
time." That it is to this excellent and useful 
illuminant Parry refers in the following extract is 
beyond doubt : 

" Neere vnto a towne called Backo, in Persia, there 
issueth out of the earth, in the manner of a water-spring, 
a certaine kind of oyle in great abundance, which they 
(from all parts of the Persian dominions) do fetch vpon 
Camels, Kine and Asses, to burna in lamps, which are 
the lights they vse in their houses." P. 37. 

The reception which Sir Anthony Sherley and his 
companions received from the Persian monarch and 
his subjects was of the most flattering description. 
In returning home, which they did by the way of 
the Caspian Sea, our countrymen passed through 
Eussia, and without further extending these 
extracts I shall conclude with the following : 

" But the day before wee left Muscouia, it was my 
fortune to see the King and his Queene in cerimonious 
and triumphant manner passing out of the Citty 
[Moscow], with a great linage and a huge Bell to offer 
to a certayne Friery, some thirty miles off, which was 
performed in this sorte. First, all the morning diuers 
troupes of horse passed out of the Citty, to stand ready 
to receiue him at his comming out of the gate. About 
midday, the King setting forwards, his guard formost, 
all on horsebacke to the number of fiue hundred, all clad 
in stammel coats, riding in ranke, three and three, with 
bows and arrowes, and swords girt to them, as also 
hatchets under the one thigh. After the guarde were 
ledde by twenty men twenty goodly horses, with very 
rich and curious saddles, and ten more for his sonne and 
heire apparant, beeing a childe of twelue yeeres of age. 
After which was ledde, in like sorte, twenty beutifull 
white horses for the Queenes chariots, hauing onely 
vppon them a fine sheete, and on theyr heades a crimson 
veluet bridle. After them came a great number of Friers 
in theyr rich coapes, singing, carrying many pictures 
and lights. After them followed the greatest parte of 
the merchants of the Citty. Next them was ledde the 
Kings horse for that day, together with his sonnes : the 
Kings saddle and furniture most richly besette with 
stones of great price and beauty. Then followed the 
Patriarch, wyth all the Archbishoppes, Bishoppes, and 
great Prelates, singing in their coapes, very rich and 
glorious, hauing huge Images borne before them, beeing 
very richly inlayed with pretious Jems of diuerse colours, 
and lights about them. Then followed the King him- 
selfe, who had in his left hand his sonne, aboue men- 
tioned, and in his right hand his cappe. Next him came 
the Queene, supported on eyther side by two olde Ladies, 
her face euen thickly plaistered with painting, as were 
other Ladies (according to the customeof the Countrey) ; 
hir body very grosse, hir eyes hollowe and far into hir 
head, attended with some three score very fayre women 
(if painting (which they holde a matter religious) 
deceiued not the iudgement of mine eie). All whose 
apparel was very rich, beset with pearle curiously 
wrought, hauing white hattes on theyr heads, with great 
round bands laden with pearle. We neuer saw hattes 
worne by any women in the Country, but by them 
onely. "-Pp. 50-52. 

Sir Anthony Sherley's own narrative of this 
expedition was not published until 1613, for 

XI. JAN. 4, 79.] 



a review of which Mr. Collier's Bibliographical 
Account, 1865 (vol. ii. p. 343), may be consulted. 



As a popular festival Twelfth Day stands only 
inferior to Christmas, the leading object being to 
do honour to the three Magi, or, as they are com- 
monly called, the three kings of Cologne. The 
name Twelfth Day itself -dates as far back as the 
time of King Alfred, who established the twelve 
days after Christmas as holidays, of which the 
Epiphany was the last. These twelve days were 
dedicated to the twelve apostles, and in some 
parts of England it is still customary to light, on 
the eve of Twelfth Day, one large and twelve 
small fires, which are intended to represent our 
Lord and the twelve apostles. In days gone by 
this festival was chiefly marked by the custom of 
drawing for king and queen by lots a practice, 
.according to some, derived from the Eoman Saturn- 
alia, when at its completion children drew lots 
with beans to see who would be king. In Lin- 
colnshire there is always a dance on Twelfth Day, 
called the " Cake Ball," at which the old custom 
of choosing the king and queen by lot is still kept 
up. In France the sovereign thus elected is called 
" Le Eoi de la Feve," and the importance of this 
ceremony is indicated by the proverbial phrase for 
good luck, " II a trouve la feve au gateau," he 
has found the bean in the cake. Twelfth Day 
appears to have been observed in this country by 
royalty from time immemorial. In the eighth year 
of the reign of Edward III. the title of " King of 
the Bean " was conferred upon one of the king's 
minstrels ; and we read, too, how Henry VII. 
with much pomp kept this ceremony at Court. In 
1563 Mary Queen of Scots celebrated the pastime 
of the King of the Bean at Holyrood, but with a 
queen, Miss Strickland tells us (Lives of the Queens 
-of Scotland, vol. iv. p. 20), " instead of a king, 
as more appropriate, in consideration of herself 
being a female sovereign." Indeed, down to the 
time of the civil wars, this festival was observed 
xvith much enthusiasm, not only at Court, but at 
the Universities and the Inns of Court. Formerly 
the Lord Mayor and Aldermen and the guilds of 
London attended St. Paul's Cathedral on Twelfth 
Day to hear a sermon a custom alluded to in the 
early part of Queen Elizabeth's reign. Of late 
years the celebration of Twelfth Day has been on 
the decline, and many of the customs once con- 
nected with it have fallen into disuse. One, how- 
ever, of mediaeval origin is still observed at the 
Chapel Eoyal, St. James's Palace. On the festival 
of the Epiphany, after the reading of the sentence at 
the offertory, "Let your light," &c., while the organ 
is played, two members of Her Majesty's house- 
hold descend from the royal pew and advance to 
the Communion rails, where they present to one 

of the officiating clergymen a red bag, which is 
placed in an offertory basin. This is understood 
to contain the Queen's offering of gold, frankin- 
cense, and myrrh, in commemoration of the gift of 
the Magi to the infant Saviour. This day is rich 
in proverbs. Thus, in Dalmatia they say, " If you 
were to ask a wolf when he felt the cold most, he 
would reply, 'At the winter solstice,'" which is at 
Epiphany. In Italy it is thought to be one of the 
coldest days. Thus, at Milan they say, "At 
Epiphany is the greatest cold we can have." At 
Florence there is a popular saying, " Show me the 
man who does not shiver on the Epiphany, and I 
will show you an honest man." Lastly, on the 
Rhine there is a proverb, " The three holy kings 
build a bridge or break one," implying that either 
a hard frost or a thaw comes at this season. 



I subjoin a few notes on some names of plants 
and specifics, which show the influence of the 
religious houses in the Middle Ages on popular 
nomenclature. We need not suppose that any 
irreverence was intended when the names were 
originally bestowed, though some of them rather 
jar upon our more sensitive modern religious 
sentiment. The instances which I have selected 
are either imperfectly explained or omitted by 
Nares and H alii well. 

Manus Christi. " Refined sugar boil'd with 
rosewater or that of violets or cinnamon ; a sort of 
cordial for very weak persons " (Phillips, New 
World of Words, sixth edit., 1706) ; " Take as 
much sugar as will fill your mold and boyl it in 
christi. then pour it into your mold 

suddenly, and clap on the lid," &c. (A Queen's 
Delight, or the Art of Preserving, Concerving and 
Candying, &c., London, 1655, 12mo., p. 264). 
Halliwell merely says (Arch, and Prov. Diet.), 
"Manus Christi, a kind of lozenge." Ducange 
(Supplement, Paris, 1766, fol.) gives us, "Manus 
Christi, massa qusedam saccharo condita." I sup- 
pose, therefore, that Manus Christi was a sort of 
sugar candy, and was so called in some conventual 
refectory because its supposed cordial properties 
raised up sick people like the divine hand. 

Oculus Christi, wild clary or Christ's eye, 
because it cures diseases of the eyes (N. Cul- 
pepper's English Physitian, edit. 1671). 

Orvale sauvage, wild clarie, double clarie, ode 
Christi (Cotgrave). This is our Salvia verbenaca. 

Lacrima Christi, a kind of excellent wine about 
Naples (Torriano, edit. 1659). This wine is still 
made on the slopes of Vesuvius, and remains in 
some request. 

" God's Good. A blessing on a meal ] 

" Let the cook be thy physition, and the shambles thy 
apothecaries shop : hee that for every qualme will take 
a receipt, and cannot make two meales, unless Galen be 


[5th s. XI. JAN. 4, 79. 

his Gods good, shall be sure to make the physition rich 
and himselfe a begger : his bodie will never be without 
diseases, and his purse ever without money. Lylie's 
Euphues and his England.'' 

I have copied this from Nares (new edit., 1876), 
but God's good usually in our old literature bears 
the sense of yeast, as in the Nomenclator, London, 
1585, 8vo., we find, " Cremor, c. Barme, yest, 
quickening or gods good." Halliwell (Arch, and 
Prov. Diet.) explains this word as yeast, so do 
Coles, Florio, &c. Here again we have probably 
another name originating in the mediseval convents. 
In the Euphues passage God's good can hardly 
mean a blessing on a meal. If a grace were meant, 
" cannot make one meale " would be more appro- 
priate. But I read the word as continuing the 
sense of " hee that for every qualme will take a 
receipt," and as specifying one of the receipts which 
would be, under such circumstances, taken. Is 
not God's good, therefore, in this passage some 
specific used to stimulate impaired " concoction " 
in which yeast was the chief ingredient? For 
instance, this occurs in The Queen's Closet Opened, 
Lond., 1655, 12nm, " A receipt to help Digestion. 
Take two quarts of small ale," &c. 

Gratia Dei. Cotgrave tells us that this name 
was applied to the hedge hyssop, to the blue cranes- 
bill or crowfoot cranesbill, and to the dwarf or low 
cistus.* Torriano also mentions these same plants 
as so called. I rather doubtfully identify them 
with our Galeopsis tetrahit, Geranium pratense, 
and Eelianthemum vulgare. Perhaps some of your 
readers, learned in the archaeology of botanical 
nomenclature, will inform me better. The New 
World of Words, edit. 1720, applies gratia Dei to 
"a lesser kind of centaury," and to a plaster made 
of wax, rosin, suet, turpentine, &c. The common 
old name for rue, herb of grace, may also be noted 
for comparison. ZERO. 


Will you allow me to call attention to a view as 
to the authorship of this disreputable book which 
is entirely at variance with that entertained by 
some of your correspondents, namely, that Lady 
A. Hamilton was the writer of it 1 

This will be found in the following letter from 
the Rev. R. H. Barham to Mr. Bentley, to whom the 
book would appear to have been offered for pub- 
lication (see Life of Barham, vol. ii. p. 49). From 
Mr. Barnaul's literary experience and his know- 
ledge of all that was going on in the publishing 
world, and for the reasons given by him for his 
opinion that " Lady Anne Hamilton had no more 
to do with it than Lady Godiva," that opinion 

* More doubtingly Cotgrave brings under this appella- 
tion the wild parsnip (Paslinaca sativa) and the bastard 

ought not to be lost sight of by those who suppose 
a lady of birth and education could have been the 
writer of such a book. It should be remembered, 
too, that the Quarterly Review, though not friendly 
to Lady Anne, exculpated her from any share in it. 
" To Richard Bentley, Esq. 

" My dear Bentley, I return you the most impudent 
forgery that I ever saw. It is impossible to read any ten 
pages of this infamous book without seeing that Lady 
Ann Hamilton had no more to do with it than Lady 
Godiva. There is very little in it that has not been 
printed in the cheap Radical filth years ago. The only 
exception perhaps is the direct charge about the Princess 
Charlotte's death. It is avowedly (see vol. i. p. 156) 
the composition of [the author of] Authentic Records, 
a tissue of lies for which a fellow of the name of Phillips 
was prosecuted in 1832, but which was pretty well known 
to have been written by the notorious Jack Mitford. 
The portion not to be found in that farrago is made up 
from Princess Olive of Cumberland and Barry O'Meara ; 
but I do not hesitate to say that though it is generally 
understood that Lady Ann did write something in the 
shape of a diary which. Avas suppressed some years ago, 
yet it is quite clear that the vulgar ruffian who penned 
these pages can never have seen that book, and that of 
a great part of it even Princess Olive, offensive as she 
was both in ideas and expression, was utterly incapable. 
It is evidently the work of a man. That the letters are 
forgeries is also perfectly clear. Is it possible that Queen 
Caroline could address the prince as 'My Lord,' and that 
three times in one letter (vol. i. p. 114), or that an 
address of the House should style him 'George, called 
Prince of Wales,' an error into which the ignoramus who 
wrote it has been betrayed by the official language used 
towards peers by courtesy, but never towards peers de 
facto, which the Prince of Wales always is] In p. 183, 
same volume, the writer talks of a conversation 'we' 
had with Peace the tailor. Lady Ann Hamilton would 
have as soon worn a pair of breeches of his making as 
have admitted any such person into her confidence. See 
also p. 195 for the date of another interview with the 
same worthy Abrahamides. For coarseness of allusion 
and expression which no woman could write, see 
pp. 199-242, and the ruffianism about the Cato Street 
' martyrs,' p. 338, all in vol. i. I could furnish you with 
an endless list of gross and palpable lies, such as Sir H. 
Bate Dudley, whom he calls 'Revd. Mr. Bates,' being 
created a baronet for his abuse of Queen Caroline during 
her trial, as editor of the Herald, when it is notorious 
that his baronetcy was given him in 1813, and that he 
had long ceased to have any connexion with that paper 
before the time alluded to. But it is useless to go on : 
the title page is a gross lie, and appears to me to have 
been purposely printed and foisted in upon a book which 
had originally some other. 

"As Mr. , a name which I lay my life is a false 

one, seems to offer this to you for publication, I have gone 
more into the thing than it would otherwise deserve. 
Any man who could dream of such a thing would at once 
put himself out of all decent society, nor were a man un- 
principled enough to do it for the chance of a profit 
could the speculation succeed, for the humbug is too 
gross to impose even upon the savans of Gower Street. 
Yours truly, R. H. B." 


TALLEYRAND. I observe that in some of the 
recent volumes of our French contemporary, 

fit'' S. XL JAN. 4, 79.] 


L'lntermediaire, there has been a discussion, which 
is still pending, concerning the names borne by the 
Princess de Talleyrand by birth and by her first 
marriage. Reference is made to two entirely con- 
tradictory statements, one put forth by a corre- 
spondent" of L'lntermediaire (" M. A. D.," Int., 
vii. 547), and the other by Madame Colmache, 
widow of the Prince's private secretary, in the 
Memoirs published by her from her husband's 
papers. I have on a previous occasion cited this 
book in relation to the story of the diamond neck- 
lace, and I should consider Madame Colmache 
extremely likely to be well informed on such 
a point as that now in question. " M. A. D.," in 
L'lntermediaire, says that the Princess was named 
Worlee, and that she was born at Tranquebar. 
Madame Colmache says that her maiden name was 
Dayot, that she was born at L'Orient, and that her 
first husband's name was Grandt. This latter 
name itself varies in the different accounts, being 
also written Grand (which is Prince Talleyrand' 
own orthography) and Grant. I had written thus 
far before having an opportunity of consulting the 
Biographie Universelle. In the long notice of 
Talleyrand given in the Supplement (1853) there 
are one or two points worthy of remark as bearing 
upon the name and origin of the Princess. Talley- 
rand himself, in a letter to one of the Directory, 
written to obtain the release of Madame Grand, 
who had been suspected of conspiring with the 
Royalists, calls her " une Indienne, bien belle, bien 
paresseuse, la plus desoccupee detoutes les femmes 
que j'aie jamais rencontree." The Emperor Na- 
poleon is cited in the Biographie as having, in his 
St. Helena conversations, called the Princess " tres 
belle femme, des Indes Orientales." The Bio- 
graphie adopts Talleyrand's orthography Grand, 
with the addition " nee Worlee." Probably 
a transcript of the inscription on her tomb at 
Mont Parnasse might set us right concerning 
both the paternal and married names of the Prin- 
cess de Talleyrand. Only why did not our Paris 
friends take a step so much simpler for them than 
for us ? Perhaps they knew it would be of no use. 

CELTS AND SAXONS. In an article in the Daily 
News of November 29 is the following passage : 

" Macaulay remarks that Sir Walter Scott had no 
more reason to speak of himself as a fellow-countryman 
of William Wallace than Washington wuld have had 
to describe himself as the fellow-countryman of an 
Indian chief." 

Where does Lord Macaulay make this very decided 
assertion ? Although I have read nearly every 
line of his published works, and his life and letters, 
published after his death, I cannot remember it. 
I should like to know what some of the really 
enlightened and impartial scholars amongst the 
readers of " N. & Q." have to say on the subject, 
for, in my ignorance (it may be), I have always 

thought that both Sir Walter Scott and Sir 
William Wallace bore Celtic names, and that 
however mixed their blood may have been with 
Saxon and Scandinavian, they derived paternally 
from the Celtic stock, which, coming from Scotia 
Major (Ireland), gave its name to Scotia Minor 
(Scotland), and which also sent out branches to 
Wales, North and West, and to Strathclyde and 
to Brittany. Of course I do not mean to say that 
these divisions do more than roughly describe the 
settlements of the Celts in these islands, and I do 
not touch on their subdivisions into Gael and 
Cymry and the vexed questions involved. All 
I seek to know is whether there can be any 
warrant for the strange assertion that Scott and 
Wallace were not countrymen or of the same 
Celtic stock, but distinct in race as Washington 
and a Red Indian. The pedigrees of Wallace of 
Kelly in Burke's Landed Gentry (ed. 1851) begin 
with a Sir Malcolm Wallace, whose Christian 
name at least is from the Celtic. I have not the 
Rev. Isaac Taylor's delightful and valuable work 
on Words and Places near me, but if I remember 
rightly he derives the name of Wallace from the 
Saxon word for a foreigner or Celtic neighbour, 
and we all know the words Wales and Valais are 
derived from it. In Ireland, at all events, good 
antiquaries have said that the old name of Le 
Waleys, which appears in the Exchequer Records 
of Kerry in the reign of Edward I. and earlier, 
was derived from this Saxon word, and that it is 
the original of our Irish names Wallace and Walsh 
to-day. In Ireland the former was and is often 
spelt Wallis. The Le Waleys of Kerry in old 
time was the son or grandson of a Welsh settler 
who came here with the English in 1172-1200, or 
the son or grandson of an Irishman who had gone 
over to his Welsh cousins before that period. 
There can be no mistake about the name of Scott, 
I suppose. Sir Walter himself, in The Lay of the 
Last Minstrel, distinguishes between the Scotic 
and the Saxon conquerors of Scotland when he 
makes the Duke of Buccleuch's ancestor say to the 
Beattisons of Eskdale : 

"Deal not with me as with Morton tame, 
For Scots play best at the roughest game." 

Celts and Saxons are a " vanished tale " in Ireland 
to-day, of course, although their effigies are carried 
about sometimes, like the Bridogues the Irish 
children make up and carry about on St. Bridget's 
Eve to please or frighten the unwary and foolish 
and to extract their sixpences and halfpence. I 
only " want to know," like the inquirer at the 
Circumlocution Office," whether there is any real 
justification for the assertion that Scott and 
Wallace are names implying a difference of race 
xnd country. M. A. HICKSON. 

MOTTO FOR AN INDEX. Over twenty years ago 
i valuable correspondent of " N. & Q." sought 



|5" S. XL JAN. 4, 79. 

" a motto or maxim for an index " (2 nd S. i. 413). 
Among the communications received, one "proposed 
the old Latin saying ' Verbum sat,' " and your old 
and honoured contributor, the late DR. HUSEN- 
BETH, made a fair hit in the " Monstror digito 
prretereuntium " of Horace (Carm., iv. iii. 22). 
The others do not require notice here, save perhaps 
one by INDAGATOR, who, however, was unable to 
name his author (2 nd S. vi. 316) ; and although I 
regret to think it may be too late to satisfy your 
original querist (whose contributory signature I 
regret to have missed for some years past), I may 
perhaps be permitted to suggest as such motto, in 
case it should still be required for an index or any 
other book of reference, certain other words of 
Horace, few and to the point " Quod petis, hie 
est " (EpisL, i. xi. 29). W. T. M. 


BANKER POETS. Samuel Eogers is not the only 
one entitled to the designation of the banker poet. 
One of his predecessors was Arunachala Kavirayer, 
who was born near Tranquebar A.D. 1712, and 
declined an influential appointment which would 
have committed him to a celibate life. At thirty 
he married and became a banker. He died, at the 
age of sixty-seven, in 1779 (The Tamil Plutarch, 
by Simon Casie Chitty, Jaffna, 1859, p. 9). 


Bank Cottage, Barton-on-Irvvell, Manchester. 

DEVON PROVINCIALISMS. The following pro- 
vincialisms are in use in the parish of Lydford, 
Devonshire. This parish contains the whole of 
Dartmoor, and is of immense extent : 

" Viddy " (= fitty ?), right, suitable. 

"What do you please to have 1 ?" commonly contracted 
to " Please t' have 1 " for " What did you say ] " 

"Thejrgy there," for "those there," sometimes 
shortened to " Theggy." 

" M itching " = playing the truant. 

" Mazed >: = mad. 

" Whisht " z= lonely, of a place ; ill, of a person. 

" Slog " = to lure or entice. 

I hope the new Board school lately opened there 
will not educate the natives out of these curious 
and interesting words and phrases, much as they 
may require education in other ways. I know 
them well. W. K. W. CHAFY-CHAFT. 

MILK AND WATER. Here is an early instance 
of a current practice : 

"Friday (June, 1769), 16. A cause was tried in the 
Common Pleas in which Mrs. Todd, a milkwoman, was 
plaintift', and a cowkeeper in Chelsea defendant ; the 
action was for mixing water with his milk, which she 
was by contract engaged to take for a certain time. The 
jury without going out of the court gave a verdict for 
the plaintiff, with -i)l. damagw." Gentleman's Maqazine 
1769, p. 316. 


A SURVIVAL. During the last week in Novem- 
ber and the first in December I observed on several 

occasions a man exhibiting birds in a cage, placed 
on a stand, in the streets of Torquay. At length, 
curiosity having drawn me to see the exhibition 
somewhat closely, I found that, with the assistance 
of the birds, the man was a fortune-teller, and that 
he made known his profession with the following 
announcement, printed on a board attached to his 
stand : 

"If you please, Ladies and Gentlemen, Take advantage 
of the occasion of these birds, which for Id. will select 
from the public box a planet of the fortune which will 
tell you the history of your past and future life. The 
said planets are for Ladies and Gentlemen." 

There can be little or no doubt that the word 
planet, of the true meaning of which the exhibitor 
was certainly ignorant, is a survival of the practice 
of our ancestors, who in the u bright leaves " of the 
stars " would read the fate of men and empires." 

I have not recently heard or seen the word used 
thus ; but upwards of half a century ago an old 
woman, resident in my native village, told me 
more than once that she could tell my fortune by 
the lines on my hand for a copper or two, but that 
she could not " turn the planets without silver." 


BRASS AT CUXTON, KENT. Thorpe, in the 
Eegistrum Eoffense (p. 772), states that there was 
at Cuxton Church. Kent, a loose palimpsest brass 
plate, and he gives the later inscription thus : 

" Pray for the soule of John wolpacker of London, 

some Katheryns Christ cliurche August, anno 

domini M v c XLV. On who " 

Presumably the surname, &c., were already obli- 
terated in Thorpe's time, and the Rector of Cuxton 
informs me that the brass itself is now lost. 

By way of supplying the missing surname I 
subjoin a note from a will, obviously that of the 
person commemorated on the brass. Will dated 
12th, and proved 22nd, August, 1545 (fo. 33, 
" Pynnyng," P.C.C.) : 

" John Turner, of the parishe of saint Kateryn Christis 

Church w l in London, Wolman my bodye to be buried 

in the churche of Cokston in Kent, in the Chapell of our 
Lady, yf I doo deceas in tlie parishe of Hallyrig. And 
yf I lyve I will that my body shalbe buried in the Church 
of saint Kateryn Cristis Church aforsaid, before the 

Fonte, in a knowlige of the faithe which 1 toke there 

I geve unto maistres Deonyse Leveson for certeyn con- 
sideracons all such dettes as she oweth unto me for 
packyng of hir wolles." 

J. C. C. SMITH. 

Richmond, Surrey. 

A CURE FOR HYDROPHOBIA. Quite as quaint a 
custom in the way of cures (5 th S. x. 126) is one told 
to us by our Persian maid-servant, and which she 
would be horrified to think you disbelieved. Some 
years ago there dwelt in or near Bushire, Persian 
Gulf, a Moollah, or priest. Besides being able to 
expound the doctrines of the Koran, he cured 
persons afflicted with that dreaded maladie hydro- 

5- s. xi. JAN. 4, TO.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

phobia in a very simple manner. The patient was 
brought to the holy man, who after, I suppose, 
blessing him, &c., mounted a couple of small 
columns of masonry, a little apart from each other, 
placed one leg on each, and then bade the afflicted 
pass between and under. Fatima declares they 
came away cured ! The Moollah was, I am told, a 
Syud, or descendant of the Prophet. 

Cape Jask, Persian Gulf. 

ARMS or CYPRUS. In the Heraldic Manuscript 
of Sir David Lyndsay, 1542, of which a reprint 
has recently been issued by Mr. W. Paterson, of 
Edinburgh, these arms are given, p. 16 : Barry 
argent et azure (11 argent, 10 azure), over all a 
lion rampant gules. 

The same coat, without the lion, is attributed to 
Aymer de Lusignan, Bishop of Winchester, 1250-60 
(Papworth, vol. i. p. 55). Q. D. 

[For " The Arms of Cyprus" see "N. & Q.," 5 th S. x. 
163, 189, 218, 229, 316, 329.] 


[We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct.] 

MAJOR ANDRE. I should like to ask three 
questions in " JST. & Q.": 

1 . Where is Sir Joshua Reynolds's portrait of 
Major Andre now to be seen 1 

2. Where is the pen-and-ink sketch of the noc- 
turnal scene of the boat on the Hudson drawn by 
Andre on the eve of his execution 1 One of your cor- 
respondents (4 th S. v. 437) is quite correct in saying 
that the sketch in the library at Newhaven is 
only of Andre himself, not of the adventure at 

3. Is there any one living who can confirm the 
story of the apparition to Mr. Cunningham in 
Derbyshire '? (See " N. & Q.," 2 nd S. i. 463.) The 
first part of the apparition the capture was ful- 
filled ; the second part, of the execution near a 
great city is wrong. A. P. S. 

BACON ON " HUDIBRAS." The following is an 
extract which I made at the time from the curious 
catalogue published by Burn, then of Maiden Lane, 
in 1823 : 

" Bacon (Montagu), Critical, Historical, and Explana- 
tory Notes upon Hudibras, by way of Supplement to the 
Edition of 1744 by Zachary Grey, LL.D. With a trans- 
lation of the First Canto into Latin Doggrel. 8vo., 1752. 
neat, 21. 2s. 

" Of excessive rarity. Nash, in his edition of Hudilras, 
3 vols., 4to., speaks of it only from hearsay, and the late 
Henry Baldwyn, the editor of the recent edition of 
Hudibras, made a long and useless search for it. It is 
not in the British Museum, Sion College Library, nor in 

any of the libraries belonging to the public institutions 
in and about the metropolis, nor is it known where 
another copy is extant." 

I have been a pretty diligent reader of catalogues 
and a tolerably industrious collector since that 
time, but I have never seen or heard of any other 
copy of this book. Can any one tell me of the 
existence of one and point out its whereabouts ? 
It is mentioned by Lowndes, who says, " It is 
attributed to J. Tunstall, published at Is." Who 
was J. Tunstall ? WILLIAM J. THOMS. 

to pick up at a native bookstall in Kurrachee, 
Sind, some years ago, what appeared to me to be 
a very curious and interesting old work in Latin 
(two parts bound in one volume), relating to the 
sayings and doings of certain members of the 
Society of Jesus in India. Here is the title-page 
of part i. : 

" lo Petri | Maffeii | Bergomatis | E Societate Jesv | 
Historiarvm | Indicarum Libri xvi. | Selectarvm Item ex 
India | Epistolarum eodem interprete Libri iii. | accessit 
Ignatif Loiola3 vita postremo recognita. Et in opera | 
Singula copiosus Index. | Cvm privilegio | Virtvti sic- 
cedit invidia. | Venetiis, apud Damianum Zenarium, 
Here there is an autograph in faded ink : 

" Migy Mantuani Joi. Zej " 

And this the title-page of part ii. : 

" Selectarvm | Epistolarvm | Ex India | Libri Qvatvor 
| loanne Petro Maffeio | Interprete. | Venetiis, | Ex 
officina Damiani Zenarij, M.D.LXXXVIII." 
Part i. consists of sixteen books, part ii. of a 
selection of epistles and a voluminous life of St. 

As far as I could glean, it came into the posses- 
sion of this native at an auction, where I believe 
he purchased it as waste paper. The binding is 
obviously the original one, but is much dilapi- 
dated, I apprehend from rough usage, but the con- 
tents are perfect and intact. 

Would some of your readers determine its- 
present value to bibliographers? H. HARRISON. 

Cape Jask, Persian Gulf. 

DECOYS. Spelman (English Works, edit. 1727 
[Posthumous Works], p. 153) says that Sir Wm. 
Woodhouse made among us the first device for 
ducks, called by the foreign name of " a Koye " 
("primum apud nos instituit Decipulum Anato- 
rium, peregrine nomine 'a Koye'")- ^ nas 
commonly been believed that decoys were frequent 
in this country at a much earlier period than the 
reign of King James I., but upon referring to some 
of these accounts as quoted (I have not access to 
the originals) there seems reason to believe that 
a mode of taking fowl very different from that of 
decoying as now understood was pursued, viz., 
driving young or moulting birds into pipe nets 


[5" S. XL JAN. 4, 79. 

somewhat resembling modern decoys, but the mode 
of proceeding being of course the opposite to that 
practised in the decoy proper. In the reign of 
King John decoys are said to have been common 
in England, and disputes arose between the Lord 
of Liddel and the monastery at Crowland with 
regard to the Deeping Decoy in 1415. Again, in 
1432 a mob armed with swords, &c., took six 
hundred wild geese out of the abbot's decoy. 
Camden also says that about Croyland in the 
month of August the owners sometimes drove into 
a single net at once 3,000 ducks, &c. I should be 
glad to know what authority there is for calling 
these erections for taking fowl decoys. The word 
used by Spelman is " decipulum," and he adds 
" peregrine nomine ' a Koye,' " as though he were 
introducing for the first time a foreign name for 
these " devices." Can it be that Woodhouse was 
really the first to introduce decoys proper, that is, 
nets into which the fowl were enticed, not driven, 
and that the name decoy, applied by him to these 
devices, has been improperly used with regard to 
the earlier mode, which consisted of driving 
a practice which, though forbidden by Act of 
Parliament in 1534, was still illegally resorted to 
many years after 1 T. SOUTHWELL. 


MOUTH. Did a once well-known Dr. Samuel 
Musgrave, physician of Plymouth, devise a machine 
for flying in the air about 1768? Or did any 
other person distinguish himself in this manner 
about that date ? 0. 

WELSH PROVERBS. In the new volume just 
issued by the Powysland Club (Montgomeryshire 
Collections, vol. xi. p. 310), the writer gives as 
a Welsh proverb, and attributes it to " Twm o'r 
Nant, a great satirist in the last century," the fol- 
lowing : " Po nesa i'r eglwys, pella o baradwys " 

The nearer the church the further from 
heaven "). We usually, I think, suppose the pro- 
verb to have a Scotch origin, and to be "The 
nearest the kirk the furthest frae grace." " Twm 
o'r Nant " (Thomas Edwards) was born in 1738 
and died in 1810. How old is the Scotch version 
of the proverb 1 A. R 

Croeswylan, Oswestry. 

PORTIA. I am told that in the sixteenth 
century a lady of the name of Laura Basso or Besso 
at Bologna had taken her degree as doctor juris, 
and that Shakespeare had been acquainted with 
the fact, so that this Signora Laura became the 
model of Portia in the Merchant of Venice. 
Who knows anything about it 1 

F. A. LEDY. 

GRIST-MILLS. In a chronological work entitled 
The Tablet of Memory, and published in London 

it is stated that " grist-mills were invented in Ire- 
and, A.D. 214." On what authority is this state- 
ment made ? ABHBA. 

luthentic (or even legendary) particulars to be found 
of the life of a prelate of this name, Who figures 
prominently in Irish popular tradition ? He was 
oishop, it is said, of Cork ; belonged first to the 
new religion, left that for the other, and again 
changed his creed in order to inherit a property. 
The story adds that he finally went to Home, and 
did public penance there. D. F. 


PERIWIG. What are the meaning and derivation 
of the first two syllables in this word 1 The Greek 
preposition TTC/H, " around," seems obvious at first 
ight. But it fails to satisfy me. 

Hampstead, N.W. 

WELLS FAMILY. I wish to ascertain the 
armorial bearings of the Wells family, who were 
resident in Scarborough about seventy or eighty 
years ago. As far as I can make out from verbal 
description, the crest is an arm in bend sinister, 
the hand grasping a dagger, point downwards ; 
but I should like to know the correct blazon. Any 
particulars as to the pedigree and present repre- 
sentative of the family would be acceptable. 


Cape Town, S.A. 

the evil eye is, as is well known, very widespread. 
References to it are to be found alike in Virgil and 
in Beowulf. The methods adopted for the pre- 
vention of its baleful effects have not been so 
much noticed. There is one described in the 
Travels in Morocco, by the late James Richardson 
(London, C. J. Skeet, 1860), which may be worth 
quoting. Mr. Richardson, in describing the cere- 
monies of a native Jewish wedding at Mogador, 
says : 

" We had noAV music and several attempts to get up 
the indecent Moorish dance, which, however, was for- 
bidden as too vulgar for sucli fashionable Jews, and 
honoured by the presence of Europeans. Not much 
pleased with this spectacle, 1 looked out of the window 
into the patio, or courtyard, where I saw a couple of 
butchers' boys slaughtering a bullock for the evening 
carousal. A number of boys were dipping their hands 
in the blood and making with it the representation of an 
outspread hand on the doors, posts, and walls, for the 
purpose of keeping off ' the evil eye' (el ojo matigno) and 
so ensuring good luck to the new married couple.' 1 Vol. i. 
p. 191. 

Was this plan customary elsewhere ? 

Bank Cottage, Barton-on-Irwell, Manchester. 

BRAHAM'S " ENTUSYMUSY." In the recently 
published Memoirs of the Eev. Francis Hodgson 

5b S. XL JAK. 4, 79.] 



(vol. ii. p. 77) there is a letter from Lord Byron, 
in which he speaks of the enthusiasm of the French 
for Byronism. He says, " Nothing was ever like 
their entusymusy (you remember Braham) on the 
subject." What is the joke about this perversion 
of enthusiasm ? Braham, that truly marvellous 
singer, was of the very lowest origin, and probably 
never had any education, but on the stage he used 
to speak well enough. JAYDEE. 

VARIA. I hope that some of the readers of 
" N. & Q." can give some information about the 
following to one who is writing a book and has no 
good library of reference at hand. 

1. Dr. Cockman. I want to know something of 
the ancestors and birthplace of Thos. Cockman, 
D.D., Master of University College, Oxford. He 
graduated M.A. 1697, and died in 1744. He 
made a translation of Tully's Offices which passed 
through many editions. 

2. Laurence Sterne. When, by whom, and 
on what authority was the statement first made 
-that he was educated at Heath Grammar School, 
near Halifax ? I have found a great deal to be 
said against it, 

3. Cyril Jackson, Dean of Christ Church. I 
want to know if he was the son of Cyril Jackson, 
M.D., of Stamford, who between 1745 and 1750 
married the widow of the lord of the manor of 
Shipley, near Bradford, and so became a wealthy 
man. I want also to know whether his family was 
otherwise connected with Yorkshire, where the 
-dean was educated, and when and where he died. 

T. C. 

BURY. Where was this celebrated prelate born 1 
Biographia Britannica states at Stanton, Stafford- 
shire, but Collinson, in his History of Somerset, 
claims him as a Somersetshire worthy, and says 
that he was born at Stanton Prior in that county. 
Which statement is correct ? D. K. T. 

EDWARD LONGSHANKS. Fabyan has, "In this 
:yere .... was borne at Westmynster Edwarde, 
that after was surnamed Longeshanke." What is 
the earliest authority for this nickname ? 

0. W. T. 

SPINHOLA. Is Spinhola the name of a sword 
manufactory ? and, if so, of what nation ? I have 
a family rapier said to have come down from the 
'Commonwealth. The hilt is of silver, covered 
with richly chased classical figures, and on it is 
engraved the word " Spinhola " (or " Spinhosa "). 


THE FLEET PRISON. Was the Fleet Prison ever 
a State prison ? if so, at what date 1 Where can 
I find its history ? 0. W. T. 

" How LORD NAIRN WAS SAVED." In one of 
Sir Francis Doyle's poems, How Lord Nairn was 

Saved (if my memory serves me rightly), there 
occurs the following line, " And Kenmuir's lads 
are men in vain." To what does this expression 
refer any saying or tradition connected with the 
house of Kenmuir ? 

character of Edwin Ruthven in Miss Porter's 
Scottish Chiefs wholly imaginary ? B. 

Can any one tell me who are the ministers intended 
in this satire ? E. LEATON BLENKINSOPP. 

" BRIEFE AN PILATUS." Among the published 
works of Friedrich v. Gentz is Briefe an Pilatus. 
Is there any way of learning who " Pilatus " was 1 


TITLE OF BOOK WANTED. Can any reader of 
" N. & Q." furnish me with the title of a book I 
remember reading some five-and-forty years ago ? 
The only clue I can furnish is the following. It 
was a motley collection of odds and ends, some 
grave and some gay some quite proper, others not 
so. On the title-page was " I have culled a nose- 
gay of choice flowers, and brought nothing of 
my own but the thread which binds them. 
Montesquieu" W. E. HOWLETT. 


" Together lay her prayer-book and her paint, 

At once to improve the sinner and the saint." 
With article of any magazine or review about eighteen 


(5* S. x. 328.) 

This lady was a lineal descendant, in the fifth 
generation, of Sir Walter Blunt of Kock and 
Sodington, the common ancestor of the Blunts of 
Sodington, the Lords Mountjoy, and the Blunts 
of Kinlet. Her father was Sir John Blunt of 
Kinlet, who died in 1524 ; her mother was 
Catharine, third daughter of Sir Hugh Peshall of 
Knightley. She was born early in the sixteenth 
century, probably in 1502, and died in 1551, sur- 
viving Henry VIII. and all his wives and widows 
except Ann of Cleves, and leaving a posterity 
which bears one of the most honourable names 
among the ancient families of England, that of the 
Dymokes of Scrivelsby. There is nothing to show 
how or when Elizabeth Blunt first appeared at the 
Court of Henry VIII., but her stay there seems to 
have been of very short duration. The original 
authority for all subsequent statements respecting 
her connexion with the king is Hall, who says : 



JAN. 4, '79. 

" The kinge in his freshe youth was in the chaynes of 
love with a fair damosell called Elizabeth Blount, which 
in synging, daunsyng, and in all goodly pastymes ex- 
ceeded all others, by the which goodly pastymes she wan 
the Kingys liarte, and she again shewed him such favour 
that by him she bare a goodly man childe, of beautie like 
to the father and mother. This childe was well brought 
up, like a prince's childe : and when lie was six yere of 
age, the Kinge made him Knight, and called him Lord 
Henry Fitzroy : and in London, being the 18th day of 
June, at the manor, or place, of Bridewell, the said Lord 
ledde by twoo Erles was created Earle of Nottingham, 
then he was brought back again by the said twoo Erles. 
Then the Dukes of Norfolk and Suffolke led hym into the 
great chamber again, and the King created him Duke of 
Richmond and Somerset." Hall, fol. c, ed. 1550. 
The title of Eichmond was that of the king's father 
before he became Henry VII, and had not since 
been conferred on a subject. 

This son of Elizabeth Blunt was born at the 
manor house of Jericho, Blackrnore, Essex, a seat 
of the Blunts, in the year 1519, his mother being 
not more than seventeen years of age at the time 
of his birth, and Cardinal Wolsey became one of 
feis godfathers. On June 18 5> 1525, he was, as 
stated in the preceding quotation, made Duke of 
Kichmond and Somerset, and was also created 
Knight of the Garter, his plate of arms still remain- 
ing on his stall in St. George's Chapel. A month 
later, on July 16, 1525, the Duke of Kichmond 
was made Lord High Admiral of England ; in 
1527 he was appointed Warden of the Marches 
on the borders of England and Scotland ; and in 
1530 was appointed Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, 
with Sir William Skeffington for his acting deputy. 
In 1525 Sheriff Hutton was assigned to the young 
duke for his residence, and he was placed in charge 
of a council, being treated in all respects as a 
prince of the blood. The antiquary Leland appears 
to have been one of his early tutors, but before he 
was twelve years of age he had become a student 
at King's College, Cambridge, under the care of 
Croke, the Professor of Greek. Henry Fitz-Eoy 
attended his father to the Field of the Cloth of 
Gold in 1532, and thence went to Paris to com- 
plete his education in the university there ; and 
returning in the following year was present at the 
baptism of Queen Elizabeth. Three months later 
he was married to Lady Mary Howard, daughter 
of the Duke of Norfolk, but it appears that the 
young bride and bridegroom never lived together. 
On May 19, 1536, the king imposed upon him 
the duty of attending, as one of four peers, th 
execution of Queen Anne Boleyn ; and there can 
be little doubt that the Act of Succession, which 
was passed soon afterwards (28 Hen. VIII. c. 7), 
was intended to facilitate his nomination as his 
father's successor to the crown.* But on July 22, 

1536, less than three months after his attendance 
at the Tower scaffold, he died, in a very mysterious 
nanner, at St. James's Palace, having probably 
Deen poisoned by some of those who objected to 
;he arrangements in progress for his succession to 
;he crown. Lord Herbert says of him that he was 
' equally like to both parents," his mother " being 
thought, for her rare ornaments of nature and 
3ducation, to be the beauty and mistress-piece of 
the time " (Herbert's Henry VIII., 165). He was 
the close friend of the cultured Earl of Surrey, and 
some of his letters remain (Camd. Misc., iii.), which 
indicate that he was a youth of great promise. He 
was buried at Framlingham, in Norfolk, where his 
monument still remains. 

Elizabeth Blunt does not seem to have returned 
to the Court after the birth of her son, and the 
only trace of any association between them in later 
days is that William Blunt, her youngest brother, 
and only a boy at the time, was on the roll of his 
nephew's household as a gentleman usher at the 
time of the duke's death. But before Henry Fitz- 
Koy was three years old his mother had become 
the wife of Sir Gilbert Tailbois, the manor of 
Kokeby, in Warwickshire, part of the Duke of 
Buckingham's estates, being granted to him and 
his wife Elizabeth on June 18, 1522. In the 
following year a private Act of Parliament (14 & 15 
Hen. VIII. c. 34) was passed respecting the 
jointure of " Elizabeth, wife of Gilbert Taylboys," 
from which it would appear that some provision 
was made for her by the Crown on her marriage. 

Sir Gilbert was summoned to Parliament as 
Lord Tailbois of Kyme an ancestor of his had 
been Earl of Kyme, but the title had been forfeited 
for rebellion in 1529, though he lived to wear 
the honour of a peerage for a very short time, 
his death taking place on April 15, 1530. Lord 
Kyme had three children by Elizabeth Blunt : two 
sons, who died before him, and one daughter,. 
Elizabeth, Lady Tailbois,t who was married first 
to Thomas Wimbush of Norton, in Lincolnshire, 
and secondly to Ambrose Dudley, afterwards Earl 
of Warwick, the eldest son of the Duke of North- 
umberland, and brother of Lord Guildford Dudley, 
but she died without children. The two infant 
sons of Lord Kyme and Elizabeth were buried 

* From a passage in Tyndale's Practice of Prelates, 
written about 1529 and published in 1530, it seems pro- 
bable that the Protestant party proposed a marriage 
between the Princess Mary and the Duke of Richmond. 

" If the King of England," says Tyndale, " had a son by 
one wife, heir to England, and a daughter by another,, 
heir to Wales [Mary being then Princess of Wales], then, 
because of the great war that was ever wont to be 
between these two countries, I would not fear to marry 
them together for the making of a perpetual unity, and 
to make both countries one, for to avoid so great effusion 
of blood." Tyndale's Pract. Prel., 331, Parker Soc. ed. 
f " The controversy between the Ladie Talbois and 
her husband Mr. Wimbuss was committed by the Council 
to the order of the Lord Great Chamberlain, the Lord 
Admiral, and the Master of the Horse " (Privy Counc. 
Reg., June 13, 1550). This was probably respecting the 
claim made by Wimbush to the barony of Kyme. 

5th s. XI. JAN. 4, 79.] 



with their father in a vault in the priory church oi 
Kyine ; and all three bodies were accidentally 
discovered there some years ago, shrouded in lead. 
There was also found a brass plate with the follow- 
ing inscription, the plate being now placed on the 
north wall of the parish church of South Kyme : 

" Here lyetli Gylbert Taylboys Lord Taylboys, Lord of 
Kyme, wych maried Elizabeth Blount, one of the 
daughters of Sir John Blount of Kynlet in the counte 
of Shropshire, Knight, wych Lord Taylboys departed 
forth of this world the xv th day of April A Dni whose Solle God pardon. Amen." 

For some years after the death of Lord Kyme 
his widow lived at Kyme, and there are some 
reasons for conjecturing that she was, secretly or 
openly, mixed up with the Pilgrimage of Grace, 
which began at Louth two months after the Duke 
of Kichmond's death, but must have been long 
preparing in secret. There is, however, no direct 
evidence to be found at present on this point. 

About the year 1537 Elizabeth was again 
married, to her neighbour Edward, ninth Lord 
Clinton, whose seat was at Folkingham, a few 
miles south of Kyme. She lived to see this 
husband made Lord High Admiral and Knight of 
the Garter ; but it was not until twenty years after 
her death that he became Earl of Lincoln, and it 
was by another wife that he became the ancestor 
of the Dukes of Newcastle. He is buried in 
St. George's Chapel, Windsor, and the name of 
Elizabeth Blunt occurs in the inscription on his 
monument as that of his first wife. By her he 
had three daughters, Bridget, Catharine, and 
Margaret. Bridget became the wife of Robert 
Dymoke of Scrivelsby ; and thus the Champions 
of England since the time of Queen Elizabeth have 
all been descended from Elizabeth Blunt. Catha- 
rine, her second daughter, was married to William, 
fifth Baron de Burgh, their descendants in modern 
times being the Lords Berners. Margaret, the 
third daughter, was the wife of Charles, second 
Baron Willoughby of Parham, and their family 
appears to have become extinct in the latter part 
of the last century. 

Elizabeth Blunt herself died on September 4, 
1551 ; Machyn having entered in his Diary, " The 
iiij day of September ded my lade Admerell' wyfe 
in Lynkolne-shyre, and ther bered" (Machyn's 
Diary, p. 9). 

The estate of Kinlet was bequeathed by Sir 
George Blunt, the brother of Elizabeth, to his 
younger sister, Agnes, the wife of Rowland Lacon, 
and from them it has descended to the Childes. 
Kyme was deserted after Elizabeth's marriage with 
Lord Clinton, and nothing now remains of what 
was once a magnificent house except a lofty square 
tower, which forms a conspicuous object in the flat 
landscape on the western border of the Boston fens. 

J. H. B. 

Lord Herbert, Life of Henry VIII., p. 165, 

speaking of the year 1518, when the king was 
twenty-seven years old, and had been married 
about nine years, says : 

" One of the liberties which our king took at his spare 
time was to love. For as all recommendable parts con- 
cur'd in his person, and they, again, were exalted in his 
high dignity and valour, so it must seem less strange, if 
amid the many fair ladies, which lived in his Court, he 
both gave and receiv'd temptation. Among whom, be- 
cause Mistress Elizabeth Blunt, daughter to Sir John 
Blunt, Knight, was thought, for her rare ornaments of 
nature and education, to be the beauty and mistress-piece 
of her time, that entire affection past between them, aa 
at last she bore him a son." 

This son was born in 1519, and his godfather was 
Cardinal Wolsey ; he was created a Knight of the 
Garter and Duke of Richmond in 1525, and died 
in 1536 (Ellis, Original Letters, i. 267). 

Elizabeth Blount married Gilbert Talboys of 
Kyme, created Baron Talboys 1529, and bore him 
three children : George and Robert, who died young, 
and Elizabeth, who married Thomas Wimbish, Esq. 
Baron Talboys died in 1539 ; his only surviving 
son, George, died a few months later, and the title 
descended to the daughter Elizabeth, but as she 
had no child by Mr. Wimbish nor yet by her 
second husband, the Earl of Warwick, the barony 
became extinct. The second husband of Elizabeth 
Blount was Edward Clinton, first Earl of Lincoln, 
by whom she had three daughters : Bridget, married 
to Robert Dymoke of Scrivelsby ; Catherine, who 
married William, Lord Borough ; and Margaret, 
the wife of Charles, Lord Willoughby of Parham. 
The dates of Elizabeth Blount's two marriages do 
not appear to be well ascertained. It would seem 
probable that it was as Miss Blount that the king 
took a fancy to her in 1518. Yet Burke, Extinct 
Peerage, 1866, states that it was after the death of 
her first husband, that is, after 1539, which is 
evidently impossible, whilst Ellis notes that she 
was Lady Elizabeth Tallboys in 1518, which is 
improbable. Holinshed (Chronicle, 1586, p. 892) 
distinctly calls her "Elizabeth Blunt, the daughter 
of Sir John Blunt"; and at p. 941, when mention- 
ing the death of her son Henry Fitzroy in 1536., 
he calls her "the Ladie Tailebois, then [i.e. in 
1519] called Elizabeth Blunt." 


See an account of her in the Genealogist, vol. ii. 
pp. 19, 44. C. J. E. 

349, 517.) I am afraid that "the clergyman 
residing near Congleton," who has so kindly solaced 
MR. E. WALFORD'S anxieties by informing him 
that " the recumbent figures of the Moretons in 
Astbury Church are still there," must be a bit of a 
wag, and one who delights to play practical jokes, 
for the statement is utterly devoid of truth. Still 
it must be confessed that MR. WALFORD laid 



[5 s. XL JAN. 

himself open to have practical jokes played upon 
him by stating as facts what every one who knows 
anything of Astbury Church must know to be 
fictions. Thus he wrote, " In it [the Moreton 
aisle] or the chancel were formerly two recumbent 
figures of Crusaders, members of the ancient family 
of Moreton." This is not a fact, although so pre- 
cisely stated, for no such monuments ever existed. 
MR. WALFORD continues, " My cousin Mrs. More- 
ton-Craigie . . . about twenty years ago gave per- 
mission to the vicar to remove these monuments a 
few inches ; . . . they have, however, been removed, 
not a few inches, but wholly and entirely, and 
cannot now be found. Can any of your readers 
say what has become of them 1 I would gladly 
forward any information to my cousin." These 
are some more of MR. WALFORD'S statements ; and 
although it is as obviously impossible for any one 
to give leave to move what never existed, or to lose 
what never could be lost, as it is for any of your 
readers to state where these monuments now are, 
still it was not for me to dispute the word of a 
lady or the knowledge of MR. WALFORD, so I let 
the matter rest, wondering all the time what it 
could really mean. It was not, however, kind of 
the Cheshire clergyman to play off his practical 
jokes, but if your correspondent will allow me to 
say so, he should make sure of his facts before 
stating them, and before rushing into the columns 
of "N. & Q." should not mind taking a little 

trouble to see 
on the subject. 

what has already been written 
Most people know that there are 

two books, at the least, relating to Cheshire his 
tory, one called Lysons's Cheshire and the othe 
Dr. Ormerod's History of Cheshire, and in both 
these are accounts of the monuments in Astbury 
Church. Had MR. WALFORD but consulted thes< 
well-known books it would have prevented hi 
being subjected to the ridicule of a country clergy 
man. For it is really too bad to try and palm oi 
the well-known effigy of an old lady, who died 
1599, as one of the imaginary Moreton Crusaders 
and yet that is what MR. WALFORD'S corresponden 

Urtrt IviMy^lYT )J A yv*-* .rt. -Pw*. l-.C-.-f* .,-^,1 *~ 1~* "L 1 ' 

re four effigies, removed some centuries ago from 
ic church, and now much defaced by the weather : 
ne of these is that of a priest, and the other three 
late either to the families of Venables or Brere- 
on, the arms admitting of dispute. 

As your correspondent MR. PICKFORD very 
roperly points out, the altar tomb of Sir William 
loreton, who died in 1763, has been removed, 
nd the inscriptions let into the floor of the church ; 
,nd it seems to me possible that it was to the 
ernoval of this heavy altar tomb that the corre- 
pondence to which MR. WALFORD alludes took 
jlace. But if this is really the case, it is a won- 
lerful instance of the growth of mythical traditions 
;vhen in twenty years a heavy altar tomb of the 
eighteenth century becomes converted into " two 
recumbent figures of Crusaders." But putting 
conjecture on one side, it is only right that MR. 
WALFORD should be made aware of the practical 
oke that has been played upon him by his name- 
ess correspondent. I can only hope he has not 
'orwarded the information to Mrs. Moreton- 
Oraigie. J. P. EARWAKER, M.A., F.S.A. 

Withington, near Manchester. 

EPIGRAM ON BEAU NASH (5 th S. x. 429.) 
The oldest printed version of this which I have 
seen is that given in the Gentleman's Magazine 
for February, 1741, p. 102. It is there printed 
without any author's name or initials. It is so 
frequently to be met with in an imperfect or in- 
complete form that it is worth reproducing entire : 

" On Mr. Nash's present of his own picture at full 
Length, fixt between the Busto's of Mr. Pope and Sir Is. 
Newton, in the Long Room at Bath. 

" Immortal Newton, never spoke 

More truth than here you '11 find ; 
Nor Pope himself, e'er penn'd a joke 
More cruel on Mankind. 

This picture plac'd the busts between, 

Gives satyr all his strength ; 
Wisdom and wit are little seen, 

But Folly at full length." 


kindly " done for him, and for which he is j Nash died in 1761, and his life, written by Oliver 

\ Goldsmith, was published in 1762. In this (p. 127) 

The real " facts " of the case are, however, very 
simple. There are but two recumbent effigies in 
Astbury Church, as the Cheshire clergyman no 
doubt well knows. One of these is, as he says, at 
the east end of the south aisle, and the other at 
the east end of the north aisle, although it for- 
merly stood on the south side of the chancel. The 
former of these is an effigy of a member of the old 
Cheshire family of Davenport of Davenport, and 
is of fourteenth century date, bearing upon the 
surcoat the well-known arms of Davenport. The 
other is that of the old lady before referred to, 
Dame Mary Egerton, who died in 1599, and it 
represents her in the costume of that period, 
hooped petticoat and ruff, &c. In the churchyard 

the second verse of the above lines ia thus men- 
tioned : " The Corporation of Bath placed a full- 
length statue of him in the pump room between 
the busts of Newton and Pope. It was on this 
occasion that the Earl of Chesterfield wrote that 
severe but witty epigram, the last lines of which 
were so deservedly admired." As Lord Chester- 
field did not die till 1773, he was of course alive 
when Goldsmith wrote this not very accurate sen- 
tence, and it may be presumed that he did not 
deny its correctness. In 1777 Dr. Maty, in his 
handsome edition of Chesterfield's Miscellaneous 
Works (vol. ii. App., p. 190), has inserted the 
lines "on the picture of Richard Nash, Esq.," &c. 
These consist of six verses, and begin, 

5 th S. XI. JAN. 4, 79.] 



" The old Egyptians hid their wit 
In hieroglyphic dress/' 

and end with the same concluding verse as that 
already quoted from the Gentleman's Magazine, 
whilst the verse commencing " Immortal Newton" 
is entirely left out. Mrs. Brereton, who was well 
known as a contributor to the Gentleman's Maga- 
zine, in which she wrote under the name of 
Melissa, died in 1740. Her poems were reprinted 
with a short memoir in 1744 ; and if in that 
volume the epigram is given in the form in which 
it had previously appeared in the Gentleman's 
Magazine, it is clear that she is entitled to the 
credit of its authorship, and that Lord Chesterfield, 
having prefixed to her second verse five by no 
means so good, has very generally been considered 
to be the writer of the epigram. I have not the 
volume of Mrs. Brereton's poems. Any corre- 
spondent who has it will deserve thanks if he will 
state if it contains this epigram. 


These lines are misquoted both by Mr. Locker in 
his Lyra Elegantiarum and by JAYDEE, although 
the latter is perfectly correct as to the reading of 
the third line, for it is very apparent that the sub- 
stitution of the word seldom entirely destroys the 
intended satire. The epigram is one of several 
verses contained in a book of Mrs. Jane Brereton's 
poems, published in 1744. EVAN THOMAS. 


In Goldsmith's very amusing little Life of Nash 
the epigram is given as quoted by JAYDEE, which 
form is obviously the only one admissible. Gold- 
smith says that, 

" to add to his honours, there was placed a full-length 
picture of him in Wiltshire's ball-room, between the busts 
of Newton and Pope. It was upon this occasion [no 
dates given] that the Earl of Chesterfield wrote the fol 
lowing severe but witty epigram." 


The Temple. 

OTMOOR, OXON (5 th S. x. 408.) Queen's College, 
Oxford, holds the patronage of Charlton. The 
college has ever been the resort of North-country- 
men ; especially has it been favoured by those from 
Cumberland and Westmoreland. The Rev. Robert 
Benn, D.D., was a fellow of this society. He was 
a Cumberland man of good family. The Benns 
lived at Heasington House, serving the office of 
sheriff and the like, till, in the close of the last 
century, one of them lived at a great rate, got the 
nickname of <l Lord Benn," and ran through the 
estate. Dr. Benn, fellow of Queen's and incum- 
bent of Charlton, is not accused of being " guilty ' 
of any crimes. If epitaphs were veracious (which 
they seldom, if ever, are), Dr. Benn must indeed 
have been a pattern clergyman. Unfortunately 
his epitaph is less to be trusted even than others, 

for it was purposely made to describe such a one 
as Dr. Benn was not. 

The story goes that, after his death, his niece 
sent to Queen's College, asking for an appropriate 
nscription for her uncle's tomb, and the waggery 
)f the Common Room provided her with one which 
she adopted. It certainly does not describe the 
man, who has been pictured to me by the present 
incumbent (Mr. T. Falcon) as having been handed 
down as a man " dull and morose, of little culture, 
and not much sense of duty. He kept the registers 
himself, very badly and carelessly, evidently filling 
them up once a year. Dates are often omitted and 
children's burials are entered together after the 

Now as to his ghost. It is certainly said that 
he walks in the old house, but confines himself to 
the cellars and the old parts of the house where the 
offices and servants' bedrooms are : the rest of the 
house has been built since his day. The present 
incumbent tells me that " there are many people 
about Charlton whom nothing could induce to pass 
a night in the house alone, and that eight or nine 
years ago one of his servants certainly left his 
service in consequence of some ghostly impression. 
.... His presence is supposed to be made evident 
by the rustling of a silk doctor's gown." Mr. Fal- 
con has been there for some sixteen years, and 
(except the one servant leaving him) has never had 
any trouble with the ghost. With regard to the 
exorcism Mr. Falcon says : " The story that a dozen 
parsons and a woman went down to the cellar to 
exorcise him is a very silly and modern tradition. 
It is possible that my predecessor, Mr. Knipe 
(1805-1845), who was a merry man, may have 
made a jest of going down with his guests after 
a dinner party to confront the ghost. I believe he 
used to laugh and say * he had laid him in the 
middle of Otrnoor.' But certainly no solemn 
exorcism has been attempted within the memory 
of the oldest inhabitant surviving." 

It was a wicked Common Room jest to concoct 
such a thing, but the epitaph is worth preserving : 

" Juxta situs est 
Beatam expectans resurrectionem 


Collegii Eeginensis quondam socius 

Hujus Ecclesise per breve heu septennium Rector 

Vir Eximiis Naturae dotibus 
Eleganti Literarum Supellectilis 

Lepida morum urbanitate 

Omni demum privata laude cumulatus. 

Pastor, non vicario aliorum opere contentus 

Ipse sacra obivit munera 

Et semper prtesens gregi invigilavit suo. 

Socius, iis quibusdam fuit una 

Oh summum Ingenii Acumen 

Et parern Animi Candorem 

Innocue jucundus. 

Minis Facetiarum Artifes 

Jocos fundebat liberales 

Ex improvise sponte erumpentes 

Novos, ardentes, rapidos, suos, 



i S. XL JAN. 4, 79. 

Idem ami cos Fide et Officiis 

Xecessarios amore et muneribus 

Universes facili quAdam Benevolentia. 

Arctissime sibi devinxit. 

Obiit die Decembris ii 

Anno Salutis Christianas 1752 

yEtatis suae 55. 

Tali Avunculo, animi in se plus quam paterni 

Hoc qualecunque Monumentum posuit 


IS, Long Wall, Oxford. 

In the Catalogue of the Bodleian Library, Oxford 
(Rawlinson MSB.), part v. fasc. ii. p. 640, reference 
is made to parish notes on Charlton-upon-Otmoor, 
Oxon. I think it very probable that the informa- 
tion sought for may be contained in these parish 
notes. L' !* H. 

398 ; x. 39, 77, 108.) I beg to answer R. W. C. P. 
as follows : 

1. These tokens were in use in Scotland as 
passes to the Communion table, as evidenced by 
the Liturgy drawn up for the Church of Scotland 
in 1635 having this rubric prefixed to the order 
for the administration of the Holy Communion, 
viz., " So many as intend to be partakers of the 
Holy Communion shall receive these tokens from 
the minister the night before." Their use is men- 
tioned also in the parish books of Henley-on- 
Thames in 1639, where they are referred to as 
" Communion halfpence," and likewise at St. 
Saviour's, Southwark, where they appear, from an 
entry in the books, to have been worth twopence 
each. In Scotland the minister of the parish 
examined the intending communicants as to their 
fitness, and to those of whom he approved he gave 
these tokens of such his approval, which they were 
required to produce before receiving the Com- 
munion. Their use is mentioned very soon after 
the Reformation. They have been used in the 
Episcopal congregations, too, of old standing in 
the north of Scotland. They were in use among 
the Scotch-Irish in Western North Carolina. 

2. In Scotland they were usually of lead o: 
pewter, though paper has been used, while some 
were of tin, stamped with the name of the parish 
The first Presbyterian church of the city of Charles 
ton (U.S.), having been content with paper till th 
year 1800, then adopted a very elaborate on 
(manufactured in England, of which only 15( 
were issued). This was an engraved silver meda 
(size known to numismatists as 18), the design c 
which may be thus described, viz. : 

Obv. Communion table, with cloth, cup, ani 
plate. Inscription, " This do in remembrance c 
me," above the emblems, in a semicircle. 

liev. Rude representation of the burning bush 
above, in a semicircle, " Nee tamen consume 
batur " (" Nevertheless it was not consumed "). 

Edge. "Presbyterian church, Charleston, S.C., 

These silver medals, or tokens of membership, 
ere on the occasion of the bombardment of 
harleston carefully collected and sent to Colum- 
ia, and I believe to this day it is not known 
what afterwards became of them. In the year 
836 or 1837 a coined white metal imitation of the 
ilver token was resolved upon by this church, 
onsequent upon the large influx of coloured mem- 
ers, the system being afterwards abolished about 
wenty years ago only. 

A Scotch gentleman, a friend of mine, to whom 

have spoken on the subject, tells me that he 
emembers the practice of giving these tokens (in 
ome cases cards are used) for the past forty years 
r more, and that the system is still in vogue 
.mong the Presbyterians in Forfarshire. He says 
hat about a week or ten days before the Sacrament 
Sunday the "kirk session" consisting of the 
ninister, elders, and deacons of the church 
meets, and goes over the " Communion roll," with 
he view of ascertaining, as far as possible, that the 
members are worthy. Then a meeting of the con- 
gregation is called for the purpose of distributing 
hese tokens, when the members' names are read 
>ver by the minister, and each one present, answer- 
ng to his or her name, comes forward and receives 
i token from the elder of his district, the congre- 
gation being divided into districts with an elder 
;o supervise each. On the Sacrament Sunday, 
vhen the communicants take their places at the 
;able, wooden boxes are passed round, in which 
the tokens are collected. As my friend is a native 
f Forfarshire, has resided there nearly all his life, 
ind was a member of the Presbyterian church there, 
;his information is reliable and most interesting. 
The type of token used in his church appears to- 
have been very similar (name of locality, &c., 
excepted) to that of the (coined) Charleston one 
above described, and made of lead or pewter. 
Tokens of lead were also used as passes by the 
Covenanters at the Glasgow Assembly in 1638. 
Tokens, too, were used at the Roman Catholic 
church of Glasgow some forty years back. 


In the Presbyterian Church of Scotland none 
are allowed to receive unless provided with a 
metal token, which they obtain from the minister 
as a voucher for their fitness. X. C. 

In the churchwardens' book of the parish of 
Newbury of the year 1658 is the following entry :. 
"Paid James Foster for 300 tokens for Mr. 
Woodbridge, 3s. 6d." Woodbridge was the 
Rector of Newbury, having succeeded the cele- 
brated Dr. Twiss. Woodbridge's successor was 
Rev. Jos. Sayer. His first signature in the book 
is in 1666, and he continued rector till 1674. His- 

XL JAN. 4, 79.] 



tokens are not uncommon ; I have seen several 
them. They read JOSEPH SAYER RECTOR, a castle 
reverse, OF NEWBERY, a Bible very similar to th 
usual tradesmen's tokens. It is in Boyne (Token 
issued in the Seventeenth Century, &c., 1858 
Berks, No. 43. SAMUEL SHAW. 


THE PARISH BULL (5 S. x. 248, 354.)-MR 
WALFORD cites an instance of an old custom in 
,Kingston-on-Thames, obliging the vicar of the 
-parish to keep a bull at the parsonage, and he 
asks, " Was this custom general, or was it peculiar 
to Kingston 1 " I am able to refer him to a similar 
custom which prevailed in the manor and parish 
of Marsh Gibbon, in Buckinghamshire, and cam 
to an end only thirty-eight years ago, upon th 
laying in, dividing, and enclosing the open anc 
common fields and commons. The following 
minute appears in the record of the Inclosure 
Commissioners (Mr. Henry Dixon) Proceedings, 
-dated June 5, 1843 : 

" That the Bull Plaits being held by the Rector in con- 
sideration of his finding a Bull for the use of the Land- 
owners despasturing in the common fields and common- 
able places within the parish will now revert to the 
Landowners, and be deemed by the Commissioners as 
part of the common lands within the parish . . . the 
custom of maintaining a common Bull not being con- 
sistent with the altered circumstances of the parish when 

I cannot ascertain the situation or extent of the 
" Bull Platts." Doubtless they adjoined the large 
common pasture, and the strong deep lands of 
Marsh (2,200 acres) were chiefly grass, which would 
have been fed by cows. The custom, however, of 
which we have instances at Kingston and Marsh 
-could not have been general, as besides the well- 
known fact that the terms and conditions on which 
the lands of a manor were held by the tenants arose 
from the will of the various feudal lords, the 
conditions must necessarily have been in part 
dependent also upon the soil and local circum- 
stances. The imposition of such a charge upon 
the Rector of Marsh points to the lord of the 
manor, probably the Earl Moreton, the grantee 
of William the Conqueror, having been also the 
founder and endower of the church, which gave 
him the right to make such a condition for the 
common good of the lord and his tenants. And 
strange as such a custom now appears to us, the 
reason for it may be seen in the fact that the rector 
was entitled to the tithe of calves, and therefore it 
was to his advantage and interest to promote in- 
crease of titheable produce. 


S. x. 368.) In Simpson's School of SJiaJcspere, on 
pp. 270-1, S. will find the following, which will per- 
haps help him : 

" The only hopeful note of date in the play is when 
No-body, after promising to ' build up Paul's steeple 
without a collection,' observes, ' I see not what becomes 
of these collections.' The steeple was burned in 1561 ; 
in 1563 a collection was made throughout the kingdom 
for its restoration, and the repairs thus paid for were all 
finished in 1566. But there seems to have been some 
idea prevalent that the funds had been misapplied. In 
1576 the Queen wrote to complain that no progress was 
made in repairing the steeple ; but the Council persuaded 
her that she could not order subsidies for it in the city 
because of the heavy contributions the citizens already 
paid to the government. Jn 1583 Aylmer, the Bishop 
of London, suggested to the Council that payments for 
commutations of penances should be suppressed, what 
had been paid refunded, and applied to the repairing of 
Paul's, ' which would well help to make good a good piece 
of it.' Aylmer's were not safe hands to hold money. 
When Bancroft became Bishop, in 1597, it was proved 
that the ruins and dilapidations of the Church and 
Bishop's houses came to 6,513. 14s. And he obtained 
judgment against Aylmer's son for 4,2101. Is. 8d. ; 
Fletcher, the intermediate Bishop (father of the drama- 
tist), is, as I presume, answerable for the rest. Anyhow, 
there were scandalous rumours on the matter, and in 
1592, two years before Aylmer's death, Verstegan, Par- 
son's intelligencer at Antwerp, in his Declaration of the 
True Causes of the Great Tmtbles, &c., thus alludes to 
them : ' But it is a wonder to consider what great and 
grievous exactions have from time to time been generally 
mposed upon the people, as all the loans, the lotteries, 
gathering for the steeple of Pauls, new imports,' &c. 
Bacon, in his official reply, Observations on a Libel, 1592, 
says upon this : ' Now to the point of levies and contribu- 
;ions of money, which he calleth exactions. First very 
coldly he is not abashed to bring in the gathering of 
Pauls steeple and the lottery ; trifles, and past long 
lince ; whereof the former, being but a voluntary collec- 
ion of that men were freely disposed to give, never grew 
o so great a sum us was sufficient to finish the work for 
which it was appointed, and so I imagine was converted 
;o some better use ; like to that gathering which was for 
he fortifications of Paris [one MS. reads Berwick], save 
hat that came to a much greater, though, as 1 have 
heard, no competent sum.' " 

After his accusation Nobody is able to turn the 
ables upon his defamer by showing that all these 
nalpractices must have been Somebody's, for " If 
Vobody should do them, then should they be un- 
one." L. P. 

MORE FAMILY (5 th S. x. 407.) The following 
ote from the Historical Register for 1720 (App., 
. 32) may assist MR. MOORE : 

"Aug. 26. Nicholas Moore, of Osthorpe Hall, near 
jeeds, in Yorkshire, Esq. ; kill'd at the Ram-Inn in 
mithfield, by Mr. Giles Hill, a Life Guard Man, who 
f&a the next day committed to Newgate." 

There is an entry to the same effect in Salmon's 
Chronological Historian, 1747 (ii. p. 101), with 
be addition that he was stabbed " for drinking 
tie Duke of Ormonde's health." In this book he 
s called Mr. Nicolas Moore, of Osthorpe Hall, 
Yorkshire. Mr. Moore was probably very far 
oni sober at the time, or he would hardly have 
roposed the health of the Pretender's commander- 
n- chief in the presence of King George's officer, 
would clearly be the act of a traitor, and Giles's 



[5"' S. XI. JAN. 4, '79. 

punishment, if any, under the circumstances, 
would be very slight. EDWARD SOLLY. 


429.) In the Chamberlain's Rolls of the collegiate 
church of Kipon, which I am now copying for the 
Surtees Society, I have found under the head 
" Deeasus redditus " many such entries as " Est in 
decas. redd'us iij acr. t're in Wynkesley quondam 
Goslini de Brathewate cum denariis romanis hoc 
anno, vij d , quia nescitur ubi jacet " (1479). These 
of course come among the expenses. J. T. F. 
Bishop Hatfield's Hall, Durham. 

HAM (5 th S. x. 387.) I believe there is evidence of 
Henry de Beaumont having been brother of Lewis 
de Beaumont, Bishop of Durham, but I am not 
able to refer to it from memory. Lewis was un- 
doubtedly a younger son,* by the heiress of the 
family of Beaumont-le- Vicomte, in Maine, of Lewis 
de Brienne, who was himself a son of John de 
Brienne, King of Jerusalem, by his second wife, 
the Infanta Berengaria of Castile and Leon, aunt of 
Eleanor, the beloved queen of Edward I. Thus it 
was Henry de Beaumont came to be styled " con- 
sanguineus regis " in the reign of Edward II., who 
was his second cousin. 

I would refer HERMENTRUDE to a pedigree given 
in Surtees's Durham, vol. i. p. xlv, note, said to be 
copied, "with all its original mixture of French and 
Latin," from the rare work of Du Paz, but I do not 
find it in the copy in the King's Library. I would' 
also refer her to that storehouse of genealogical lore 
the preface to Liber de Antiquis Legibus, one of the 
undervalued volumes of the Camden Society. This 
preface was written by Mr. Stapleton, brother of 
the late Lord Beaumont, whose descent from the 
first Lord Mayor of London is traced through it. 
He shows that the brass of William, Viscount 
Beaumont (06. Dec. 19,1507), in Wivenhoe Church, 
Essex, affords evidence of his descent from John, 
King of Jerusalem, and the royal house of Castile 
by the elephant bearing a triple-towered castle on 
which the feet of his effigy are represented to rest. 



Pedigrees, arms, and genealogical notes of this 
family occur in Cat. MSS. Bodleian Library 
(Rawlinson MSS.), part v. fasc. ii. p. 596. 

L. L. H. 

" QUOD TACITUM VELIS," &c. (5 th S. x. 428.) 
A sentiment very similar to this is expressed by 
Rochefoucauld when he says, " How shall we hope 
that another person will keep our secret if we do 

* See Pere Anselme's Hist. Gen. de la Maison Royale 
de France, vol. vi. p. 137. In vol. v. p. 581 may be found 
an account of the Viscounts of Beaumont, whose heiress 
was their mother. 

not keep it ourselves ? " (Bund and Friswell's 
translation of the Reflections, p. 64). 

The Temple. 

S. ix. 328 ; x. 55, 76, 119.) Perhaps the following, 
which appeared in the Monthly Magazine the year 
of his death, may be worth preserving in the pages 
of"N. &Q.": 

"The late Henry Andrews of Royston, the celebrated 
calculator, was born at Frieston, near Grantham, of poor 
parents. By his own industry, from a limited education 
he made great progress in the liberal arts, and was justly 
esteemed one of the best astronomers of the age. When 
only six years old he would frequently stand in his shirt 
looking at the moon out of the chamber window at mid- 
night ; and when about ten years of age he used to fix a 
table on Frieston Green on clear frosty nights, and set a 
telescope thereon to view the stars. Soon after this he 
would sit for weeks together by the fireside witli a table 
spread full of books making astronomical calculations. 
At a suitable age he was sent from home to earn his own 
living, and the first situation he filled was at Sleaford as 
servant to a shopkeeper ; after this he went to Lincoln 
to wait upon a lady, and during this servitude used at 
every opportunity to make weather-glasses and weather- 
houses. His last situation of this kind was in the service 
of J. Feriman, Esq., and his master finding him so intent 
on study allowed him two or three hours every day for 
that purpose. On the 1st of April, 1764, he went to 
Aswarby Hall, the seat of Sir Christopher Whichcote, to 
view the great eclipse of the sun which was visible on 
that day, where a number of ladies and gentlemen had 
assembled for the purpose ; and as he had previously 
calculated a type of this eclipse, he presented the same to 
the company, showing them the manner of its appearance 
in a dark room upon a board, arid after it was over they 
unanimously declared that his calculations came nearer 
than any given in the almanacs. A short time after this 
period he opened a school at Basingthorpe, near Grantham, 
and afterwards engaged as an usher in a clergyman'^ 
boarding school at Stilton. He then settled in Cambridge, 
where he proposed to reside, in the expectation that he 
might derive some advantage in prosecuting his studies 
from the men of science in the University ; but the noise 
and bustle of the town not being agreeable to him, he left 
Cambridge, and came to reside at Royston, Hertfordshire, 
where he opened a school, at the age of twenty-three 
years, and sit this place continued until the day of his 
death, which happened, after a short illness, on the 
26th January, 1820, at the age of seventy-six, having 
enjoyed an uninterrupted state of good health till his last 
illness, when the greatness of his mind was more par- 
ticularly conspicuous. On his death-bed not a murmur 
escaped his lips, but serenity of mind, resignation, and 
patience were constantly depicted on his countenance. 
He was greatly esteemed for his integrity, talents, and 
modesty. He was for nearly fifty years the author of 
that far-famed production, Moore's A Imanac, and com- 
piler of the Nautical Ephemeris. On retiring from the 
situation of compiler of the Nautical^ Ephemeris he re- 
ceived the thanks of the Board of Longitude, accompanied 
by a handsome present, as a just tribute for his long and 
arduous services, for which he would never receive more 
than a nominal remuneration." 

Mr. Knight (in his London, vol. iii.) is not sure 
that " Francis Moore " was not a nom de guerre, 
although at p. 241 he gives the portrait of the 

'AN. 4, 79.] 



" physician " from an anonymous print, published 
in 1657. Doubtless the publication of Andrews's 
manuscripts would throw considerable light on 
that well-known Vox Stellarum, or Almanac of 
Francis Moore. M. A. BAUGHAN. 

I purchased an old almanac at a London book- 
stall a short time since, and as I can find no 
mention of it elsewhere, it may be worth making 
a note of in your columns. The title-page of this 
almanac, as follows (printed in red and black 
letters), will indicate the nature of its contents : 

" A Royal Almanack and Meteorological Diary for the 
Year of our Lord, 1778, and of the Julian Period 6491, 
the second after Bissextile or Leap-year, and the 
Eighteenth Year of the Reign of His Majesty King 
George IIL Containing the feasts and fasts of the 
Church of England ; the times of the lunations ; the 
rising and setting of the sun ; the equation of time for 
the regulating of clocks and watches ; the moon's rising 
and setting; the times of high water at London Bridge, 
morning and afternoon ; the aspects of the planets and 
weather. Also, for every sixth day, the increase and 
decrease of days ; the beginning and end of daylight ; 
the nightly rising, southing, and setting of the planets 
and seven stars ; adapted to the meridian and latitude of 
London. Likewise an exact meteorological journal for 
the preceding year, or the state of the barometer and 
thermometer, with the winds, weather, &c.,as they were 
registered every day. Also the depth of rain which fell, 
and the observations made every month. To which are 
added the eclipses of the sun and moon and other remark- 
able phenomena that will happen this year; the Middle- 
sex commencement of the sessions of the peace ; a table 
of the terms and their returns, and for finding the times 
of high water at most of the seaports of this kingdom. 
By Henry Andrews, Teacher of the Mathematics at 
Royston, Herts. London : Printed for T. Carnan, in St. 
Paul's Church- Yard, who dispossessed the Stationers of 
the Privilege of Printing Almanacks, which they had 
unjustly monopolized 170 years, 1778. Price 1*." 

The almanac contains this advertisement : 
"At Royston, Herts, Young Gentlemen and others 
may be commendably boarded with the Author of this 
Almanack at reasonable rates, and be taught by him as 
follows, viz., Writing, Arithmetic, Mensuration, Geometry, 
Trigonometry, Navigation, Astronomy, the use of the 
Globes, &c." 

J. H. W. 

405, 497.) I am greatly obliged to MRS. EVERETT 
GREEN for her kind notice of my little note con- 
cerning this princess. I ought, however, to have 
added that Isabel certainly died in the same year, 
1382 ; for the Issue Roll, Michaelmas, 6 Ric. II., 
contains a memorandum, dated Oct. 18, respecting 
certain jewels bought for the king from the 
executors of Isabel, late Countess of Bedford ; and 
on the Patent Roll, 1 Hen. IV., part iv., is a record 
that Isabel, Countess of Bedford, was dead on the 
8th of October, 6 Ric. II. She appears, there- 
fore, to have died between May 6 and October 8, 
1382. I was not able to give an exact reference to 
John of Gaunt's Register, since the first time that 

I saw it was in the Duchy of Lancaster Office, and 
the second while it was yet uncalendared in the 
Record Office. 

With respect to the singular use of nuper in the 
entry on the Issue Roll, I ask permission to call 
attention to the following instances, in which the 
same word is used in something of a similar 
manner : 

" Lands of the dower of Maria nuper Comitisse 
Pembroke, held by Elizabeth, wife of Richard 
Talbot, of her, are now granted to the said Richard 
and Elizabeth, and the heirs of the said Elizabeth " 
(Patent Roll, 15 Ed. III., part i.). The Countess 
of Pembroke the famous Marie de Saint Pol 
died in 1377, and on the roll for the very next 
year there are two grants to her. 

" Isabella filia nostra jam Comitissa Bedeford . . . 
si dicta filia nostre vivente dicto Walteri mori con- 
tingat . . ." (sic) (Patent Roll, 48 Ed. III., part ii. ; 
Jan. 1, 1374). 

" Pardon to our dear cousin Maud, Countess of 
Oxford, for crossing the sea to Brabant without 
licence, to speak with Robert de Vere her son, late 
Earl of Oxford," &c. (Patent Roll, 14 Ric. II., 
part ii. ; May 10, 1391). The earl did not die 
until 1392, but being banished his title was 

"Isabella nuper Eegina Anglie" (Issue Roll, 
Easter, 3 Hen. IV. ; Apr. 15, 1402). That is to 
say, she had become queen dowager; yet there 
was at this date no other queen. 

I feel almost sure that I have seen an exactly 
similar instance, though I cannot at once recall it. 

I trust I may be pardoned for preferring the old 
English name which the princess really bore, 
Isabel, to the purely modern Isabella, introduced 
afresh among us from Italy in the reign of 
Charles II. 

While on this subject, MRS. EVERETT GREEN 
will, I hope, kindly bear with me if I draw her 
attention to another point of the Coucy pedigree. 
She identifies with Isabelle of Lorraine, second 
wife of Ingelram de Coucy, that Lady de Coucy 
who was Lady Mistress to Queen Isabelle, and 
was noted for pomp and extravagance ; yet the 
Easter Issue Roll for 1399 distinctly calls^ her 
Margaret, Lady de Coucy. Was she not the wife of 
William de Coucy, cousin of Ingelram ? _ 

According to Anderson (who is not infallible), 
Isabelle of Lorraine was married to Ingelram in 
1385. This would agree both with the death of 
Isabel of England in 1382, and with Froissart's 
' recently married " in 1389. HERMENTRUDE. 

It is necessary that some territorial designation 
should be inserted in the patent of creation of a 
peer. Sir Colin Campbell and Mr. T. B, Mac- 
lulay owned no broad acres ; but the one was 
created Lord Clyde, of Clydesdale, and the other 



XI. JAN. 4, '79. 

Lord Macaulay, of Rothley Temple, co. Leicester, 
the seat of his relations the Babingtons. The 
theory, of course, is that every lordship still is 
territorial. This was the case once, but is so no 
longer. E. WALFORD, M.A. 

RENTON FAMILY (5 th S. x. 429.) There is no 
town or village in the county of Durham called 
Renton, but there is a village called Rainton near 
Durham, which X. must mean. The above family 
may have taken their name from Rentown, a large 
village in Dumbartonshire, in the parish of Card- 
ross, three miles from Dumbarton. 


Bishopwearmoutb, Durham. 

. ROSEMARY v. MINT (5 th S. x. 445.) As a set 
off to the saying that mint will not grow where 
the husband is henpecked, there is also a saying 
in Yorkshire that rosemary will not grow in the 
garden of a house unless the woman is the master, 
or, as it is said in other words, "wears the 
breeches." SIMEON RAYNER. 

Pudsey, Yorkshire. 

TRINITY COLLEGE, DUBLIN (5 th S. x. 448.) 
The name " Botany Bay " was applied to the build- 
ings in question, not from any fancied resemblance 
of their inmates to the old inhabitants of what 
Sydney Smith calls "the fifth or pickpocket 
quarter of the globe," but on account of their 
isolated and distant situation. Lever, an un- 
impeachable authority on such a subject, says that 
" Botany Bay was the slang name given by college 
men to a new square rather remotely situated from 
the rest of the college" (Charles O'Malley, ch. xx.). 
In old days, before the growth of the north-west 
suburb of Oxford, " Botany Bay " was the appella- 
tion of Worcester College in that university. 


The Temple. 

"THE BLOSSOMS" (5 th S. x. 445.) In a rare 
pamphlet, " The \ Carriers Cosmography : \ or \ 
A Brief Relation \ of \ The Inns, Ordinaries, Hos- 
telries, \ and other Lodgings in and near London, 
I <&c. London, Printed by A. G., 1637," I find, 
" The Carriers of Chester do lodge at Blossom's or 
Bosom's Inn in St. Laurance lane, near Cheapside" ; 
consequently at the above date it was still known 
us " The Blossoms." 

71, Brecknock Road, N. 

"STATUTES" (5 th S. x. 448.) These hirings, 
familiar to me in Lincolnshire, at which servants 
and farm labourers stand in the streets to be hired 
for a year, received their name from the numerous 
statutes in reference to servants, which are collected 
in Burn's Justice under the heading "Servant." 
So Bailey, in his old dictionary, has, "Statute 
Sessions, certain petty sessions in every hundred 

for deciding differences between masters and 
servants, the rating of servants' wages, and 
bestowing such people in service as, being fit to 
serve, refuse to seek or get masters " ; and " Statu- 
tum de Laborariis, a judicial writ against labourers 
who refuse to work according to the statute." 


(5 th S. x. 467.) The following extract will be 
a reply to MR. PICKFORD'S query (2) : " 10090. 
Stuart, W., late Primate of Ireland, fol. Owen 
Reynolds" (Evans's Catalogue of Engraved Por- 
traits, n.d., vol. i. p. 395). ED. MARSHALL. 

BISHOP SHIPLEY (5 th S. x. 369.) In an account 
of his family given in Burke's Landed Gentry, 
this prelate is stated to have been a son of Jona- 
than Shipley, of London. Jonathan Boadman, of 
Doncaster, velvet hunting-cap maker, by his will, 
proved at York Oct. 5, 1776, left " to his cousin the 
Lord Bishop of St. Asaph " (Dr. Jonathan Shipley) 
" a diamond ring value twenty guineas," and some 
other property (Jackson's St. "George's Church, 
Doncaster, p.' 11 6). There are several entries of 
the name in the parish register of this place, but 
nothing that I have so far met with to connect the 
bishop with them. CHARLES JACKSON. 


WEATHER LORE (5 th S. x. 494.) Fifty years 
ago I read in a book of travels, 

" More rain, more rest ; 
Fine weather not the best," 

as a saying much used by sailors. The author 
heard it during rainy weather off the Azores. It 
has the advantage over the " old illiterate man's " 
version in being rhythmical. X. P. D. 

(5 th S. x. 328, 374.) A translation of the fairy 
tales of the Countess d'Aulnoy was published in 
London in two volumes, 12mo., in the year 1817. 
Nourjahad was written by Mrs. Sheridan, a con- 
nexion of the family of Richard Brinsley Sheridan. 
I think that she was also the authoress of a novel 
called Sidney Biddulph. UNEDA. 


" PIECE" (5 th S. x. 250, 334, 525.) 
" For we see men choose neither faire nor comely 
women, and yet find sufficient ground even in their 
Persons, to be taken pleas'd and contented. And there 
are those that have the choicest pieces for exquisite 
feature on earth, married even to the envy and neighing 
of every one that sees them, and these singular objects of 
Love meet not with constant and reciprocall heats." 
Gayton's Festivous Notes on Don Quixote, 1654, p. 187. 

R. R. 

YANKEE (5 th S. x. 467.) In Smollett's novel of 
Sir Lancelot Greaves, ch. iii., we have Capt. Crowe 

5"' S. XI. JAN. 4, '79.] 



saying, " Proceed with thy story in a direct course, 
without yawing like a Dutch yanky" Yankee, 
therefore, is a Dutch ship or boat of some kind. 

WATCH-CASE VERSES (5 th S. x. 66, 135.) 
F. G. S. may like to add the following to his col- 
lection. They were quoted to me from memory 
by an aged friend, with the remark that they 
passed through her hands many years ago, prettily 
printed on white satin, in a very small bright 
type : 

" The Watch's Moments. 
See how the moments pass, 
How swift they fly away ! 
In the instructive glass 
Behold thy life's decay. 

Oh ! waste not then thy prime 

In sin's pernicious road ; 
Redeem thy misspent time, 

Acquaint thyself with God. 

So when thy pulse shall cease 
Its throbbing transient play, 

Thy soul to realms of bliss 
May wing its joyful way." 

B. J. 

The following inscription is worked on satin in 
a watch-case belonging to my father : 

" Absent or dead 

Still let a friend be 

Dear. The absent claims 

A sigh, the dead a 



Angels guard 

The friend I 


The above is an exact copy of the way in which 
the words are worked on the satin. 


I have somewhere in an old watch-case an en- 
graved address of a watchmaker, which has some 
pious mottoes and two verses, of which I remember 
only one : 

" Oh ! waste not then thy time 

In sin's pernicious road ; 
Improve the present hour, 
Acquaint thyself with God." 


"A HOUSE TO LET" (5 th S. x. 496.) This 
phrase seems to have a local distribution. In 
England it is very seldom used, while in Scotland 
it is the usual form. In New York the house- 
letting tickets invariably bear the words " to let," 
while in Boston the expression as invariably used 
is " to be let." I would suggest that this diver- 
gence arises from the different points of view from 
which the house is regarded subjective or objec- 
tive. The words of the phrase, in fact, appear to 
represent a form of thought rather than one of 
grammar. In the one case the implied idea is, 

" The proprietor wants to let this house " ; in the 
other it is, " This house is to be let " the words in 
italics being sufficient in either case to indicate the 
desire or the fact. ANGLO-CELT. 

The difficulty which disciples of Lindley Murray 
might have in such phrases as the above arises 
chiefly from the use of Latin grammar terms 
totally inapplicable to the English language. " Old 
chairs to mend," "A house to let," "Corn to 
grind," are surely quite good English, whatever 
so-called grammarians may choose to call the 
several words composing the sentences. As long 
as people will talk about cases, infinitives, and 
gerunds as applied to an almost uninflected lan- 
guage like the English, they will meet with these 
apparent difficulties. At any rate, " to " is a pre- 
position, and is in early English convertible with 
" at," identical with the Latin ad, to or at. So we 
have such an expression as " He gun at go," He 
began or proceeded to go. In all so-called English 
infinitives the word following " to " (or " at " in 
early work) is a substantive. The word "love" is 
just as much a substantive in the sentence " He 
began to love " as in the sentence " He did it all 
for love." J. C. J. 

MILTON'S "PARADISE LOST "(5 th S. x. 469.) 
The third edition is not specially rare. Here is a 
slip from a catalogue of second-hand books received 
during the last few days : "Milton, Paradise Lost, 
third edition, portrait by Dolle, 8vo., calf neat, 
18s., 1678." The second edition is dated 1674. 
My copy cost about 25s. It has the portrait by 
Dolle. Respecting the first edition, the question 
is a much larger one. It will probably be suffi- 
cient for your correspondent's purpose to inform, 
him that it appeared in 1667-9 with eight different 
title-pages. A copy with the seventh title-page, 
1669, in the original binding, is priced in a second- 
hand catalogue received a fortnight back at 81 8s. 
This price I consider very reasonable. There is no 
portrait to the original edition. ZERO. 

The third edition is not rare. I bought my 
second edition not long ago, in the original bind- 
ing, and with the portrait named, for 10s. by 
auction at Sotheby's. A. 


The Dramatic List : a Record of the Principal Perform- 
ances of Living Actors and Actresses of the British 
Stage. Compiled and Edited by Charles Eyre Pascoe. 
(Hardwicke & Bogue.) 

A DRAMATIC list adequately compiled should take its place 
as a work of reference. A careful and judicious use of 
a book of this class may indeed save some future editor 
of "N. & Q." from many needless interrogatories. Mr. 



[o' h S. XL JAN. 4, '79. 

Pascoe's scheme does not extend beyond English actors at 
present living. The fact that death has been busy of 
late in the ranks of our veteran actors accounts for the 
appearance among these of the names of Charles Mathews, 
Samuel Phelps, Alfred Wigan, and Mdlle. Beatrice. No- 
thing can be simpler than the plan adopted. Alpha- 
betical order is observed ; a short memoir stating such 
facts as are admitted is given ; and criticisms upon the 
principal performances of the more important actors are 
supplied from the columns of the Times or A thenceum, 
and a tew other journals of more or less authority. That 
the book is not complete is admitted by the editor in a 
modest preface, in which he expresses a hope to 
strengthen the list in a future edition. But few names 
of importance are omitted. Among these, however, 
we are surprised to find actors so well known as Miss 
Louise Moodie and Mr. Charles Warner. It does not 
detract from the value of the volume, though it may be 
a disappointment to a certain class of readers, and is 
assuredly such to the critic, that no anecdotes are given, 
and nothing but the plain facts of a career are supplied. 
No other course, it is seen, could well be adopted. Anec- 
dotes concerning living actors are for the most part im- 
pertinent or apocryphal. That section of the public 
which is always anxious to know the age of a favourite 
is likely to be balked. Seldom has a work with so 
much biographical matter given so few dates of birth, 
and still more seldom has a histrionic record contained 
so little to gratify idle curiosity. 

a Wayfarer. By F. Wyville Home. (Pickering 

& Co.) 

WE presume this to be a first book, as Mr. Home's name 
is new to us ; arid, looked at in this light, it is a remark- 
able book. We have read it without repentance. We 
Lave found many weak places, many faults of taste, and 
other evidences of immaturity; but we have also failed 
to find any of the deadlier sins to which young authors 
are addicted, and, better than tins negative merit, an 
abounding sense that verse is a thing to be set about 
seriously, and to be perfected up to the height of the 
artist's powers. The quality is unequal, simply because 
no man's powers are always the same, no man's mood 
always either decidedly poetical or the reverse ; but in 
his least poetic mood's our "Wayfarer" is seldom if 
ever prosaic, and in his most poetic moods his work 
has a real and vivid charm. In some of the finer 
passages of the principal poem, "Salvestra and Giro- 
lamo," a story adapted from Boccaccio, we have decided 
poetic realization ; in the larger half of the love 
lyrics and sonnets there is a hyper-sensitiveness and 
tendency to melancholy very characteristic of the young 
poet, though not to be desired as a permanent mood; in 
" The Nun " there is a slight indication of dramatic 
power; and in " The Poet" we have a lyric of a very 
high class. The writer has in those few stanzas got 
a real hold upon certain phases of poetic thought 
imaginatively handled, has managed his stanza with 
great technical skill and exquisite feeling, and (the praise 
is not small) has given us a lyric worth adding even to 
the riotously wealthy store of finished lyric work which 
has been teeming in the land since Chatterton and Blake 
sowed the seeds of modern English song. 

MINSTER, ON THK 15i'H ULTIMO. The Canon is reported 
to have said, in the course of his sermon on the death o 
the Princess Alice, "A few years ago her son Prince 
Frederick was killed by falling from a window, and a 
few days ago her little daughter the Princess Irene wa 

called away Irene ! Yes, the name means peace 

Let us accept the omen. She has gone to where ' beyon ' 

.hese voices there is peace.'" ST. SWITHIN draws 
attention to the fact "that it was Princess Mary, not 
rincess Irene, who died so shortly before the devoted 

Sanchez died on Wednesday, Nov. 13, at No. 83, Middagh 
Street, Brooklyn, the residence of her daughter, Mrs. 
Alesea, at the age of 110 years, five months, and sixteen 
days. She was born at Malaga, Spain, in June, 1768, 
and was one of a family of thirty children, sixteen boys 
and fourteen girls. She survived all her brothers and 
isters, and all her own children, except the daughter 
vith whom she lived. Her father was an architect, and 
he also married an architect seventy-three years ago. 
She was twice married. She came to this country four- 
een years ago, when she was ninety-six years of age. 
When Mrs. Sanchez was ninety years old she became 
almost entirely blind, and continued so until she was 
ninety-seven, when her sight returned. She had been 
compelled to remain in her room for several years, 
although she retained her activity up to the age of one 
lundred. Old age and the suspension of the vital 
'unctions caused her death. She was buried yesterday 
n the cemetery of the Holy Cross at Flatbush." N. Y. 
Tribune, Nov. 18, 1878. 

I believe this to be genuine, and shall be glad to make 
urther inquiries if desired by any readers of "N. & Q." 

336, Greene Avenue, Brooklyn, N.Y. 


We must call special attention to the following notice: 

ON all communications should be written the name and 
ddress of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

F. E. P. See the article "Balloons " in Haydn's Dic- 
tionary of Dates (1876) ; also the article "Steam Engine 
and Navigation" in the same work. We shall be happy 
to insert queries with the view of getting the information 
given by Haydn supplemented. 

WALTER HAMILTON. Nahum Tate was born in Dublin 
in 1652, and died August 12, 1715, in the precincts of the 
Mint, in Southwark. Our correspondent asks where 
Tate was buried. 

EDWARD FREDIN (Stockholm).!. We can find no 
trace of such a descent. 2. The young " Florentine," 
after studying at Oxford, has become an artist. 

GWAVAS ("Too fast"). The context clearly shows 
what was intended that he wore himself out with good 

OXE OF THEM. A letter from you addressed to 
W. HARRISON RUDD, ESQ., Great Yarmouth, will find 
him, and doubtless meet with attention. 

E. WALFORD. Heraldic Anomalies was written by 
Dr. Edward Nares. See " N. & Q.," 5"' S. viii. 469 j ix. 53. 

G. C. (Col. R. A.). Many thanks. 

GEO. ELLIS. We will forward a prepaid letter. 

A. H. BATES. Thanks. Yes. 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to " The 
Editor of ' Notes and Queries ' "Advertisements and 
Business Letters to " The Publisher "at the Office, 20, 
Wellington Street, Strand, London, W.C. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print ; and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 


I. JAN. 11, 79.] 





NOTES : Notes on Peterborough Cathedral, 21 Shak- 
speariana " Learning " St Dionis Backchurch, 22 The 
Duke of Clarence on the Convention of Cintra Another 
Survival Benjamin Disraeli, 1788, 23-New Year's Gift- 
Severe Winters Prayer of Mary Queen of Scots Old Saying 
Bill for Hanging and Boiling a Friar An Ancient Pair of 
Boots, 24 Chaucer's Praise -Schiller's "Song of the Bell" 
Bad Grammar" Wessel " Cup, 25 Isaiah xx. 18 An 
Historical Sledge The Electric Light Bibliography of 
Archery Stroud, Gloucestershire, 26. 

QUERIES : Lamb's "Tales from Shakespear "English En- 
gravers Rete Corvil, 27 Dallaways "Rodborough to 
Gloucester "-Tradesmen's Tokens " Moke "MS. Hist, of 
Co. Fermanagh Irish Bards Varia Anne Borlebog 
L. Eusden, 28 Franks Heraldry Norfolk Draughtsmen 
and Painters of Eighteenth Century" Lying cold-floor " 
Privileged Flour Mills A Welsh Game Rev. T. Hurst 
T. Dixon King Oswy E. and C. Dilly Leicestershire Fox- 
hunting "The Devil turn'd Hermit," 29 Authors Wanted, 
&c., 30. 

REPLIES: "Embezzle" Braham Bacon on "Hudibras," 
30 An Irish Bishop Butler Major Andre" Yateley, Hants, 
31 Theology the Queen of Sciences Famagosta Curious 
Coincidences, 32 Servants' Hallj Forfeits, 33 "Choiro- 
chorographia " Paley Boston, 34 Centenarians Cajo- 
dunum William the "Mamzer "-Christianity without the 
Cross R. R. Anderson Gospatric, 35 The Whip- top 
J. Walker Watney's Distillery " Death-bed Scenes," &c., 
36 Parish Documents The Parish Bull lona Capt. J. 
King, 37 W. G. Clark Yankee Latton Priory Church 
Registers" How Lord Nairn was Saved," 38-Electoral 
Facts Hogmanay Custom Balcony Actresses First on the 
Stage Badges Authors Wanted, 39. 

NOTKS ON BOOKS : Spencer Walpole's " History of Eng- 
land " English Dialect Society's Publications. 

Notices to Correspondents, Ac. 


The following collections relating to Peter- 
borough are of especial interest as giving (1) the 
dates of death of several of the abbots and mem- 
bers of the monastery, imperfectly printed by 
Patrick, and also (2) some insight into the local 

The Obituary of Peterborough. 

Januarii ii. Depositio dompni Martini abbatis [Mar- 
tinus de Vecti, the Isle of Wight, 1113-1155]. 

iv. Dep. Willi. de Hotot abbatis [1246-1249] et anni- 
versar. Ricardi de Watervile et Johannis filii ejus. 

xii. Dep. Elsini abbatia [c. 1006-1055] et anniversarium 
Mathei capellani. 

xxtv. Depositio dompni Elfrici archiepiscopi. 

fx. Auli primi heremitse.] 

Februarii xxj. Depositio dompni Andree abbatis [1194- 
1200]. Abbas missam celebrabit. 

[Memorandum quod in prima ebdomada quadragesime 
debet fieri convencio Giseburnie.] 

Martii ii. Depositio dompni Johannis de Caleto [1249- 
1262] et anniver. patris et matris ejus et anniversarium 
Tvonis supprioris. Abbas missam celebrabit et prior 
terciam lectionem leget ad dirige quia ista deposicio est 
in albis. 

xiv. Deposicio dompni Allarii abbatis [1200-1220]. 
Abbas missam celebrabit. 

xx. Deposicio dompni Robert! de Sutton abbatis 

[1262-1274] et anniversar. Henrici Aurifabri et Johannis 
de Tukyngham prioris. Abbas missam celebrabit. 

[Mem. quod feria ii d * iiij te ebdomade xl e missa matuti- 
nalis cum cappa in choro festive celebrabitur pro 
animabus patrum et matrum et parentum et omnium 
monachorum istius loci.] 

Easter 13 set down on March 27. 

Aprilis v. Depositio Thoroldi [1069-1089] et Eudonia 
abbatum et anniversarium Roberti de Hale et Agnetis 
matris ejus. 

Maii. [Memorandum quod in ebdomada prima mai 
legenda et facienda est convencio inter ecclesias Burgi 
et de S co Victore et habet missam ferialem ad quam 
cantabitur de profundis et cibus ea die ponatur ad 
mensain. Prima oratio Inclina.] 

xxvii. Depositio dompni Arnewyni abbatis [1055 1063]. 

Junii iv. Depositio Adulphi episcopi [of Worcester, 
abbot in 974] et anniversarium Ricardi de Lincolnia et 
Agnetis uxoris ejus. 

xxvi. Deposicio dompni Martini abbatis [de Ramsey, 

Julii xii. Deposicio episcoporum Gamalielis et 

Augusti ij. Deposicio dompni Ricardi de London 
abbatis [1274-1279] in albis. Abbas missam exhibebit. 
Prior iiij am lectionem leget Propiciatur animabus. 

xv. Deposicio dompni Godefridi de Groyland abbatis 
[1299-1320] in albis. Abbas missam celebrabit. Prior 
iiij* m lectionem leget ad dirige conyentus erunt in albia 
et prsecentor cum succentore et iij. senioribus chorum 
tenere solebant et hii omnes in cappis quas idem abbas 
fieri fecit. 

xxix. Deposicio Willi. Landavensis epi. et anniver- 
sarium Reginald! presbyteri. 

Sept. xxv. Deposicio dompni Willelmi de Wodeford 
abbatis [1295-1299] et annivers. Johannis de Gretham. 
Abbas missam celebrabit. 

xxx. Deposicio dompni Benedicti abbatis [1177-1194], 

Oct. viij. Deposicio dompni Roberti de Ramesey 
abbatis [1353-1361J et fratris Thome de Burgo. Abbas 
missam celebrabit. 

xvi. Deposicio dompni Egbrici episcopi [of Durham, 
1042-1078, formerly a monk] et meria [memoria] inter- 
fee torum. 

xxii. Deposicio dompni Mathie abbatis [1103-1104] et 
memoria Wynegoti monachi. 

xxviii. Deposicio dompni Roberti de Lyndeseye abbatis 
[1210-1222] in albis. 

Nov. i. Depoaicio Lefrici abbatis [died 10661. 

viij. Deposicio dompni Johannis de Says [1114-1128] 
abbatis et annivers. Henrici Talbot et Ricardi de 

xix. Deposicio Alexandri abbatis [de Holdernees, 
1222-1226] et anniversarium Reginald! de Eastre et 
Matildis uxoris ejus. 

xxvi. Deposicio dompni Ade de Bo theby abbatis [1321- 
1338] et anniversarium dompni Johannis de Aysby et 
magistri Johannis de Harwedotie. 

xxx. Depos. Brandonis [died 1069] et Will, de Water- 
vile [1155-1177] abb. et anniversarium Ade de Wolkote. 

Dec. xvi. Deposicio dompni Kynsun archiepisoopi 
[of York, formerly monk of Peterborough, died 1060] et 
anniversarium Radulphi comitis. 

xxii. Dep. dompni Walter! abbatis [de S. Edmundo, 
1233-1245]. Abbas missam celebrabit. 

Value of the Endowment of Peterborough Cathedral 

out of the dissolved lands. 

Revenues of the Colledge of Peterborough. Parcell 
of the Site and demayne landes of the said late monas- 
terye of Peterbrugh appointed to the Colledge is worthe 
clere by yere ixZ. 11*. viijrf. Lamb. MS. 639, fo. 59. 


XL JAN. 11, 79. 

rom Ae Monastic Custumal. 

Pedes fratrum non debent lavari in claustro nee in 

Conventus feria iij* ante cenam Domini ad orationes 
sedebunt super bancum sicut faciunt in ecclesia vertentes 
facies unius chori ad facies alterius. 

Subsacrista ponat in refectorio die exaltationis S. Crucis 
xiv. cereos et ij. cereos in capitulo et in locutorio juxta 
capellam S. Crucisj.; in lanterna cressetum et j. cres- 
setum ante hostium Refectorii. 

Adcoenametprandium...mixtumet vinumetclaretum 
fratres commorantes ad Oxeneye plenam recipiant com 
munam suam de celario conventus. 

Clerici admissi in congregationem nostram per tres 
dies ante suscepcionem habitus in Domo Hospitum 
commorantes percipiant communam suam viz. singuli 
eingulis diebus j. panem et j. lagenam cerevisie con- 
ventualis cum ferculis coquine prout fratribus in refec- 
torio ministratur. in aula abbatis per duos dies commedent 
et celerarius abbatis nomine abbatis... predictam per- 
cipient communam. Lamb. MS. 198. 



" HENRY V.," ACT IT. sc. 2, L. 61. 

" King . . . And now to our French causes : 
Who are the late commissioners 1 " 
The only explanation I have seen of this passage 
is that " late " means lately appointed ; that is, 
that to express a simple fact in English Shakespere 
used a phraseology which in English expresses the 
opposite fact. " The late commissioners " are, in 
English, those who had lately been so, but who 
had either fulfilled their office or were commis- 
sioners no longer. 

The alteration to rate, as derivable from the 
Latin " ratus-i, established, approved, confirmed," 
had once suggested itself to me. But no altera- 
tion seems required ; the Syndici lati-, or the late 
commissioners, are, I take it, the chosen commis- 
sionersthose who had been chosen or selected, 
but who had not yet received their sign-manual 
credentials or commissions. Accordingly Henry 
proceeds to hand to them documents which they 
take to be the said commissions. 

This I believe to be one of the very few ex- 
amples where Shakespere followed a fashion of 
the day. The gallants coined "new-minted oaths " 
he adopted a new and literate etymology for words 
in ordinary use. B. NICHOLSON. 

" EOMEO AND JULIET," ACT i. sc. 4, L. 91. 

"4 l ? d ^ akes the Elf - lock s in foule sluttish haires 
Which, once untangled, much misfortune bodes." 

This is the reading usually adopted, and is sup- 
ported with much ability by Dr. Legg in his 

Note upon the Elf-locks in Romeo and Juliet " 
(Transactions, New Shakspere Society, 1875-6 
pt ii. p. 191). Mr. P. A. Daniel, in the revised 
edition published by the N. S. Society, prefers 

once entangled," because it is the e?itanglement 

which he believes to be inauspicious, not the dis- 
entanglement. Perhaps his view may be sup- 
ported by the following quotation from. Niccol's 
description of Franklin : 

" His beard was ruddie hewe, and from his head 
A wanton locke it selfe did downe dispread 
Vpon his backe, to which while he did Hue 
Th' ambiguous name of Elfe-locke he did give." 

Sir Thomas Overburie's Vision (1616), p. 48. 
Franklin's portrait (p. 47) represents him with a 
long lock of hair, loose and unentangled, on which 
he seems to have prided himself. 

Alfred Terrace, Glasgow. 

" TEMPEST," ACT iv. sc. 1, L. 64 (5 th S. viii. 
385 ; ix. 405 ; x. 3, 244, 424.) It may be useful 
to add another example. In Sacred Principles, 
Services and Soliloquies ; or, a Manual of Devo- 
tions, by W. Brough, D.D., Dean of Gloucester, 
4th ed., London, 1659, p. 228, the author mentions 
an art which will be helpful against gluttony : 
"The Art is His Pionery; To Undermine Glut- 
tony by Works of Charity." W. C. B. 

" LEARNING." The word "learning" in the 
Collect for the Second Sunday in Advent is com- 
monly taken to mean the reception of knowledge, 
whereas it really implies the imparting of it, as it 
_s taken from Romans xv. 4, where the Greek is 
8i8ao-Ka\iav. Wiclif has "teaching" (1380) ; but 
Tyndale has "learning" (1526), in which he is 
:ollpwed by the subsequent versions. This is not 
noticed in the works on the required alterations of 
;he A. V. nor on the obsolete words, so far as I 
iave seen. It is commonly supposed that, though 
this use of " to learn " is frequent in the Old 
Testament, it only occurs once in the New Testa- 
ment, Acts vii. 22, where eVatSev is translated 

. , 

learned " in all the versions, including Wiclif s, 
excepUhe Rhemish, which has "instructed." 

A similar translation of StSao-KaAc'av, 2 Tim. 

n. 16, is avoided in all the versions to which f 

have access ; but the Bishops' Bible and the 

~;. V' have " Doctrine." Further on in the verse 

iclif translates TrcuSetai/ by "learning" Bub 

yndale has " to instruct," in which he is followed 

by the rest, the A. V. having "for instruction. 

Sandford.St,Martin. ^ M 


ll> Tl A TT T- CJ^-~ r* T*. -. V^vyj-ikJi 

the followiD S 

.i- -- ---- -~~ *->" 

words - n ( 

ComlfonaH nt f th t1 Ma9tei> and Keepers or Wardens and 
mmonalty of the art or mystery of Ironmongers, 

5* S. XI. JAN. 11, '79.] 


London, the sum of four hundred pounds of lawful money 
of England, nevertheless upon the Trust and to the Intent 
and purpose that the said Master and Keepers or War- 
dens and Commonalty shall and will, by and with the 
Consent and advice of my Executors hereafter named and 
of John Midgley of London, Scrivener, or the Survivors 
and Survivor of them, as soon as they conveniently can 
lay out the said sum of four hundred pounds in a purchase 
of lands or houses and Ground rents of Inheritance in fee 
simple within the City of London or as near to the same 
City as conveniently may be. And the same Lands, 
Houses, and Ground Rents being so purchased shall 
settle the same in such manner as Counsel shall advise 
for an allowance to some person to read and celebrate 
Divine Service in the said parish church of St. Dionys 
Backchurch twice every day in the week yearly and 
every year for ever (except Sundays and such Holy Days 
when the said service and preaching shall be appointed 
and had in the said Church), at the hours and times now 
and heretofore used in the said Church, according to the 
Kubrick and Liturgy of the Church of England as now 
by law established. And my mind and will is that the 
Rents and profits of the said lands, Houses, or Ground 
rents so to be purchased as aforesaid shall be by the said 
Master and Keepers or Wardens and Commonalty of the 
said Company from time to time as the same shall be by 
them received paid to the Minister or Curate of the said 
Parish of St. Dionis Backchurch, who shall take upon 
himself or shall be appointed for the reading and cele- 
brating of Divine Service in manner as aforesaid, allow- 
ing thereout fifty shillings per annum to the clerk of the 
said parish for his officiating there. Provided always, 
and my mind and will is, that in case there shall be any 
failure or neglect in reading of prayers in the said parish 
Church at any time for the space of more than three 
days together, that then the rents and profits of the said 
premises so to be purchased as aforesaid shall go and be 
paid to the Hospital of Bethlehem and Bridewell afore- 
said for ever." 

The will of Sir Robert Geffery, knight and 
alderman, from which the foregoing is an extract, 
was proved at Doctors' Commons in the city of 
London, March 13, 1703, the testator having died 
towards the close of the previous month at an 
advanced age, and been buried in his private vault 
at St. Dionis Backchurch, Fenchurch Street, 

or CINTRA. The following letter, in the collection 
of the Baron de Bogoushevsky, and addressed by 
H.R.H. the Duke of Clarence, afterwards William 
IV., to an unknown correspondent, seems worthy 
of preservation. It occupies four pages of quarto 
gilt-edged paper, and is in the duke's own hand- 
writing. Undated, it appears from internal 
evidence to have been written in October, 1808, 
and it was probably addressed to one of his former 
shipmates holding office at Stonehouse, near Ply- 
mouth. The letter not only relates to the proceed- 
ings in connexion with the Convention of Cintra, 
but to other important events then occurring by 
land and sea. 

" Bushy House, Monday night (1808 ?). 

" Dear Sir, In answer to yours of 20th and 30th Sept. 
I am to observe that having directed my young man of 
business to forward to you at Stonehouse the Warrant I 

am surprised it has not reached your hands : but upon 
the receipt of your last inquiry I have again written, and 
make no doubt on Thursday morning this and the 
Warrant will find you and the Ladies at breakfast. 

" The convention in Portugal is still as unsatisfactory 
as ever, and indeed inexplicable : De Susa is right, our 
government neither could nor would believe the artiolM 
as he presented them on 4th September and as they 
turned out to be true. Ministers received the news of Sir 
A. Wellesley's two actions on 1st Sept. late in the even- 
ing, and tho* on 4th De Susa had from the Bishop of 
Oporto the Articles of the Convention, yet not till the 
night of 15th do the Cabinet hear from Sr. Hew Dal- 
rymple : the whole transaction is as disgraceful as it is 
novel : a whole quire of paper would not detail my ideas 
on this infamous business : but everything must bring 
itself before your discriminating mind. 

" Till now I think our government have acted with 
prudence towards Spain : but are the ministers sure that 
the Spaniards will let our troops into their country or is 
this immense armament destined for Italy : I think the 
French very vulnerable in that quarter and particularly 
in Naples : but to return to the convention, I rejoice 
there is but one sentiment throughout the Empire : all 
my letters from Scotland and Ireland convey the same 
language on the business : investigation must ensue, and 
cannot I think be avoided. 

" Our fleet in the Baltic have really done their duty, 
and I flatter myself if the Russian fleet cannot find its 
way to our ports it will be destroyed : but what is to 
become of Alexander in his interview with Bonaparte : 
is he to follow the fate of the Spanish Bourbons ? The 
Austrian Francis ought to be on his guard and active, for 
this meeting at Erfurth forebodes no good either to 
Austria or Turkey. At present I will not say anything 
on home politics : only in your next inform me in what 
manner the Catholic Bishops are appointed in Canada. 

" My best wishes and compliments attend the Ladies, 
and ever believe me, dear Sir, yours sincerely, 


Grampian Lodge, Forest Hill, S.E. 

ANOTHER SURVIVAL. It may not be unde- 
sirable, in the interest of future generations, to 
record the fact that up to January 1, 1878, all 
registered letters were, at the Post Office, secured 
and rendered conspicuous with a piece of very 
narrow dark-green ribbon or a piece of blue twine, 
which passed round the letter in two lines, cutting 
one another at right angles at or near its centre. 
The change in the Post Office regulations, which 
came into operation on the date just named, has 
substituted for the ribbon or twine two dark-blue 
ink lines, printed on official envelopes, by authority 
of the Postmaster General, and cutting one another 
exactly as those of ribbon or twine did of old. 
In short, the ink lines are a survival of the ribbon 
or twine. WM. PENGELLT. 


BENJAMIN DISRAELI, 1788." This day [Tues- 
day, Feb. 12, 1788], Benjamin Disraeli, of Grafton 
3t., Gent, (who served his apprenticeship to Mr. 
Richard Bayly), was admitted and sworn a public 
notary, before the Right Worshipful Stephen 
Ratcliff, Judge of his Majesty's Court of Prero- 


[5> S. XI. JAN. 11, 79. 

gative in Ireland " (Dublin Chronicle). I made 
this note in the library of the Koyal -Dublin 
Society ; it may be worthy of a corner in ' N. & Q. 
I do not know whether any published pedigree of 
our distinguished Premier notices this namesake 

of his. C - S - K 

Kensington, W. 

A NEW YEAR'S GIFT. The custom of express- 
ing esteem, respect, or affection by the interchange 
of new year's gifts was, two hundred years ago, 
even more universal than now ; nor was it con- 
fined to individuals, for corporate bodies sought to 
obtain or keep the goodwill of noblemen and other 
persons of influence in their city, borough, or 
county by sending to them at this season rich 
gifts of wine, sugar, &c., or, what was more useful, 
a purse of gold. Thus we find the Corporation of 
Leicester as may be gathered from the chamber- 
lains' accounts very frequently sending new year's 
gifts to the lord lieutenant of the county, to 
members of the Grey family at Bradgate, to the 
Hastings family at the Abbey of Leicester, and to 
others. The practice, however, so far as the mem- 
bers of the Corporation of Leicester were con- 
cerned, could hardly be called an interchange of 
civilities, as it was almost entirely a one-sided 
matter that is, they gave but seldom received. 
However this rule, like all others, had its excep- 
tion, as the following will show : On Jan. 1, 
1610-11, Mistress Elizabeth Haslewood presented 
to the town two corslets, one pike, a musket, a 
sword, and a dagger, which she sent by her 
serving-man to the hall on New^ Year's Day. 
Having presented the gift of his mistress he was 
rewarded with a donation of five shillings for his 
trouble, and the mayor (Master Thomas Parker) 
and his brethren, wishing to express their appre- 
ciation of Mistress Haslewood's courtesy and 
liberality, sent as a new year's gift " a runlett of 
wyne and one suger lofe," which cost together 31s. 
It would seem that the two corslets were not new 
ones, for they were dressed and trimmed at the 
cost of 16s., after which, frames having been set 
up in the parlour of the Town Hall, they were 
hung up there witnesses to the martial and 
patriotic spirit of Mistress Elizabeth Haslewood. 

SEVERE WINTERS. Under the above title a 
writer in the City Press, 1st inst., states, I know 
not on what authority, that the year 1487 wit- 
nessed an unusual degree of frost in Flanders, 
where it is said that wine was dealt out to the army 
in blocks chopped up with a hatchet. If this state- 
ment is really authentic, it affords a singular cor- 
roboration to Virgil, who, in describing a severe 
winter in England, says : 

" Caeduntque securibus humida vina." 

Georgic in. 364. 

Hampstead, N.W. E. WALFORD, M.A. 

" Domine Deus, 
Speravi in te. 
care mi Jesu, 

Nunc libera me. 
Languendo, gemendo 
Et genuflectendo 

Adoro, imploro ' 
Ut liberes me." 

Some years ago a clerical friend of mine, since, 
alas ! dead, repeated this musical prayer to me, 
saying it was composed by the fair Queen of Scots 
during her captivity. It would be interesting to 
know when and where her sad heart spent itself in 
such a despairing outburst as is expressed in these 
touching and beautiful words. 


" They say. What say they] Let them say. 

Aiunt. Quid aiunt ] Aiant. 

Such are the well-known English and Latin forms ; 
but Mr. E. Hill, writing from Bournemouth to the 
Guardian of Nov. 27, 1878, gives what has 
hitherto been wanting, the Greek version : 

Aeyovcriv a OtXovcriv' 

This, he adds, is often found on rings and an- 
tiques. E. T. M. WALKER. 
Oxford Union. 

The following note, supplied by a correspondent 
to the Kentish Observer, may be worth preserving 
in " N. & Q." : 

" In the present age of religious tolerance and high 
price of labour the following may not be uninteresting. 
It is extracted from an old magazine, and is an authentic 
copy of a document of the date : ' Account of the hanging 
and parboiling of Friar Stone at Canterbury in 1539. 
Paid for half a tod of timber to make a pair of gallows 
for to hang Friar Stone, 2s. 6d. ; to a carpenter for 
making the same gallows and the dray, Is. <ld. ; to a 
labourer that digged the holes, 3d. ; other expenses of 
setting up the same, and carriage of the timber from 
Stablegate to the dungeon, Is. ; for a hurdle, 6d. ; for a 
load of wood, and for a horse to draw him to the dun- 
geon, 2s. 3d. ; paid two men that sat at the kettle and 
parboiled him, Is. ; to three men that carried his quarters 
to the gates and sat them up, Is. ; for halters to hang 
him, and Sandwich cord, and for screws, Is. ; for a* 
woman that scowered the kettle, 2d. ; to him that did 
execution, 3s. 8d. ; total, 14s. 8d." 

W. D. PINK. 

Leigh, Lancashire. 

AN ANCIENT PAIR OF BOOTS. It may interest 
some of the readers of " N. & Q." to learn that in 
a shop nearly opposite the Liverpool Street Station 
may be seen a huge pair of cavalry boots, I believe 
of the seventeenth century, and perhaps of the 
period of the civil wars. The boots are in the 
most excellent preservation, and are made of the 
thickest hide (lined and padded), with very thick 
soles, and large rowelled spurs attached by steel 

XL JAN. 11, 79.] 



chains. The upper portions are of rounded leather 
to cover the knees and most of the thighs. The 
boots bear the maker's name, and the place "Paris," 
and seem scarcely to have been worn at all. They 
are said to weigh ten pounds each. I suspect that 
they are unique in this country for their age and 
complete state of preservation. It was stated 
erroneously in a newspaper last year that these 
boots were discovered in an old house at Clerken- 
well. Their true history is as follows : Upon 
opening a walled-up cupboard in the ancient 
building of Bagshot Park, Surrey, about the year 
1837, there was found in it a large quantity of old 
armour and accoutrements. Among them were 
these boots, which were given to the steward of 
the estate, a Mr. Kavenscroft. They were care- 
fully kept by his family, and are now owned by 
his son. I am indebted to the present Mr. Kavens- 
croft for allowing me to examine the boots and for 
this history of them. H. W. HENFREY. 

CHAUCER'S PRAISE. Anthony Nixon, in his 
" Christian Navy, Wherein is playnely described 
the perfit course to sayle to the Hauen of Eter- 
nall happinesse. London, Simon Stafford, 1602," 
quotes the description of Hypocrisy in the Englisht 
Komaunt of the Rose (v. 13-14, 1. 413-448, edit. 

"Another thing was done they write," 

" They lessen God, and eke his raigne," 
and sets before and after this, the following stanzas : 
" Which Image here I would describe to thee, 
But that long since it hath been paynted playne 
By learned Chaucer, pemme of Poetry, 
Who past the reach of any English brayne : 
A folly therefore were it here for me, 
To touch that he did often vse to say, 
Writ in the Horn aunt of his Roses gay. 

Thus hath the golden pen of Chaucer old, 
The Image playne described to the eye, 
Who passing by long since, did it behold 
And tooke thereof aduisedly, 
And left the same to his posterity, 

That each man passing by, might playnely know 
The perfit substance of that flattring show." 

Sig. F 4, back, and G. 

F. J. F. 

German Gazette having done me the favour to com- 
mend my translation of Lenore for following both 
the sense and sound of the original, I wish to 
remark as to my translation of the Song of the 
Bell, which was a more arduous task, that I have 
failed in one instance to follow exactly the metre 
of Schiller's original. I found myself beaten by 
the couplet, 

"Thiere wimmern 
Unter Trummern," 

and was obliged to render it by the single line, 
" Beasts beneath the ruins moan." 

In all other parts of the poem I have followed 
the exa?t rhythm or metre, giving all the weibliche 
or double rhymes, and have also endeavoured to 
copy the metallic ringing of such passages as 

" Denn mit der Freude Feier Mange " 
(and wherever else the bell appears to be tolling). 
For in Schiller's great poem the sound is of high 
importance, GEO. COLOMB, Col. R.A. 

BAD GRAMMAR. As a pendant to the recent 
discussion in your columns on the phrase " Between 
you and I," let me draw attention to the following 
anecdote about the equally ungrammatical but 
most common expression " It 's me," taken from 
Fraser's Magazine, 1872 : 

" The beautiful Miss Port, her grand-niece and adopted 
child, sitting one day writing in Mrs. DeJany's drawing- 
room, heard a knock at the door : she of course inquired 
'Who 's there 1 ?' 'It ' me,' replied a man's voice, some- 
what ungrammatically; but grammar appears to have 
been much disdained in our great-grandmothers' days. 
' .Me may stay where he is,' answered Miss Port, on which 
the knocking was repeated. ' Me is impertinent, and 
may go about his business,' reiterated the lady ; but the 
unknown party persevering in a third knock, she rose to 
ascertain who was the intruder, and, to her dismay, 
found it was no other than King George himself that she 
had been unwittingly addressing with so little ceremony. 
All sh could utter was 'What shall I say]' 'Nothing 
at all,' replied his Majesty; 'you was very right to be 
cautious who you admitted.' This royal disregard of 
grammar seems to have furnished a precedent for that 
of the Court and of society in general." 

It may be added that Miss Port, the heroine of 
the above anecdote, afterwards married Mr. Ben- 
jamin Waddington, a Monmouthshire squire, and 
that her daughter is the present Lady Llanover. 

Hampstead, N.W. 

I see that MR. THISELTON DYER, in his interesting 
note on " Christmas in England " (5 th S. x. 483), 
speaks of a " wesley-bob " or " vessel-cup " as if it 
were no longer customary in the neighbourhood of 
Leeds. I can testify that in Wakefield it is still 
quite common for children to go from house to 
house with a box often a fancy soap-box or such- 
like representative of the stable or manger; retain- 
ing its original inscription, &c., on the inside of 
the lid lined with coloured paper, and about half 
filled with evergreens, on which repose three dolls 
in ordinary dolls' costume, but supposed to repre- 
sent Mary, Joseph, and the Babe ; red-cheeked 
apples, oranges, &c. (I think I have seen 
"crackers"), are also put in. The children call 
the whole affair a " wessel-cup" or " wessel-bob," 
and exhibit it from house to house, where they 
announce themselves by singing, to its proper 
tune, the charming old traditional carol, " Here we 
come a-wesseling among the leaves so green," 
which is, I think, in Bramley and Stainer's collec- 



. XL JAH. 11, -79. 

I regret to say that in these days of school-board 
" education " the children have often but a very 
imperfect knowledge of what they mean by this 
service beyond the collecting of pence, and they 
sometimes give very odd answers if catechized. 
For instance, I have known one of the dolls de- 
scribed as " Tichborne." I am not sure that the 
term " wessel " is generally understood. It is, of 
course, a form of " wassail," and probably derived 
from a custom of drinking healths (" Wses hs&l ") 
from house to house. There is an interesting 
notice of the custom in Machyn's Diary (1555-6) : 

" The xij even was at Henley a-pon Temes a mastores 
Lentall wedow mad a soper for master John Venor and 
ys wyif, and I and dyver odur neybors ; and as we wher 
at soper, and or whe had supt, ther cam a xij wessells, 
with rnaydens syngyng with ther wessells, and after cam 
the cheyff wyffes syngyng with ther wessells; and the 
gentyll-woman had hordenyd a gret tabull of bankett, 
dyssys of spyssys and frut, as marmelad, gynbred, 
gele, comfett, suger plat, and dyver odur." Camden 
tk>c., xlii. 99. 

" Wessells " is explained in the note as " visors, 
or masques." J. T. F. 

Winterton, Brigg. 

ISAIAH xxn. 18. "He will surely violently turn 
and toss thee like a ball into a large country." Many 
have, no doubt, wondered much as to what could 
be the physical fact intended by this simile, as 
they heard the above passage read in church on the 
morning of Monday, the 2nd ult. I used to wonder 
myself till I was a witness to the sight. I was in 
the island of Mitylene during a great storm of 
wind in winter. There is a plant, not unlike 
wormwood, which grows into a compact globular 
form, with very stiff stalks and branches. In winter 
it dies down to the ground, and in its dry and 
light condition is torn from its roots by the wind, 
and set bounding over the wide and unenclosed 
country. I have seen five or six of these coursing 
along at once a vivid emblem of a man at the 
mercy of a higher power, helpless to choose his 
own course, or even to find rest. Plautus has, 
" Dii nos quasi pilas homines habent," but this 
refers to the game of ball. 


AN HISTORICAL SLEDGE. The following is 
taken from a Times telegram dated " Geneva, 
Dec. 30," printed in the Times of December 31, 

" During the late severe weather, wheeled carriages 
being almost useless, the demand for sledges was so great 
that many ancient vehicles, which had not seen the light 
for the greater part of a century, were brought into 
requisition, and the identical sledge, gaily painted, and 
its sides still ornamented with victorious eagles, in which 
Napoleon rode from Martigny to Bourg St. Pierre when 
he was preparing to cross the Alps before the campaign 
of Marcngo, was seen daily driven about the streets of 
Lausanne. This interesting relic is now the property of 
a Vaudois voiturier, who lets it out for hire." 

H. W. H. 

THE ELECTRIC LIGHT. At the present moment 
it may not be uninteresting to note that the electric 
light was patented in London in the winter of 
1848-9. An account of it will be found in the 
Illustrated London News for January, 1849 (p. 58). 
The notice ends with a remark to the effect that 
"all hope of an extensive application of the electric 
light must now be abandoned ; but we shall still 
rejoice if it can be employed as a special mode of 
illumination on great public occasions." 


Hampstead, N.W. 

of lists under the above heading you may be 
willing to add the title of a little book which has 
come into my possession relating to a county 
society of the last century, of which a very aged 
relative of mine, now deceased, was a member in 
early youth. The book bears this title : " Regu- 
lations for the Union Society, established at Har- 
low in 1790." The regulations conclude with the 
following : " That the arms of the society be the 
arms of the counties of Essex and Herts united. 
Supporters, a bowman and cricketer ; crest, a 
crescent; motto, 'Archery, freedom, and love.'" 
On the rose-coloured cover of the little book are 
depicted two shields with the arms of the counties, 
crest above and motto below, while the supporters 
exhibit two stalwart gentlemen, one in knee- 
breeches bearing a bat, the other in high boots and 
feather-crowned hat grasping a bow. 

The society was limited to fifty ladies and fifty 
gentlemen, and a president and lady president was 
appointed for each meeting. The list of members 
reads very much like a racing card, as each lady 
and gentleman assumed two or more colours, and 
each seems to have adopted two fanciful French 
designations, described as " rnottos." 

I do not know whether you will think this 
record of the pastimes of a century ago worth 
adding to the " notes." I should be happy to send 
the list of the "names and colours" of the members 
should you or anv of your readers desire it. 

0. L. 

[For " The Bibliography of Archery " see " N. & Q.," 
5>S. ix. 324, 383, 442; x. 102. J 

STROUD, GLOUCESTERSHIRE. There is certainly 
a great want of a " Handbook to Stroud and the 
neighbourhood," containing what a visitor to the 
place, anxious to become acquainted with its 
history and topography, would desire to have before 
him. There is nothing of the kind to assist one in 
his researches in this highly picturesque and im- 
portant district. I am well acquainted with the 
late Mr. Fisher's Notes and Eecollections of Stroud 
(1871) ; but the volume is too expensive for the 
purpose in view, and, besides, it is " out of print " 
and not easily procured. A small sized book, with 
a good map or two and a few illustrations, would 

XI. JAN. 11, 79.] 



be most acceptable to many, and I doubt not, from 
what I have heard, would prove a remunerativ 
undertaking. But, unlike too many publication 
of the class throughout the kingdom, it should b 
strictly accurate in details, and not calculated in 
any way to mislead the reader. ABHBA. 


[We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest, to affix thei 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that th 
answers may be addressed to them direct.] 


SHAKESPEAR"? Bonn's Lowndes says "fourth 
edition, with twenty plates by William Blake 
1822." The catalogues of the best informed book- 
sellers at the present day refine upon this, anc 
describe the plates as designed by Mulready anc 
engraved by Blake. Is there any authority for 
either statement ? Gilchrist, in his Life, does not 
enter the Tales in his list of Blake's engravings. 
Lowndes is also inaccurate in limiting the twenty 
plates in question to the fourth, when they accom- 
pany the earlier editions of the Tales* 

Now, Godwin was the publisher of the Tales , 
and Blake, we know, illustrated, in 1791, Mary 
Wollstonecraft's Original Stories from Heal Life. 
Charles Lamb, moreover, thought highly of Blake's 
artistic merit. Therefore it is likely enough that 
Blake may have had more or less to do with these 
illustrations ; but I would gladly learn the extent 
of his co-operation, and where the fact of his or 
Mulready's employment on these designs is re- 
corded. None of the plates, unluckily, are signed ; 
and, to complicate the matter, they vary in merit 
so much that one would almost suspect the em- 
ployment of two different engravers. For instance, 
it is difficult to ascribe to the same artist the fine 
plate of "Nic Bottom and the Queen of the 
Fairies " (which is quite Blakian) and the woodeny 
"Gratiano and Nerissa desire to be married." 
Excepting this last, the ten plates of the first 
volume are much superior to the ten plates of the 
second, in which the Othello, Comedy of Errors, 
and Hamlet illustrations are perhaps the worst! 
Blake could hardly have engraved so slovenly and 
unanatomical a skull as the gravedigger is holding. 
The "Advertizement to the Second Edition " in 
some measure apologizes for these shortcomings ; 

; The bibliography is rather involved. Concurrently 
with this illustrated edition " for young persons " ap- 
peared a plain edition "for the library," with merely a 
frontispiece of Shakspeare, engraved by T. Woolnoth 
after Zoust Of this library edition the first impression 
ffi are n I 807 '. * he second in 1809 > th e third edition 
10 t h V llustrated edition appeared, first im- 
pression, 1807 (this I have not seen, but the "Advertize- 
ment to the Second Edition " establishes its existence) 
the second in 1808 ; the third, 1816 ; fourth, 1822. 

and, after premising that the illustrations were for 
children, continues : " The prints were, therefore, 
made from spirited designs, but did not pretend to 
high finishing in the execution." Now who fur- 
nished these " spirited designs," and who engraved 
them ? The above extract rather favours the idea 
that the designer and engraver were not the same 
person. A. 

ENGLISH ENGRAVERS. I have recently obtained 
a book of 3 00 pages containing engraved ciphers. 
The title-page is missing, but it contains a recom- 
mendation signed by the following engravers : 
Thomas Atkins, George Bickham, Charles Beard, 
John Bell, Bernard Baron, Claude Bosc, Peter 
Bosquain, Emmanuel Bowen, John Burton, Henry 
Burgh, Isaac Basire, William Caston, James Gary, 
James Cole, Benjamin Cole, Maximilian Cole, 
Henry Collins, Eichard Cooper, Thomas Cobb, 
John Clause, John Carwithan, John Dolby, 
William Dugood, Thomas Evans, John Faber, 
Henry Fletcher, Pa. Fourdrinier, Thomas Gardner, 
Charles Gardner, John Gilbert, John Hoddle, 
Joseph Halshide, William Hulett, Richard Hop- 
thro, Joseph Howel, Edward Hill, John Harris, 
Andrew Johnston, Elisha Kirkall, Giles King, 
Thomas Long, Charles Moore, Andrew Motte, 
Thomas Pingo, John Pine, Richard Perry, Ishmael 
Parbury, Samuel Parker, Thomas Plat, Peter 
Pelham, William Pennock, Thomas Ramsey, 
Bishop Roberts, John Raven, James Regnier, 
John Sturt, Josephus Sympson, William Sterling, 
Jacob Skinner, Mich. Shilburn, Chris. Seeton, 
James Sartor, John Symon, John Smith, James 
Smith, Robert Smith, William Henry Toms, 
George Thornton, Gerd. Vandergucht, Jon. Van- 
dergucht, William Pritchard, John Clark. In all 
seventy-two names. 

I find very few of these names in Spooner's 
Dictionary, which, though an American compi- 
lation, professes to give all the facts to be found 
n previous books. I would ask, therefore, for the 
date of the publication of this book, and secondly 
whether this list has been used as a means of 
dentifying or tracing English engravers. I take 
.his opportunity also to inquire again if anything 
s known of the Peter Pelham mentioned above. 
See " N. & Q.," 4 th S. xii. 118, 179. 

Boston, U.S.A. 

n a Court roll of the manor of Bibury, second year 
f Charles I., occurs the following phrase, " Item 
Tesentant ( Juratores) quod inhabitantes de Bibury 
on habent nee utuntur rete Corvil ideo foris- 
ecerunt." What is the extension of Rete Corvil, 
nd why did they forfeit for not using it 1 I may 
dd they suffer the same penalty for not using bow 
nd arrows, or " Sagittar," as the roll has it. 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [5* s. XL JAN. n, 70. 

GLOUCESTER," &c. About the year 1790 the Rev. 
James Dallaway "he had great abilities, but 
was pedantic and satirical "wrote his Journey 
from Rodborough [near Stroud] to Gloucester, with 
a Description of the Country and an Account of 
the Cathedral Where can I see it 1 A MS. copy 
was in the possession of Mr. Delafield Phelps, of 
Chevenage House, as appears from his privately 
printed Collectanea Gloucestriensia (London, 1842). 


TRADESMEN'S TOKENS. Akerman, Burn, and 
other authorities say that the issue of these was 
prohibited by a proclamation of Charles II. on 
Aug. 16, 1672 : 

"And all persons, who should after the 1st day of 
September make, vend, or utter any other kind of pence, 
halfpence, or farthing, or other pieces of brass, copper, 
or other base metal, other than the coins authorized above, 
or should offer to counterfeit any of His Majesty's half- 
pence or farthings, were to be chastised with exemplary 

Now, I have a considerable number of tokens, 
especially of Kent, Sussex, and the Cinque Ports, 
bearing dates of the latter part of the eighteenth 
century. I have not been able to find any work that 
alludes to tokens of a later date than the seven- 
teenth century except the Numismatic Chronicle, 
which speaks of some issued in Ireland as late as 
the first part of the present century. 

Will some one kindly say whether the issue of 
these tokens went on for more than a hundred 
years in spite of proclamations, or was there any 
relaxation of the law on the subject 1 Or to what 
author can I refer ? CLARRY. 

Lay (canto vi.) these two lines occur : 
" And each St. Clair was buried there, 
With candle, with book, and with knell." 

Was the latter line ever corrected by Scott? 
Surely he must have written "with book, with 
candle," &c. He could not have meant to lay 
stress on with and and. Yet in all the editions I 
have at hand I find the passage printed as I have 
quoted it. JAYDEE. 

"MOKE" OR "MoAK."--MR. T. BIRD says 
(5 th S. x. 521) that he has heard a donkey called 
in Essex and Herts a bussocL In Devonshire 
a donkey is generally called a moke. Is this name 
common in other parts of England 1 


Hampstead, N.W. 

[The term is common in London.] 

History, compiled by the Rev. Dr. Samuel 
Madden, of Waterhouse, co. Fermanagh, circa 
1720, was in the possession of the late Ulster, Sir 
Wm. Betham. Where is it now? It is not 

amongst Sir William's MSS. in the Brit. Mus., nor 
in T. C. D. Library, nor in the Royal Irish 
Academy, nor in the Royal Dublin Society. 

C. S. K. 
Kensington, W. 


does this designation properly belong ? Certainly 
not to Carolan, though one may see in St. Patrick's 
Cathedral, Dublin, a fine bas-relief of this gifted 
harpist, which was executed in Rome at Lady 
Morgan's expense by Hogan, a son of the well- 
known sculptor, and bears the following in- 
scription : 

" By the desire of Lady Morgan. 
To the memory of 


The last of the Irish Bards. 
^Etatis suae An. LXVIII." 

A meeting of Irish harpers was held in Belfast 
in 1792, when many of the old harpers attended, 
and astonished their hearers by the display of their 
skill in ancient Irish music. ABHBA. 

VARIA. Can any one kindly tell me, from 
personal knowledge 

1. Where is a catalogue of esquires and gentle- 
men of Yorkshire (R. Gascoign ; Sims, p. 328) to 
be found ? 

2. Where can the account of the family of Ogle, 
privately printed, Edin., 1812 (Sims, p. 268), be 

3. What lists of the royal household in the 
reigns of Hen. VI., Edw. IV., Rich. III., and 
Hen. VII. are there which can be consulted ? 

T. W. CARR. 
Banning Rectory, Maidstone. 

Miss ANNE BORLEBOG, the oldest actress that 
ever appeared on any stage, died at Charleston, 
North America, in 1827, aged eighty-eight. She 
made her debut fifteen years before Garrick, as 
Queen Katharine in Henry VIII. She continued 
to represent the younger class of matrons until she 
was seventy-eight, and she was sixty-six before 
she gave up playing the misses in their teens. Is 
there a published history of her life ? 


St. John's Wood. 

TO 1730. I want the date of his birth. In R. 
Bisset's edition of the Spectator, 1793, it is said 
that Eusden died on Sept. 27, 1730, at his rectory, 
Conningsby, Lincolnshire; but the present rector 
of that parish finds no record of his residence or 
services there, nor of his burial in the churchyard. 
Biographical details of this writer are scanty, and 
apparently very unreliable. I should be glad of 
any information about him. 


5th s. XI. JAN. 11, 79.] 



FRANKS. A friend of mine wants to know I A WELSH GAME. In dealing with the ety- 
~where he can find information in detail as to the I mology of the word quintain, Mahn (Webster, 
privilege of franking letters, which belonged to s.v.) compares it with " W. (Welsh) ckwintan, a 
the members of both Houses of Parliament and to kind of hymeneal game." Will some native of the 

; several official personages. R. DE PEVEREL. 

who is not, so far as is known, entitled to bear 
arms, marries B, a daughter and co-heiress of C, 
who was entitled to bear arms. A and B have 
sons. What arms will the sons be entitled to 
bear 1 Will they be entitled to bear those of C ? 

X. Y. Z. 

THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY. I desire information 

Principality, or some other scholar, kindly say 
what the game in question is, or was ; or where 
any account of it is to be found ? D. F. 


THE REV. THOMAS HURST was Vicar of Exton, 
Rutland, in 1763. Was he the same man as the 
Rev. Thomas Hurst, Rector of All Saints', Stam- 
ford, and Vicar of Whissendine, Rutland, who 
died on Jan. 26, 1802 ? THOMAS NORTH. 

Newcastle readers give me any information re- 

J. Saunders. I have by his hand a set of family garding Thomas Dixon, author of the Portrait of 
sportraits in pastil, drawn about the year 1750. Religion in Newcastle, being a clerical, satirical, 

I have portraits in oil by his an( * allegorical drama, Newcastle-on-Tyne, 1836, 

second edition, 8vo. Printed for the author by 
W. Fordyce, Dean Street ? R. INGLIS. 

T. Bardwell. 
<hand, 1720-30. 

J. Bridges. I have similar works of the same 

Francis Cufande or Cufaude : he spells his name 
both ways. I have portraits and miniatures by 
him. He painted, about 1720, the Commandments 
nd the altar-piece in Denton Church, Norfolk. 

A. H. 

Little Baling. 

" : LYING COLD-FLOOR." In this part of Lin- 
colnshire, close to the Norfolk border, the above 
expression seems to be commonly used of dead 
persons lying in the house before burial. Can any 

correspondent give an account of its origin, and I EDWARD AND CHARLES DILLY.-!S there any 
also say whether its use is confined to this part of W0 rk or biography relative to the above eminent 
the country? C. S. JERRAM. publishers, "friends of Johnson and Boswell, 

Fleet, Lincolnshire. | ^ fre ^ uent guests in the p oulfcry and 

visitors at South Hill, Beds, and who are men- 
tioned so warmly in Boswell's Life of Johnson? 
Portraits of Edward and Charles, besides Jabez 
Miss Dilly, are in the possession of my friends, 
but I am desirous of meeting with anything extant 

what is so 
Magazine and 

KING OSWY. This king made a vow that if he 
defeated Penda he would build and endow twelve 
monasteries. " Twelve abbeys, with broad lands 
attached, showed the gratitude of Oswy for his un- 
expected victory," &c. St. Hilda's at Whitby 
appears to be the only one mentioned by name. 
Can any reader oblige with the names of the other 
eleven or with the locality in which situated 1 

F. T. J. 

[Our correspondent should consult the early history of 
England in reference to his other queries.] 


I met with an 
II. c. 61, enacted 1758, 
itle : " An Act 

the Town of 

" iar 

r in the 

-^11 c IT 

County Palatine of Lancaster, from the Custom of m f^^P 6 . f a ?f cdo ' e ' llfe 
fruiting their Corn and Grain, except Ma at f known in the 
certain Water Corn Mills in the said Town, called B SWeU S L * f& f Johnso 

the School Mills ; and for making proper Recom- 
pense to the Feoffees of such Mills." This, although 
contained in the schedule of the Statutes at Large 

51 S H nilVilir* 10 wioU-ir o H l,-.rt l .,] " 1 *.ifr 4-A )) ^ ^4. , J 

Cape Town. 


as a public, is really a " local and private " act, and " Nimrod " appeared in the Quarterly Review upon 
its title alone is therefore printed ; hence I have no this subject many years ago. The date is desired, 
means at hand of learning any further details from I THOMAS NORTH. 

the measure itself. But my more immediate 
point is to inquire if there be any more flour mills 
in the country with such special local privileges. 

Belsize, London. 

P.S. Has or had the lord of the manor any 

control over or privilege in connexion with corn I manc'e, | exposing | with great variety of Humour, in 

I a series of Cou- 1 versations between that Demon and the 

" THE DEVIL TURN'D HERMIT." I would gladly 
receive information respecting a work in two 
volumes, 12mo., about which nothing is said in 
Lowndes : 



s. XL JAN. 11, 79. 

Author, | the scandalous Frauds, lewd Amours, and 
devout Mockery | of the Monks and Nuns ; the Intrigues 
of Courts, &c. Founded chiefly on real Facts, and inter- 
spersed with the | Portraits and Secret History of most 
of the considerable | Persons that have lived in Europe 
within these Thirty | Years past. | Translated from the 
Original French of M r | de M***. | The Second Edition. 
| London, | Printed for J. Hodges at the Looking Glass 
over against S' | Magnus's Church, London Bridge, and 
T. Waller,at | the Crown and Mitre, Fleet Street, 1751." 
Is the above work scarce ? Who was " M r de 
M***"2 BOILEAU. 

" Who killed Kildare 1 
Who dared Kildare to kill? 
Death killed Kildare, 
Who dares kill whom he will." 

" O si, o si, otiosi ] " 


(5 th S. x. 461, 524.) 

Permit me to say that I was well aware of the 
modern use of bezzle in the sense of " guzzle," and 

Domestic, of the Reign of Henry Fill., ed. 
Brewer, vol. iv. pt. iii. p. 2927. Another friend 
tells me that he has often heard the word imbecile 
accented imbecile, which is much to the purpose. 

BRAHAM'S "ENTUSYMUSY" (5 th S. xi. 8.) I have- 
heard a great deal of Mr. Brahain from those who 
lived with him most intimately, and I knew him 
well myself in his latter years. He was a decidedly 
well-educated man, a great reader, and peculiarly 
impatient of blunders in pronunciation. I have 
never therefore believed it possible that, at a time 
when he was already middle-aged, he could have 
seriously pronounced "enthusiasm" in the fashion- 
of Byron's story. It was probably some misunder- 
stood joke or after-dinner " chaff." C. P. F. 

BACON ON " HUDIBRAS " (5 th S. xi. 7.)" Notes 
and Queries is a wonderful institution " was the 
greeting which I received one day, about ten years 
after " N. & Q." was started, from a clerical con- 
Tibutor whom I accidentally met. I thanked 
him for his good-natured banter. But he said y 
" I mean what I say. An interchange of corre- 

that I have a copy of Chamber's Dictionary, which spondence between myself and a distinguished 

scholar on a matter discussed in it has ripened into 
a most agreeable friendship." And then he went 
on to tell that a brother clergyman had got a very 
good living in the same way. 

I now beg to say " Notes and Queries is a. 
tion," and I say so advisedly. 

I had consulted. But the modern use proves nothing 
whatever as to the history of the word in former 
times. I think my remark about Skinner's absurd 
supposition has been misunderstood. It is neces- 
sary to add : (1) that there is not, nor ever was, 

such a word as beastle, it being a pure fiction made wonderful institution, 

for the occasion ; (2) that, were there such a form, Last week I made in it some inquiries about 
there is no reason why it should have the compre- Montagu Bacon on Hudibras. It was nothing 
hensive meaning "to make a beast of oneself" ; wonderful that I should receive from MR. SOLLY, 
(3) that, even if there were, there would be no who is as ready to give information as he is rich in 
sort of reason for turning a significant word like its possession, some most interesting particulars in 
beastle into an unintelligible bezxle; and (4) even if connexion with my query. But all my readers 
there were reason for this, there would still be no will admit I am justified in the declaration that 
reason for putting a French prefix like em- before " Notes and Queries is a wonderful institution" 
it. The whole series of suppositions, all purely when I tell them that before twelve o'clock on 
gratuitous, are, when thus piled up, absurd in the Saturday last, before half the habitual readers of 
highest degree, or, as I have ventured to call it this journal had seen the number containing my 
already, " a joke." Why is it that in English inquiry for a book which I had been looking 
etymology all sorts of gratuitous inventions are after for upwards of forty years, I received by post 
so easily current, whilst we play no such tricks what I supposed to be a bookseller's catalogue, but 
with Latin and Greek ? The answer is that Latin which upon opening proved to be a copy of the 
and Greek are far better understood in a really pamphlet in question ! 

scholarly fashion. Of the history of our language So determined is the generous donor to " do good 
there is too little study. by stealth," there is not to be found in it the 

_ A friend has kindly sent me a good new quota- slightest clue to the sender. I have a suspicion 
tion. He writes : In a letter from Eeginald (after- that it comes from a gentleman from whom I have 
wards Cardinal) Pole to Henry VIIL, dated July 7, before experienced similar marks of considerate 
1530, he speaks of the consultation of divines at kindness, although it is not my good fortune to be 
Paris in the king's " great matter," and says it was personally known to him. He will, if I am right, 
" achieved " according to the king's purpose. The forgive my quoting to him " Age quod agis ! " 
adverse party, he adds, use every means to embecyll and let me thank him privately as earnestly as I 
the whole determination, that it may not take now beg to do thus publicly, 
effect. See Letters and Papers, Foreign and \ WILLIAM J. THOMS. 

5> s. XI. JAN. 11, 79.] 



AN IRISH BISHOP BUTLER (5 th S. xi. 8.) John 
Butler was third son of Edmond Butler, eighth 
Baron Dunboyne. He was consecrated to the 
(E.G.) see of Cork in June, 1763. On the death 
of his nephew in 1786 he succeeded to the title 
and estates, and thereupon resigned his bishopric 
on Dec. 13 of that year. The bishop was then 
over seventy, but anxious to continue the succession 
of his family, he applied to Pope Pius VI. for a 
dispensation to marry. The Pope unhesitatingly 
rejected the application, and his lordship forthwith 
married his cousin and turned Protestant. No 
issue came of the marriage, and Lord Dunboyne 
died on May 8, 1800. On his death-bed he sent 
for a somewhat celebrated Augustinian friar, one 
Father Gahan, and by him was reconciled to the 
Church of Rome. The ex-bishop's widow lived to 
the age of ninety-six, and died in August, 1860. 
Lord Dunboyne left a large sum to Maynooth 
College, where his name, qua peer, is reverenced, 
qua Protestant and pervert, is abhorred. 


MAJOR ANDRE" (5 th S. xi. 7.) Although I am 
not prepared to answer either of the queries pro- 
pounded by A. P. S., I wish to make a note re- 
specting a highly effective ghost story, which I 
have often heard repeated upon what appeared to 
be exceedingly good authority. The story goes 
that at the time of Andre's execution in America 
a young lady in England, to whom he was engaged, 
was sitting at the piano, when she suddenly 
screamed out and fell back in a swoon. On her 
recovery, she explained that the major had appeared 
to her hanging from a gibbet. Her friends at- 
tempted to comfort her by explaining that there 
could be no truth in her vision, because as her 
lover was an English officer he would be shot, and 
not hanged, if his life were taken at all. When 
the news actually arrived it was found that the 
execution had taken place at the very time the 
young lady swooned, and exactly as she had seen 
it in her vision. About a couple of years ago I 
wished to make use of this story, and therefore 
inquired of the friend from whom I had first heard 
it for such authentication as he could obtain. 
He took some pains in the matter, and the result 
was that the story entirely failed. Andre was 
attached, but not engaged, to the beautiful and 
accomplished Honora Sneyd, who afterwards be- 
came the wife of Richard Lovell Edgeworth (the 
father of Maria Edgeworth), and died of con- 
sumption on April 30, 1780, five months and 
two days before the execution of Andre. Further, 
it was discovered that the representatives of 
Andre's family utterly deny the truth of the story 
and treat it as a fabrication. Anna Seward, who 
wrote the Monody on the Death of Major Andre, 
was a bosom friend of Honora Sneyd. 

H. B. W. 

YATELEY, HANTS (5 th rs. x. 307, 475.) MR. 
PICTON says, " Yate and gate are synonymous, the y> 
and g being interchangeable." " Yateley is situated 
on the line of the old Roman road connecting Win- 
chester with the passage over the river at Staines. 
It seems, therefore, a reasonable explanation that 
the road or yate should have given its name to the 
pasture land through which it ran." MR. PICTON, 
I believe, here falls into a mistake which I also 
made in the earlier editions of my Dictionary. He 
confounds gate or gait (from the root of go\ going, 
way, road, street, with gate, A.-S. geat, Northern 
E. yate, yet, the opening of an enclosure, or the 
door by which admittance through it is given or 
refused. The former word is never written with a 
y. " Good gentleman, go your gait, and let poor 
folks pass " (Shakesp.). Sc. " gang your gate" go 
your ways, begone. It is only gate in the second 
sense that is ever spelt with a y : yate, yhate, yet. 
The fundamental signification is an outpouring, 
from A.-S. geotan, Dutch gieten, Platt Deutsch 
geten, Sc. to yet, to pour. Hence PI. D. gat, the 
outpouring or mouth of a stream, any narrow pass- 
age of waters, and generally an orifice or hole ; 
explaining E. gate in the sense of the opening of 
an enclosure, from whence finally we pass to the 
notion of the material gate by which the opening 
is barred. The derivation from the notion of 
pouring may be illustrated by Swedish gjuta, to 
pour ; flodgjuta, a floodgate, the outpouring of the 
floodwaters. Compare also gut, the outpouring of 
the animal frame ; the Gut of Gibraltar, the gate 
by which the Mediterranean pours into the ocean. 
The two words are kept distinct in our older 
writers : 

" He toke charyte and toke hys gate, 
And as be passede out at the ^ale " 

R. Bruime, Handlyng synne, 1. 4728. 

" He lay at the ryche mannys $ate 
Ful of byles in the gate." 

MS. in Halliwell. 

31, Queen Anne St., W. 

The county of Warwick offers very many ex- 
amples of the names of places terminating in ley, 
and I find in many cases they are grouped around 
the rise of some stream. One example will be 
enough for this present purpose. The villages of 
Arley, Slowley, Fillongley, Corley, and Astley are 
adjoining, and in this neighbourhood arises the 
river Sowe, which flows into the Avon. Under 
the head " Arley," Dugdale says : 

" The latter syllable cf this town's appellation is very 
frequently used, as we know, for terminating the names 
of sundry villages ; and, if we ascend to the British for 
its original, we shall find lie in that language to be the 
same as locus in the Latin, but if to the Saxons, ley there 
signifieth ground untill'd. Ar is British, and signifieth 
super in Latin. Thus ' Ar-lei ' is in effect locus altus." 

In the case of Astley it is written in Domesday 



XL JAN. 11, '79. 

Book " Astleia, id est locus orientalis, but corrup- 
tion of speech hath in time changed it to Astley. 
[Referring to other places, the idea that lie signifies 
only wet ground or meadow land is not borne out 
by the situation of such places, some being upon 
high and dry land ; yet the more I look at the 
places so named in this immediate neighbourhood 
I must admit that the greater number are on the 
banks of, or near to, some brook or river. 



x. 515.) On reading this phrase a fine passage in 
an obscure writer occurred to me in which I seemed 
to remember that it occurred. I find on reference 
that the precise words are not to be found ; but 
nevertheless transcribe the passage, alike from its 
exquisite Latinity, its implication of the phrase 
referred to, and the rarity of the volume in which 
it is contained : 

" Principle igitur ei, qui perfectus legatus esse vellet, 
necessariam putamus esse scientiara sacrarum divina- 
rumque litterarum ; quaquidem nihil est omnirio sanctius; 
nihil est divinius ; ea vero tanto ceteris artibus, et dis- 
ciplinis antecellit, quanto res divinae prasstant humanis ; 
quanto mortalibus, et caducis, aeterria;. Etenim sacra in 
primis sapieritia in animis nostris notionem quandam 
informat praepotentis, et immortalis Dei ; ex hac autem 
cognitione, trinum ilium, atque unum pie, sancteque, 
colimus, veneramur, ac contemplamur : in illo scimus 
esse omnia; ab eo fluere, et manare cuncta, tanquam a 
fonte bonorum omnium ; praeterea vero, Deum opt. max. 
intelligimus semper fuisse; semper esse; ac semper 
futurum; vel potius semper tantummodo esse, cum 
reliquse sint paries temporis dilabentis ; cognoscimus 
etiam nosmet ipsos ; et omnium cupiditatum ardore 
restincto, humana omnia despicimus ; et infra nos posita 
judicamus. vitae theologia dux, de sinu aeterni patris 
educta, quae Dei verbum inserens in hominum corda, 
perpetuam nobis affers salutem et quietem. O clarissi- 
mum vitae lumen, quod omnes errorum dividis tenebras ; 
rerumque coelestium dircutis caliginem, sic, ut ad pro- 
creatorem mundi Deum, sedemque, verse beatudinis, 
possimus penetrare, et aliquando cum illo coelestium 
animorum caetu, aevo perfrui sempiterno. Felicem in 
terris sine dubio vitam agere videntur ii, qui sanctissimaa, 
et Christianas hujus doctrinae studio sunt ita dediti, ut ab 
eo nunquam divellantur. Hie enim est suavissimus 
animi cibug, quo sane tanta percipitur voluptas, quanta 
ne excogitari quidem potest." De Legato, libri duo, 
Octaviani Magii, &c., Venetiis, M.D.LXVI., 4to., p. 32. 

In writing this passage the author probably had 
in his mind the fine invocation of Cicero to Philo- 
sophy : " vitse Philosophia dux ! o virtutis in- 
dagatrix, expultrixque vitioruin !" &c. (TuscuL 
Disput., lib. v. 2). 

It was about the same time as the publication 
of the volume from which I have quoted, con- 
taining counsels of altogether impossible perfection 
for the education of an ambassador, that our own 
Sir Henry Wotton, when at Augsburg, wrote in 
an album that witty and celebrated definition, of 
which such clever use was afterwards made by 
Scioppius, into whose hands it fell : " Legatus est 

vir bonus peregre missus ad mentiendum reipub- 
licse causse." WILLIAM BATES, B.A. 


FAMAGOSTA (5 th S. x. 163, 255, 359.)-! 
admit COL. PRIDEAUX'S observation on my specu- 
lation as to Ammokhostos bearing a digamma. 
At the same time, although he is such a distin- 
guished Semitic scholar, I feel bound to resist his 
appropriation of Ammokhostos, Amathus, and 
Salamis as Phoenician, in the sense of Semitic. If 
he will refer to any of the tables I have given in 
the Palestine Exploration Journal, in my Pre- 
historic Comparative Philology, and my Khita 
and Khita- Peruvian Epoch, he will find all these 
words. Salamis I give as the Salem and Shalem 
of the Bible, Salamis of Cyprus, Soluma of Lycia, 
Salamis of Greece, Salmone of Elis, Sulnio of 
Italy, Salamo of Guatemala. To these I now add, 
for the first time, a West African habitat in Solima, 
from a country I have lately determined as pos- 
sessing a group of the same class. 

Amathus is paralleled as Amathus in Laconia, 
Amathia in Macedonia, Madia in Colchis, Amida 
in Armenia, Amad in the Bible. Ammokhostos, 
however, finds its parallel in the Mokisos of Cap- 
padocia, Makistos of Elis, and Mokaz of the Bible. 
Ammokhostos and Amathus do not seem to be the 
same word. 

So far in reply to COL. PRIDEAUX ; but the 
purpose of these notes is to point out that Cyprus 
has a more ancient history than the epochs of the 
Phoenicians and the Greeks, and that these very 
names are a proof of it. The cities of Cyprus 
were named in the same way as the cities of Asia, 
Europe, America, and, I will add, Africa. 

Beyond the remarkable remains that have been 
already found in Cyprus, we may look for those of 
the type of Mycenae, and that Dr. Schliemann 
calls Troy, or even earlier. As to Phoenicia, we 
may take the testimony of the Bible that it was 
first Canaanite. It is, therefore, dangerous to 
assume that every name to be found in Phoenicia 
or Palestine was Semitic, although we are best 
acquainted with the Semitic epoch of Phoenician. 


CURIOUS COINCIDENCES (5 th S. x. 385, 502.) 
I made my story as concise as possible in order to 
save space in " N. & Q.," but I see that I made a 
mistake, for CLARRY is evidently not one of those 
people to whom the proverb, " A word to the 
wise," &c., can be said to apply. The whole of his 
elaborate note is founded on a misapprehension of 
what I said, and it contains a number of illogical 
conclusions (" probabilities " he calls them) 
which are based upon this misapprehension, 
and are consequently totally erroneous. People 
who quote from Mill's Logic should be careful 
to give some little evidence that they have 

5* S. XI. JAN. 11, 79.] 


derived profit from it, or, to use another proverl 
" People who live in glass houses should not thro 
stones." The Crystal Palace Bazaar was simpl 
the place of meeting ; neither of the sisters wishe 
to buy anything there, and having met outside i 
the street, they did not even go into it. So muc 
for CLARRY'S first probability,* and the others ar 
equally baseless and visionary. 

That this meeting of the sisters was curious 
still maintain. The one sister drove up from 
Sydenham Hill and alighted at the entrance of th 
Crystal Palace Bazaar. Before entering it fo 
the place appointed by her for the meeting wa 
inside, in the entrance hall, and not outside, o 
the pavement she looked up and down Oxfor 
Street, and saw her sister coming towards hei 
Her sister had no intention of going to the Bazaai 
and therefore, had either of them arrived on 
minute sooner or one minute later, the meetin 
would not have taken place. The sister from 
Ealing did, in fact, without having received th 
postcard, precisely what she would have done i 
she had received it, and if this is not curious I don' 
know what is. F. CHANCE. 

Sydenham Hill. 

A short time ago there was raised in you 
columns, under the heading " The Tide of Fate 
(I cannot find the reference at this moment), J 
question old as human speculation and observation 
Will the mathematical computation of chance 
explain all that passes under the name " coinci 
dence"? Without attempting to discuss this 
question, may I make a suggestion towards render 
ing it a little more determinable than it seems al 
present ? This is that a collection of facts should 
be made for the statistics of coincidences, classify- 
ing them, according to some rule, say of (1) time, 
(2) place, (3) person, (4) nature, (5) attendant cir- 
cumstances, and so. Some, and I suspect many, 
will be found to come under two or more of these 
heads at once, and mathematicians may compute 
how far the ratio of antecedent improbability 
would be increased by this circumstance. It is 
possible that some of your readers may have 
already made such a collection as I suggest. I am 
myself commencing one. The two following have 
come under my notice this week, and you may 
perhaps think them worth recording in "N. & Q." 
At the Board meeting of the Brecon and Merthyr 
Bailway last month, a serious and fatal accident 
to a train of the company, owing to a " wild run" 
down the incline at Tally bout on December 2, was 

* CLAERY seems to be of opinion that when one person 
wishes to meet another, and writes and names a place of 
meeting, the "probability" is that the two persons have 
before met, talked, and agreed upon the said place of 
meeting ; but my opinion is that in at least ninety-nine 
cases out of a hundred there would have been no previous 
meeting or agreement, and there most certainly was not 
in this case. 

reported. At the same meeting was also reported 
the death, within an hour and a half of the time of 

the accident, of one Thomas, who had been 

in receipt of an allowance of seven shillings a week 
from the company ever since the year 1 867, in con- 
sequence of injuries sustained by him in that year 
from an accident to a train at the very same spot 
and from the very same cause. 

In the Times of Dec. 11 will be found a para- 
graph describing a serious accident to Lord 
Chichester, his being pitched out of a waggonette 
on his head the day before at Falmer Station, 
near Lewes. It is added, "It is just about twelve 
months ago that Lord Chichester was thrown from 
his horse near the same spot." 

It has just been suggested to me that the months 
of November and December have proved par- 
ticularly fatal or dangerous to the royal family. 
I have not as yet attempted to verify this, further 
than the instances of the death of the Prince 
Consort in 1861, the illness of the Prince of Wales 
in 1871, and the death of the Princess Alice on 
the same day of the same month as her father. 

C. C. M. 

(5 th S. ix. 188, 297.) I have now procured a com- 
plete version of the rules of which I gave you a 
fragment in my original query : 

" Good Kules to be observed by the Servants 

of Hall. 

" If any one this rule doth break 
And cut more bread than he can eat, 
Shall to the box f one penny pay 
Or burnt in hand without delay. 
And he that 's rude or base, profane 
Or dares to take God's name in vain, 
Twice that sum shall be his doom 
If he transgress in this said room, 
Paid direct without resistance 
Or each one here shall lend assistance. 
And he that doth refuse to aid 
By him one penny shall be paid. 
Strangers exempted but one day, 
If longer they shall likewise pay." 
["he opening couplet is abrupt and rhymeless. I 
uspect we have here a version of the last century 
>ainted over a much older one, the task of such 
estoration being confided to the village signboard 
>ainter or some artist equally illiterate. 
P. P.'s forfeit list, for the transcription of which 
beg to thank him, though fuller, is in essentials 
ighly similar to mine. The two illustrate each 
ther in an interesting manner. 
I have been informed that a set of such rules is 
be found in the royal servants' hall at Windsor. 
ly informant believes these last to be as early as 
sixteenth century. Could GEN. PONSONBT, or 


t The box is affixed to the wall under the framed 
lies. " Take " would rhyme to " break/' but it weakens 
e force of the verse. 


[5 lh S. XL JAN. 11, '79. 

some other correspondent of yours with like faci- 
lities, kindly say if this be so ? 

Beyond question, these servants' hall forfeits 
throw a side light on those of the barbers' shops 
mentioned in Measure for Measure (Act v. sc. 1) : 
" Stand like the forfeits in a barber's shop, 

As much in mock as mark." 

And they help to support the conviction that 
though the rhymed list propounded by Kenrick * 
may have been doctored and edited, yet it was 
probably founded on a genuine prototype. Ken- 
rick's barber's forfeits were stated to have been 
seen near Northallerton, in Yorkshire. Moorf saw 
a similar list in a barber's at Alderton, in Suffolk, 
in which he remembers that some of the lines in 
Kenrick's version occurred. Can any of your 
readers refer me to another list of such forfeits ? 


DESCRIPTIO" (5 th S. x. 428, 455, 477.) I have 
now before me, bound in an octavo volume, this 
Latin poem and another, entitled Muscipula, sive 
Kambromyomachia, both printed in 1709. The his- 
tory of these facetious productions, so far as I can 
make out from internal evidence, is that Musci- 
pula, or the Mouse-trap, was written by E. Holds- 
worth, and addressed to Robert Lloyd, a Welsh 
gentleman, whom he calls his " dear School-fellow." 
In the poem the invention of the mouse- trap is 
celebrated as the grandest discovery of Wales. 
Choirochorographia is a " retort courteous " to the 
Muscipula, giving a playful description of Hamp- 
shire, the native county of Holds worth, under the 
name of " Hogland," and alluding to the invention 
of sausages or hog's-puddings as the great dis- 
covery of Hampshire. 

In Nichols's Literary Anecdotes, vol. iii. p. 67, 
the Muscipula is mentioned as " a poem which is 
esteemed a masterpiece of its kind, written with 
the purity of Virgil, whom the author so perfectly 
understood, and with the pleasantry of Lucian." 

I possess two translations of the Mouse-trap int 
English, one by Samuel Cobb, M.A., late of 
Trinity College, Cambridge, the other by "a 
Gentleman of Oxford." 

E. Holdsworth was son of the Rector of North 
Stoneham, Southampton, the rectory now possessec 
by the Rev. Canon Beadon, whose centenarianism 
does not appear to be doubted even by the late 
editor of " N. & Q." A. B. MIDDLETON. 

The Close, Salisbury. 

* Quoted at length in Nares, ed. Wright and Halli 
well, Ib76. 

j See Dyce's Shakspeare Glossary, whence T take th 
reference to Moor, Suffolk Words, &c., 1823, p. 133 
Dyce partly believed iii Kenrick's list. Steevens pro 
nounced it a forgery, and certainly many of the expres 
sions are suspicious. Fuller (Holy State), 1642, als 
mentions these barbers' forfeits. The passage is quote 
ante, 5 th S. vii. 489. 

i. 354, 452 ; xii. 15, 95 ; 5 th S. x. 253, 522.) 
'rof. Huxley, in a recent lecture, erred as to 
*aley when he ventured to say that the latters 
rgument was not " founded on fact," since the 
and (on which he was lecturing) grew. Paley's 
act is not manufacture or growth, but design, 
r hich would be the same whether the watch had 

growed " (like Topsy) or been made. To Paley 
esign or chance were the only alternatives ; he 
ejects as irrational " possible combinations of 
laterial forms," " a principle of order," " result of 
aws," and, what is most striking, he even antici- 
>ates the professor's objection of growth (Nat. 
Theol., c. ii.). If the watch had the power of 
eproduction, as a living body has, the argument 
f design would only be strengthened, and it 
would apply to the generated thing as well as to 
he manufactured one. W. F. HOBSON. 


The argument from design, of which the watch 
s the best illustration, is as old, if not as Adam, 
it least as the first fool who said in his heart, and 
nade public his discovery, that there is no God. 
There is a passage from one of Lord Macaulay's 
essays, quoted by Dr. Newman in his Lectures on 
University Subjects, which puts this very forcibly. 
Macaulay says : 

"As respects natural religion, it is not easy to see 
that the philosopher of the present day is more favour- 
ably situated than Thales or Simonides. He has before 
him just the same evidences of design in the structure 

of the universe which the early Greeks had The 

reasoning by which Socrates, in Xenophon's hearing, 
confuted the little atheist Aristodemus is exactly the 
reasoning in Paley's Natural Tkeology. Socrates makes 
precisely the same use of the statues of Polycletus and 
the pictures of Zeuxis which Paley makes of the watch." 

The Temple. 

BOSTON SOUNDED "BAWSTON" (5 th S. x. 338, 
357, 377, 526.) R. R. is quite right as to the 
pronunciation of Boston, and X. P. D. and MR. 
WALTER WHITE are quite wrong. The last, if I 
do not mistake, made peregrinations in various 
parts of England beside the one to which he 
alludes, and in giving examples of the pronuncia- 
tion of Lincolnshire must surely have picked up a 
note-book relating to Lancashire. Man and boy I 
have lived in Lincolnshire (my native county) 
nearly sixty years, and never in my life have I 
heard the expression, " Wen't ye keam in ? " No, 
MR. WHITE, it would undoubtedly be, " Wean't y' 
cum in ? " " Noa cheatin' this time." " A weant 
tak nowt for it," &c. " Oi," " Oy," " loiar " (for 
liar), or " lags " (for legs) do not belong to Lin- 
colnshire. Neither let MR. WHITE pin his faith 
too strongly upon the Laureate's Northern Farmer 
as illustrating Lincolnshire (least of all North 
Lincolnshire) pronunciation. Mr. Tennyson's- 

5* S. XI. JAN. 11, '79.] 



long residence in the South seems to have inter- 
fered with his recollection of, what I agree with 
R. R. in terming, our broad but manly pronuncia- 
tion. W. E. H. 
North Lincolnshire. 

CENTENARIANS (5 th S. x. 406.) The translation 
of the A. V. in Ecclus. xix. (cor. xviii. 9) does not 
accurately represent the language of the original : 
'Apt#//,os rjfj-epiov avdpia-rrov TroAAa errj eKarov, 
so fur as the rendering of TroAAa by "at the 
most." It is certainly in accordance ' with the 
Vulgate " ut multum centum anni " ; but this is 
not followed by all the subsequent versions. 
Coverdale has, " Yf the nornbre of a mans dayes 
be allmost an hundreth yeare, it is moch." The 
Bishops' Bible adds a clause, and has, " If the 
number of a mans dayes be almost an hundred 
yeeres, it is much : and no man hath certaine 
knowledge of his death." The Geneva Bible has 
the same. The A. V. represents the Vulgate. But 
the more literal version is, " The number of man's 
days is many hundred years," taking " man's " 
collectively. The word " man " is so taken in 
v. 8, " What is man " ; but while it is exactly the 
same in the Greek, it is changed to " a man," 
individually, in A. V., v. 9. In the collective 
sense it would mean, comparing the many centuries 
of man's life on earth, what is this space of time to 
eternity 1 And this agrees with v. 10, where again 
there is^ a^ variety of rendering. The Greek is 
oimos 6\iya erir] ei/ i^epcc. aiwvos, which the 
Vulgate translates, " Sic exigui anni in die eevi." 
Here also Coverdale has, " So are these few yeares 
to the dayes euerlastinge ; ' ; and the Bishops' and 
the Genevan versions are the same, only the 
Bishops' Bible inserts "of" before " euerlasting." 
The A. V., however, has here, " So are a thousand 
years to the days of eternity," a translation derived 
from the substitution of >(iA.ta for oAiya. This is 
so in the version in the Complutensian Polyglot. 
But it is oXiya in the Oxford edition of the 
Septuagint, from the MS. Vat., with no notice of 
any variation in MS. Alex. It would seem that 
the writer of Ecclesiasticus is dealing with the 
general comparison of time and eternity, without 
assigning a definite limit to the extreme period of 
man's life, as it is in A. V. Cf. 2 Pet. iii. 8. 


CAJODUNUM (5 th S. x. 498.) MRS. EVERETT 
GREEN asks, " What place is meant by ' Caio- 
duui'1" The answer will be found in Orbis 
latinus, oder Verzeichniss der lateinischen Benen- 
nungen der bekanntisten Stadte, &c., by J. G. Th. 
Graesse, Dresden, 8vo., 1861 : " Cajodunum, 
Kieydany, St[adt] in Polen." 


WILLIAM THE "MAMZER" (5 th S. x. 430.) 
Mamzer is a word occurring twice in the Hebrew 

Scriptures, namely, Deut. xxiii. 2 (in A. V., 
xxiii. 3) and Zech. ix. 6, and is rendered in the 
Authorized Version " bastard." In the Talmud 
the word is interpreted as comprising those only 
born of adultery or incest. The root of the word 
is probably cognate with the Arab, madara, u to be 
foul." Cp. Gesenius (eighth ed., 1878). 

Would your correspondent be kind enough to 
cite passages where William I. is styled "mamzer"? 


The Hebrew word iinra (mamzer), in the English 
translation of the Bible rendered "bastard," was 
child of an Israelite and a heathen, or of parents 
within the forbidden degrees of affinity, and is 
also used as denoting one of an alien race. 

B. B. 

For explanation of this word see Sir Francis 
Palgrave's Normandy and England. I have not 
the book at hand, so cannot give the exact refer- 
ence. K. P. D. E. 

x. 460.) Probably the book for which TOWNLEY 
asks is Christianity without the Cross a Corrup- 
tion of the Gospel of Christ, a sermon preached 
before the University of Oxford on Septuagesima 
Sunday, 1875, by the Rev. E. B. Pusey, D.D., &c. 
(J. Parker & Co., Oxford and London). 


The Temple. 

496.) He does not appear to have taken any 
degrees. In the Medical Directory for 1857 he is 
entered simply as having become a member of the 
Royal College of Surgeons, England, in 1834 ; 
and in the obituary for the year 1859 he is stated 
to have died at Houghton-le-Spring, Durham, 
Nov. 27, 1857. JAYDEE. 

443.) The suggestion of ANGLO-SCOTUS that the 
prefix to Patrick in this name may mean " servant 
or disciple " is not far wrong. Although I know 
also nothing of Celtic, I think I may say he will 
find that this prefix is the local form (Cumbrian ?) 
of Gwas, from which word as it was in Gallo- Celtic, 
through French, we have the derivatives Vassal and 
Vavasour. Gwas is repeated in the latter word, 
which as more anciently spelt Vasvasor makes its 
meaning evident, i. e. the vassal of a vassal. The 
idea of Sir Henry Spelman and others that this 
word was originally Valvasor, a doorkeeper, is 
erroneous, though this spelling of it may be found 
in Du Cange. 

The Earl Gospatric, whose tombstone inscribed 
with his name only is in Durham Cathedral, was 
not the first of his name in his family, for he and 
the son of the thane Arkill were doubtless named 



[5' h S. XL JAN, 11, '79. 

after their relative Gospatric, who was slain at 
York on the fourth night of Christmas, 1065 
(cf. "N. & Q.,"5 th S. Hi. 131). 

I may here note that Mr. Freeman (Hist. Nor- 
man Conquest) is certainly mistaken in supposing 
the Gospatric* of the Domesday Book, Yorkshire, 
to have been the earl, whereas there are many cir- 
cumstances which all but prove this was the son of 
Arkill. He was lord of Masham, &c., and his 
neighbour of Middleham, in the same dale, bore 
curiously the Gaelic equivalent (?) of his name 
Ghilepatric. Other names, which more frequently 
occur in the Lowlands of Scotland afterwards, are 
to be found in Yorkshire at this date (1086). For 
example, Crinan, Maldred, Malcolum, Ghilebride, 
Ghilander, among others. A. S. ELLIS. 


For other instances of its occurrence see the 
Newminster Cartulary, Surtees Series, vol. Ixvi., 
pp. xi, 117, 185, 268, 269, 297. J. T. F. 

Bp. Hatfield's Hall, Durham. 

ANTIQUITY OF THE WHIP-TOP (5 th S. x. 427.) 
May I found a query on this note ? I have no 
doubt the Elizabethan Prayer Book and its initial 
letters are interesting ; but that proves not the 
antiquity of the whip-top. My question is, When 
was there a time when youth had not this toy ? 

In the seventh book of the jflneid of Virgil, 
11. 378-384, the wildness of the Latian Queen 
Amata, roused to fury by Juno and Alecto, is 
compared with the gyrations of a top lashed by a 
circle of boys in a paved court : 

" Ceu quondam torto volitans sub verbere turbo, 
Quern pueri magno in gyro, vacua atria circum 
Intenti ludo exercent. Ille actus habena 
Curvatis fertur spatiis : stupet inscia turba, 
Impubesque manus, mirata volubile buxum : 
Dant animos plagse." 

But the Greeks had /3efj.[3t,g and po//,/3o9 ; and 
perhaps MR. E. MARSHALL or some one else wil] 
point out the earliest use of these words, and 
whence they got the toy. My impression is that, 
had we the means of tracing it to its source, it 
would be found to be antediluvian. 

Long Wall, Oxford. 

In a mutilated and fragmentary window at 
Thornhill Church, near Dewsbury, is a representa- 
tion of a female holding a child on each arm, while 
two others are playing at her feet. One of them 
has a top spinning on the ground, and I think a 
whip raised in his right hand. The glass is of the 
latter part of the fifteenth century, and is supposec 
to represent the Blessed Virgin and St. Joseph 
our Saviour, and his foster brother St. James. 

y m Tf 

Bp. Hatfield's Hall, Durham. 

* Some account of him will be found in the Journa 
of Yorkshire Archceol. and Top. Assoc., vol. iv. p. 385. 

Your correspondent W. H. H. E. will find that 
he whip-top is many hundred years older than 
he reign of Queen Elizabeth, e.g., Horace, De 
Art. Poet., 379 : 

" Ludere qui nescit 

Indoctusque pilas discive trochive quiescit." 


For the origin of this popular game we must go 
>ack very many centuries before our Queen Eliza- 
eth. It was known both to the Greeks and 
Romans. A boy whipping a top often formed the 
ubject of the marginal paintings in early MSS. 
see Strutt's Sports and Pastimes). 


The following extract from the Gentleman's 
Magazine may be useful to W. S. : 

; Jobn Walker, a philological writer, was born at 
Priern Barnet, in Hertfordshire, in 1732. He went on 
ihe stage, whicb he quitted in 1767 to join Mr. Usher in 
a school at Kensington, but this partnership was dis- 
solved at the end of two years, and Mr. Walker becam* 
a lecturer in elocution. He published several works of 
reputation, the principal of which were A Rhyming Dic- 
tionary, 8vo. ; Elements of Elocution, 8vo. ; a Rhetorical 
Grammar, 8vo. ; a Critical Pronouncing Dictionary, 
4to. ; a Key to the Classical Pronunciation of Greek, 
Latin, and Scripture Proper Names, 8vo. He died in 


Bishopwearmouth, Durham. 

The Penny Cydojmdia gives a fair sketch of his 
early connexion with the stage and his subsequent 
work as a lecturer on elocution and an author. It 
states that he was born at Colneyhatch, in the 
parish of Friern-Barnet, Middlesex, March 18, 
1732, and after being brought up as a Presbyterian 
became a Roman Catholic, and was buried among 
his co-religionists in Old St. Pancras churchyard, 
London, having died August 1, 1807. 


448.) Mr. Walford in Old and New London 
states that York House stood near the water-side, 
on the spot now occupied by Price's Candle Fac- 
tory. Lysons speaks of York House as standing 
in his time, and that formerly it was the occasional 
residence of the archbishhps. Was not Watney's 
Distillery erected on the site of Bolingbrook House, 
where Pope is said to have composed his Essay on 

71, Brecknock Koad, N. 

SATIONS" (5 th S. x. 514.) I do not think that 
there is any one living better able than myself to 
answer the query of your correspondent MR. 
PICKFORD as to the authorship of the above work ; 
for I am the only surviving child of the Rev. 
William Wood, B.D., once student of Ch. Ch., 

5" S. XL JAK. 11, 79.] 



Oxford, afterwards Rector and Vicar of Fulham 
and Canon of St. Paul's, and at the time of hi 
decease, in 1841, Rector of Coulsdon, Surrey, anc 
Canon of Canterbury. I well remember as a chile 
copying out the first of his stories for him, ant 
oftentimes afterwards running in as I passed his 
study door to see how he was getting on, anc 
peeping over his shoulder to read the last para- 
graph before the ink was dry. His reason for 
adopting a nom de plume and inventing the fiction 
of the book's being published by the sons of the 
late "Dr. Warton" was, he told me, that he fearec 
his parishioners might be reluctant to send for him 
if they knew that there was " a chiel amang them 
taking notes." The work made, I believe, a great 
sensation at the time, and the late Rev. J. Keble 
was not the only leader of the Oxford schooJ 
who pronounced Death-bed Scenes the dawn of the 
Oxford movement. After my father's death my 
mother published a fresh edition with a life of the 
author prefixed to it, written at her request by 
one of his Oxford pupils, the Rev. John Russell, 
D.D., some time Head Master of the Charterhouse 
School, and at that date Rector of Bishopsgate and 
Canon of Canterbury. CHARLOTTE WOOD. 

PARISH DOCUMENTS (5 th S. x. 427, 527.) I sus- 
pect that a " cate " is connected with the French 
acheter, to purchase, and that when notice was 
given of the owner's intention to sell to a stranger 
any one of the next of kin might assert a prior 
right to buy at the same price. G. 0. E. 

THE PARISH BULL (5 th S. x. 248, 354 ; xi. 15.) 
The Mayor of Marlborough, in consideration 
of his finding a town bull, receives 8d. for every 
cow turned on a piece of land called ' the Port- 
field/ belonging to the Corporation." See Appendix 
(part i.) to the Report of the Commissioners on 
Municipa^ Corporations of England and Wales, 
1835, vol. i. p. 63. And among the items of ex- 
penditure by the Corporation of Nottingham, 
given in the same Reports (vol. ii. p. 1972), is the 
following : " Paid for the bull for the commons 
10." G. L. GOMME. ' 

Edwards, in his Collection of Old English Cus- 
toms and Curious Bequests and Charities. London 
1842, says : 

" From a copy of court roll of the manor of Isleworth 
Syon, dated 29th December, 1675, it appears that Thomas 
bole surrendered 4 a. Ir. of customary land lyin<" in 
several places in the fields of Twickenham, called" the 
Jansh Land, anciently belonging to the inhabitants of 
:kenham, for keeping a bull for the common use of 
tne inhabitants, in trust for the use of the said inhabitants 
lor keeping and maintaining a sufficient bull for the use 

iv ^ n i e , ntry in an 1{J churchwardens' ledger of the 

6th October 1622, states an agreement between the 

Vestry and Mr. Robert Bartlett, that he should hold 

the three acres and a half of the Parish Land with the 

Mead, paying the same rent to the parish as he 

formerly did, with the conditions that he, receiving a 
bull from the churchwardens for the common use of the 
parishioners, should keep the same at his own charge ; 
and if the bull should die, should provide another." 
Pp. 65-66. 


IONA (4 th S. iv. 325, 520; v. 75.) About 
680 A.D. Adamnan, ninth Abbot of Hy (lona), 
edited a Life of Columba. In the best MSS. of 
Adamnan and of other early writers, the Latinized 
form of Hy is loua, used as an adjective, agreeing 
with insula. loua becomes lona, first from a 
misreading of u for n, secondly from a fanciful 
connexion with I6ndh=do\e, the Hebrew equiva- 
lent of the name of Columba. Adamnan remarks that 
the saint's name was the same with the Heb. londh, 
with the Greek Trepicrrepa, and with the name of 
the prophet Jonah. The form in Adamnan proves 
that the a in lona cannot be a Norse suffix, repre- 
senting the Norse ey, island, as Mr. Taylor sup- 
poses in his Words and Places, p. 108 (ed. 1873). 
See interesting note in Robertson's Church History, 
vol. i. p. 556 ; also Strangford's Letters on Philo- 
logical Subjects, p. 188. A. L, MAYHEW. 

CAPT. JAMES KING (5 th S. x. 27, 75, 278.) The 
two James Kings mentioned by ABHBA were not 
related. The pedigree of the Master of the Cere- 
monies at Bath and Cheltenham runs thus : 

The Rev. Thos. King, M.A., Prebendary of 
Swords, co. Dublin (sixth son of James King, Esq., 
of Corrard and Gola, co. Fermanagh, by Nicholis 
Johnston his wife, v. Burke's Peerage, &c., s.v. 
1 King, Bart, of Corrard "), born in Fermanagh, 
1663 ; imprisoned by the Jacobite Government in 
1689 ; m. Elizabeth, dau. and heiress of John 
Bernard, Esq., of Drumin, co. Louth (and relict 
of the Rev. John Archdall, Vicar of Lusk, whose 
death, in 1690, was occasioned by the troubles of 
he period); he died Jan. 1, 1709, leaving issue by 
her (who d. Dec., 1731). Their eldest son- 
James King, D.D., Prebendary of Tipper, and 
Rector of St. Bride's, Dublin, the friend of Dean 
Swift and one of the executors of his will, d. 1759, 
eaving issue by his first wife, Margaret (who d. 
Aug. 19, 1748), four sons, the eldest of whom was 
Robert, LL.D., Dean of Kildare, and the second, 
Thomas King of Dublin, m. Nov. 10, 1748, Mary, 
dau. of Alderman John Adamson, of Dublin, and 
d. Oct., 1800, leaving issue by her (who d. Dec., 
1791), with two daurs. (Margaret, d. unm. 1782, 
ind Elizabeth), one son 

James King, a captain in the army, who distin- 
guished himself in the American War (v. The 
Original Bath Guide, by Meyler, Bath, 1841). He 
etired from the service, and, in 1786, was Master 
>f the Ceremonies at the Lower Rooms, Bath, and 
>eeame M.C., in 1811, at the Upper Assembly 
looms (v. The Bath Archives, Diaries and Letters 



|5 S. XI. JAN. 11, 79. 

of Sir Geo. Jackson, K.C.H., Lond., 1873, p. 302), 
and, as mentioned by ABHBA, was also M.C. at 
Cheltenham. He m. Aug. 18, 1794, Margaret, sister 
and heiress of Sir John Bulkeley, Knt., ofPresadd- 
fed, Bodedern, Anglesey ; she d. s.p. 1830. 

Mr. King d. Oct. 16, 1816, leaving no legitimate 
issue ; he was, however, father of a son, James 
King, who was educated for the army, and became 
a gallant soldier. Being adopted by Mrs. King, 
he succeeded to her estate of Presaddfed. In 1806 
he got his commissions as ensign and lieutenant, 
and in 1811 his captaincy in the Light Infantry. 
He served in the W. Indies, and at the capture of 
St. Domingo, in 1809, and was subsequently with 
the 87th Royal Irish Fusileers in the Peninsula. 
He was severely wounded in the leg at Vittoria in 
1813. Capt. King served the office of high sheriff 
for his county, and m. Mary Moullin, a Guernsey 
lady, who d. Aug. 5, 1873, aged seventy-seven. 
Her husband did not long survive her, as he died 
s.p., deeply regretted by all who knew him, on 
October 8 following, at the advanced age of eighty- 
six years. He never fully recovered the effects of 
a brutal assault made on him by one Thomas Kelly, 
a tramp, and doubtless the shock of the occurrence 
hastened the death of his wife. According to the 
report of Kelly's trial in the Times of Mar. 21, 
1873, "This man went into the kitchen of the 
house (of Presaddfed) at dusk on the 8th of Nov. 
last, while the three female servants were at tea. 
There was no man about the premises. The 
prisoner brandished a stone-breaker's hammer, and 
demanded to see Captain King. Being refused, he 
made his way into the room where Captain and 
Mrs. King^ were sitting. Captain King rose to 
ask his business, when he gave him a violent push. 
Captain King fell across the fender, fracturing one 
of his ribs. In consequence of his injuries he has 
been ill ever since, and was not even able to attend 
court." Kelly was sentenced to ten years' penal 
servitude : five years for the assault on Capt. King, 
and five for assaulting one of the maid-servants. 
Capt. King bequeathed his estate to the Stanleys 
of Alderley. C. S. K. 

Kensington, W. 

THE LATE W. G. CLARK (5 th S. x. 400, 407, 
438.) Mention is made at the earliest of the above 
references of the well-known excellence of the Greek 
and Latin verse composition by W. G. C. May I 
ask whether any specimens were printed beyond 
those in Sabrince Corolla? If A. J. M. would 
privcately favour me with the loan of any of the 
versions from In Memoriam or any of the Sales 
Attici to which he refers, I should be deeply in- 
debted to him. P. J. F. GANTILLON. 

5, Fauconberg Terrace, Cheltenham. 

YANKEE (5 th S. x. 467 ; xi. 18.) We use the 
word " Yankee " often, but how many of us have 

ever thought whence it was derived ? I should 
be glad to hear the opinion of your correspondents 
as to the following : The word "yanks" is always 
used in the east of Lincolnshire to describe the 
coarse, untanned leather gaiters worn by the 
country folk. There was a large exodus from this 
part of the country to America. Might' not, there- 
ifore, the word " Yankee " have been used to dis- 
tinguish those who wore these gaiters or " yanks," 
the incoming strangers, from the original in- 
habitants, who wore mocassins ? SALF. 

LATTON PRIORY (5 th S. x. 147, 298.)- The diffi- 
culty of your correspondents seems to lie in a con- 
fusion of the dedication (St. John Baptist) of a 
desecrated priory church with that (St. Mary the 
Virgin) of an adjacent secular or parish church, 
often so found, still surviving. This is evident 
from the extract itself, from the History of Essex, 
which MR. MARSHALL gives, 5 th S. x. 298. But 
he has too hastily concluded that the dedication, 
St. Mary, is " incorrectly " given in that book 
because Bacon's Liber Regis gives it as St. John B. 
It is more likely that Bacon is in error in imputing 
the dedication of the past priory to the surviving 
parish church. THOMAS KERSLAKE. 


S. vi. 484 ; vii. 9, 89, 131, 239, 290, 429, 459 ; 
viii. 53, 152 ; x. 470, 498, 516.) The Vicar of 
Leigh, near Manchester, the Rev. J. H. Stanning, 
is practically solving this important question. In 
The Leigh Parish Magazine for January, 1879, he 
has commenced to reprint his registers verbatim, 
and promises to go on with them until completed. 
The large number of parish magazines under the 
control of the clergy forms an admirable means of 
putting the registers out of the reach of loss or 
damage ; and it would be satisfactory to know 
that other clergymen are following the example of 
the Vicar of Leigh. The registers, which begin in 
1559-60, are of considerable interest ; and Mr. 
Stanning has it in view to issue his reprint sepa- 
rately. JOHN E. BAILEY. 

Stretford, Manchester. 

" How LORD NAIRN WAS SAVED " (5 th S. xi. 9.) 
The song of the men of Kenmure, which begins 

" Kenmure 's on and awa', Willie," 
was one of the favourite and most spirited of the 
Jacobite ballads of 1715. The fourth verse con- 
tains the line which Sir F. Doyle has used as a 
household or familiar expression : 

" For Kenmure's lads are men, Willie, 

For Kenmure's lads are men ; 
Their hearts and swords are mettle true, 
And that their faes shall ken." 

The entire song is to be found in all the collect! 
of Scotch ballads of 1715. EDWARD SOLLY. 

5'h s. XL JAN. 11, 79.] 



ELECTORAL FACTS (5 th S. ix. 446 ; x. 38.) The 
Imperial Poll Book, by James Acland, price three 
shillings, published by R. Clarke & Co., 51, Thread- 
needle Street, London, E.C., gives a list of the 
elections from 1832 to 1873, showing the politics 
of each candidate and the number of votes polled. 
There may very possibly be a supplement, bring- 
ing the work down to a later time than 1873. 

Some time since the House of Commons ordered 
a return to be prepared of the members of the 
House since the origin of the House in the thir- 
teenth century. The return was shortly before 
the close of the session presented " in dummy," 
and when completed will no doubt be issued 
during the recess. E. P. 

HOGMANAY CUSTOM (5 th S. ix. 46 ; x. 59, 277.) 
I have another version of the Scotch rhyme be- 
sides that given by MR. CARRIE, but cannot say to 
what part of the country it specially belongs, viz. : 
" Get up, guidwife, and shake your feathers ; 
Dinna think that we are beggars; 
We are wee weans come out to play, 
Rise up and gie's our Hogmanay." 

I find that this custom prevailed also in Cumber- 
land and in Northumberland. It is noticed in " An 
Essay on the Character, Manners, and Customs of 
the Peasantry of Cumberland," by Thomas Sander- 
son (1759-1829), in The Poetical Works of Robert 
Anderson, vol. i., Carlisle, 1820, from which essay 
the following is extracted : 

" In some parts of Cumberland a number of boys and 
girls, on the eve of New Year's Day, go about from house 
to house singing a sort of carol, of which the following 
lines are the first couplet : 
' Hagnuna, Trolola, 
Give us some pie, and let us go away.' 
When they receive their present of pie, they depart 
peaceably, wishing the donor a happy new year. In 
]N orthumberland the first word in the couplet is Hagmena, 
which some derive from the two Greek words agia mene, 
signifying the holy month. 

" The custom is not unknown in Scotland. Some years 
ago one of her ministers endeavoured to abolish it by 
censuring it from the pulpit : ' Sirs ' (said he to his 
audience), ' do you know what Hogmane signifies 1 It is, 
the devil be in the house ! that is the meaning of its 
Hebrew original.' Our little strolling Cumbrian boys 
and girls will not, I think, be persuaded that any part of 
their begging song conveys an imprecation on the houses 
which they visit." P. Iviii. 


BALCSNY OR BALCONY (3 rd S. ix. 303, 380, 519 ; 
5 th S. x. 299.) Rogers, I remember, says some- 
where that to hear any one say balctfny " made 
him sick." No doubt balcony is right ; but the 
word, like senator, orator, and others, has followed 
the usual English practice in throwing back its 
accent as far as possible, and I suppose it would 
now be " vulgar " to say balcony. Even among 
the cultivated classes language is not the same in 
the mouths of the old and of the young ; and the 
differences are forgotten if they be not noted at the 

time. I myself have known an old gentleman who 
still said Room for Rome, and an old lady who 
said insteed for instead, and another old lady 
who said bewrial for burial, and another who said 
breekfast for breakfast. This last, however, is 
matter of local usage in the North, where, I think, 
ea is always pronounced ee. Thus, in a menagerie 
the other day, as I stood before a cage of brown 
bears, a young man came up to me and said, with 
solemn countenance, "Is them beers?" 

A. J. M. 

Byron makes it short in Marino Faliero : 

" On the balcony 
Of the red columns." 

T. Moore, however, follows the Italian, which 
has always seemed the more musical to me : 
" To climb yon light balcony's height." 


(5 th S. x. 468.) Late in 1660, or early in 1661, 
Killigrew brought forward a lady to play Desde- 
mona, and very shortly after Sir William Davenant 
followed his rival's example. In my little book, 
just published, entitled The Poets Laureate of 
England, at p. 74, et seq., will be found " A Pro- 
logue to introduce the first Woman," &c., and an ' 
extract from the Royal Letters Patent, granted in 
1662, which sanction the innovation. 


BADGES (5 th S. ix. 107, 128) : HERALDIC (5 th S. 
ix. 206.) May I be allowed to draw MR. J. R, 
BLANCHE'S attention to the above unanswered 
queries, and to crave his kind assistance ? 


AUTHORS OF BOOKS WANTED (5 th S. x. 516.) 
Ode to Thos. Percy, &c., fol., Edin., 1804, was by Miss 
Jessy Stewart, of Edinburgh. J. O. 

xi. 9.) 

" I have culled a nosegay," &c. 

This quotation, said to be from Montesquieu, is, with 
a slight difference, prefixed to Familiar Quotations, by 
John Bartlett, who credits (and he is very accurate) 
Montaigne with the flowery metaphor. 



A History of England from the Conclusion of the Great- 
War in 1815. By Spencer Walpole. 2 vols. (Long- 

To treat satisfactorily of such very recent history as that 
which forms the subject of Mr. Walpole's interesting- 
volumes, it is necessary, in our judgment, that the his- 
torian should constantly keep before his reader the 
political and social conditions which preceded the period 
of which he is actually writing. And it is no less 
necessary that such a writer should have breadth of 
sympathy, that he should shut himself up in no narrow 
groove, and that he should be able to tell dispassionately 



[5th s. XI. JAN. 11, '79. 

the story of hotly controverted deeds, without rousing 
the smouldering ashes of party strife. These qualifications 
we are glad to find well represented in Mr. bpencer 
Walpole, and they ought to win for his new work a wide 
circle of thoughtful readers. We cannot, indeed, go so 
far with Mr. Walpole as he would fain have us when 
he says that "no other period of English history is of 
greater interest to the historical student." For without 
those earlier periods, of no less interest to the con- 
stitutional, political, and social historian, during which 
mediaeval England was struggling to obtain its Great 
Charter, and then to maintain the rights of. which 
recognition had been so hardly won, it would be difficult 
to see what story Mr. Walpole would have had to tell 
other than that of the dead level of Oriental despotism. 
The author's sympathies are clearly with liberty and 
progress. He is no drum and fife historian, though he 
tells, with all due point, the story of the wars which 
enter within the limits of his period. He appreciates at 
their true value Hargreaves and Jennings, Arkwright and 
Brindley, yet without depreciating Wellington. The 
temptation to be one-sided in the estimate of what we 
owe as a nation, at one time to the arts of peace, at an- 
other to those of war, is so great that this merit of Mr. 
Walpole deserves to be brought out in strong relief. And 
to an epigrammatic writer, such as Mr. Walpole un- 
doubtedly proves himself, the temptation is likely to be 
all the greater. Those who consult his pages will find in 
them many a picture that will dwell upon the memory in 
after-days of the Minister of whom, when he was struck 
down, men recollected that " with all his tact and all his 
conciliatory manners he had lived and died without a 
policy," and of that other Minister, of widely different 
fame, who "called the New World into existence to 
redress the balance of the Old." We believe that his 
readers will be grateful to Mr. Spencer Walpole for pro- 
viding them with so graphic and faithful a survey not 
only of English but also of European history, from the 
close of the Peninsular War to the passing of the Reform 

English Dialect Society, Series C. VIII. A Glossary 
of Words and Pkrases pertaining to the Dialect of 
Cumberland. By William Dickinson, F.L.S. 
English Dialect Society, Series D. Five Hundred Pointes 
of Good Husbandrie. By Thomas Tusser. Edited 
with Introduction, Notes, and Glossary, by W. Payne 
Esq., and Sidney F. Herrtage, Esq., B.A. (English 
Dialect Society.) 

WE take shame to ourselves for having unintentionally 
allowed these two interesting contributions to English 
philology and our early literature to remain so long with- 
out that notice and commendation at our hands which 
they so well deserve. Besides the ordinary Glossary o 
Cumberland Words in Mr. Dickinson's volume, there are 
two lists of special interest to students of folk-lore; the 
first is a list of place names, and the second and more 
important, a list of plant names which must deligh 
MR. BKITTEN, whose contributions to our columns on 
the subject have made his name familiar to all our 
readers. But the edition of Tusser's Five Hundred 
Pointes of Good Husbandrie, commenced by Mr. Payne 
and completed by Mr. Herrtage, has an interest far be 
yond the circle of the Dialect Society; for rich am 
important as the works are for the large number o 
dialectic words and forms to be found in them, they are 
no less interesting and important for the pictures the; 
furnish of the customs and life of our ancestors at the 
period when they were written. We speak of them a 
works, for the volume before us contains not only a re 
print of the 1580 edition of the Five Hundred Pointes 
collated with the editions of 1573 and 1577, but also a 

eprint from the unique copy in the British Museum of 
A Hundreth Good Pointes of Husbandrie, 1557, with a 
arge amount of valuable notes and illustrations and 
los&ary. Among the many volumes issued by the various 
jublishing societies during the past few years, it would 
>e difficult to find one more creditable to all concerned 
n its production than the English Dialect Society's 
dition of Thomas Tusser's old English classic. 

AT the Eoyal Society of Literature, on the 9th inst., 
Mr. C. H. E. Carmichael, M.A.,read a paper on "Rubens 
and the Antwerp Art Congress," in which he gave some 
account of the Centenary Festival in its Literary and 
Artistic aspects. 

DR. JOHN S. BILLINGS, Surg., U.S.A., in charge of the 
National Medical Library at Washington, is now ready 

o print his great National Catalogue of Medical Litera- 

ure as soon as Congress grants an appropriation for the 
purpose. There will be indexed under subjects, and by 
authors, books, pamphlets, and original papers in nearly 
all the medical periodicals of the world, including over 

tOO,000 subject entries, and making ten volumes, royal 

3vo., of 1,000 pages each. 

to C0rre0j)0nfleut*. 

We must call special attention to the following notice: 

ON all communications should be written the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

F. V. GOUGH ("Perish India "). What Mr. Freeman 
said was this, according to his own account (see Daily 
News, 21st ult.) : " Perish the interests of England, 
perish our dominion in India, rather than we should 
strike one blow or speak one word in behalf of the wrong 
against the right ! " 

J. W. A. Accounts vary; some affirming that the 
doors were riddled by the stray shots fired by those 
employed formerly to kill the pigeons ; others, that an, 
encounter with burglars once took place in front of the 
church, when fire arms were used. 

M. M. B. (" The Regicides ") could not do better than 
consult the first four general indexes to " N. & Q.," and 
those appended to each volume of our present series, 
under the respective names. 

J. R. B. It has escaped your memory that you have 
already sent Theodore Hook's letter, with the com- 
mentary on it by Dean Hook. See " N. & Q.," 5 th 
S. iv. 485. 

J. S. S. desires to obtain St. Augustine's Commentary 
on the Sermon on the Mount, in Latin, apart from the 
Collected Wo>ks. 

D. S. H. (" Though lost to sight.") See . & Q.," 
1 S. iv. 405; 3 rd S. vi. 129 ; viii. 290 ; 4th g. i. 77, 161; 
vii. 56, 173, 244, 332 ; xii. 156, 217; 5* S. x. 417. 

ST. MARGARET. Anticipated. See ante, p. 19. 

take to answer queries privately. 

ERRATUM. 5 th S. x. 516, col. i. 1. 8 from bottom : for 
1861 read 1866. 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to " The 
Editor of ' Notes and Queries ' "Advertisements and 
Business Letters to "The Publisher "at the Office, 20, 
Wellington Street, Strand, London, W.C. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print ; and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 


i> S. XL JAN. 18, 79.] 





NOTES : The Birmingham Free Library The Rev. Thomas 
Brancker/M.A., 41 "The Spirit of Despotism, 1 by Vice- 
simus Knox, D.D. Folk-lore : Rubbing with a Dead Hand, 
43-The Isle of Wight-The French Oath "Tudieu," 44- 
Shelley Obituary Verses Superstition in Shropshire 
Ancieut Statutes An Irish Centenarian Remarkable Lon- 
gevity, 45" Blooming," 46. 

QUERIES: Thomas Otway " And sayest thou, Cara?" 48 
The Ministerial Dinner at Greenwich Delaune's "Present 
State of London "Tapestry formerly at Whitehall" The 
pilot that weathered the storm " "Genius is the fusion of 
passion," *c., 47 Old Games " Cuck," &c. Kow or Kowe 
Samosatenians " Akimbo "Altar Wine Inscription in 
Fearn Churchyard John Marsh Wright the Conspirator- 
Silver Medal, 1*04, 48 -St. Bernard's Dying Song Legendary 
Origin of British Towns-Mint Pasty: Primrose Pasty- 
Tennyson Numismatic Catalogue of Irish Maps Hiero- 
glyphic Writing Authors Wanted, <tc., 49. 

EEPLIES : "Paradise Lost "Lady Anne Hamilton and the 
" Secret History," 50 Tokens for the Sacrament "Hugue- 
not," 51 Major Andre The First to enter a House on 
Christmas Morning Vandunk : Claret " The Lass of Rich- 
mond Hill," 52 The Protestant Flail Bell Inscription 
"Lay of the Last Minstrel" Raleigh's Cross Society of 
Chiffonniers Brass Trays, 53 Bedfordshire Proverbs Cle- 
Teland Folk-lore Length of a Generation Willoughby of 
Parham, 54 Kennet Wharf Is Suicide peculiar to Man ? 
"Suisses" ''Bawston" W. G. Clark "Embezzle" Will- 
o'-the-wisp " Pool " Balcony" Fussock " " Raining cats 
and dogs" Alley Family An Atlas -Watch-case Verses- 
Local Weights and Measures The "metropolitan" cathedral, 
66 " Dunce" : "Clerk" "Hudibrs ""Gat" Rete Cor- 
vil St Dionis Backchurch Invitations on Playing-cards 
H. Andrews Dr. S. Musgrave Christmas Cheer, 57 
Ridley Family American Clergy The Sheriffs The Sun- 
flowerThe Public Libraries of Europe Christian Names 
Tennyson and Cromwell, &c., 58. 

IfOTKS UN BOOKS: "The Luciads of Camoens " " Old 
and New London" "The Magazine of American History." 


What lover of literature who that delights in 
the study of the master spirits of all times, which 
is, to use a phrase of Milton's, " the right path of 
a noble and virtuous education " but must have 
read, with a poignancy more akin to that occa- 
sioned by a private sorrow than a public calamity, 
that the magnificent collection of books which the 
public spirit, intelligence, and liberality of the 
men of Birmingham had assembled in their noble 
Free Library, in order to promote the intellectual 
and social progress of their fellow citizens, had 
been totally consumed by fire ? 

The Reference Library is utterly destroyed. 
What was the extent of the library at this time I 
do not know, but a catalogue of it, published about 
ten years ago, contains the titles of about seven- 
teen thousand different books many of these 
books consisting of many volumes, such as Chal- 
mers's Biographical Dictionary, in thirty-two 
volumes, the French Biographie Universelle, and 
the Gentleman's Magazine, in upwards of two 
hundred volumes. 

The collections illustrative of Warwickshire, 
including the remarkable Staunton Collection, 
purchased recently for 3,000?., and enriched by the 

gift of many rare and privately printed works of 
which no second copy is known to exist, have like- 
wise perished. 

And last, and most of all perhaps to be regretted, 
the Shakespeare Memorial Library, founded on 
the proposal of Mr. Samuel Timmins, which was 
as rich as the Staunton Collection in rare and 
unique works, and of which a most valuable cata- 
logue has been prepared by Mr. Mullins, this, 
too, is destroyed. I have before me three out of 
the five parts of which this catalogue is to consist, 
and in these three divisions Mr. Mullins has de- 
scribed no less than 6,226 different works in con- 
nexion with the life and writings of Shakespeare. 

The destruction of the Reference Library is a 
loss to Birmingham alone, and it may be left to 
the public spirit and good feeling of the people of 
Birmingham to take the necessary steps for rein- 
stating it ; though I cannot resist expressing my 
opinion that it would be a graceful act on the part 
of the many literary and scientific publishing 
societies and institutions if they were to replace 
such of their works as have perished in this un- 
happy conflagration. 

But the loss of the Shakespeare Memorial 
Library is a loss not to Birmingham only, but to 
all students of Shakespeare. A central library, 
where everything that has been printed in con- 
nexion with the poet whom all delight to honour 
may be consulted, either directly or through some 
friendly man of letters in its neighbourhood, is an 
institution which ought to be perpetuated. 

I am sure there are few students of Shakespeare 
but would be pleased to contribute two or three 
volumes from their own Shakespeare collection 
to establish a memorial library worthy of his 
genius ; and I venture to hope that the Editor of 
" N. & Q." will kindly give insertion to this appeal, 
and that so published it will be responded to by 
many who will gladly follow the example which 
in this respect the writer proposes to set them in a 
small way, although he is only 



On rearranging my collection of quartos lately 
I came across a work by the above writer thus 
entitled : 

" An Introduction to Algebra, Translated out of the 
High-Dutch into English, By Thomas Brancker. M.A. 
Much Altered and Augmented by D. P. Also a Table of 
Odd Numbers less than One Hundred Thousand, shewing 
Those that are Incompoait, And Resolving the rest into 
their Factors or Coefficients, &c. Supputated by the 
same Tho. Brancker. London, Printed by W. G. for 
Moses Pitt at the White-Hart in Little Britain. 1668." 
4to. pp. viii, 198, 50 ; plates. 

From the translator's preface we learn that the 
original of this work was published at Frankfort, 
in Germany, 1659, 4to., in High Dutch, being the 


[5th S . XI. JAN. 18, 79. 

Algebra of Khonius. A friend, one Mr. F. T., in 
1662 gave Brancker a copy of the German work, 
telling him that he much desired to read it in some 
language that he understood, whereupon Brancker 
promised " to English it." It was prepared and 
licensed May 18, 1665. A little while later 
Brancker heard that there was then in London " a 
person of note, very worthy to be made acquainted 
with my design." He is called in the margin 
" D. J. P.," i.e. Dr. John Pell, an able English 
mathematician, 1610-1685. This is the person 
who is, in consequence of the help which followed 
an introduction, named on Brancker's title-page. 
Pell's additions begin at p. 100, and extend to the 
end. The preface is dated April 22, 1668, from 
White-gate, in Edisbury Hundred, Cheshire. John 
Collins the mathematician was instrumental in 
furthering this book. (See Biog. Brit., pt. ii. 
vol. vii. p. 33 and note C. ; and another note, 
G. in vol. v. of the same work, p. 3315, on the 
intercourse of Pell and Brancker.) 

The best notice I can find of Brancker is in 
Anthony Wood (Athen. Oxon., iii. 1086-7). His 
father, of the same name, was B.A. of Exeter 
College, Oxon ; and Wood says that the son was 
"born in Devonshire," and admitted battler of 
Exeter College, Nov. 8, 1652, aged seventeen years 
or thereabouts. The locality and age are rather 
vague ; but, according to Carlisle's Endowed 
Schools, i. 242, there was a Thomas Branker who 
was the master of Barnstaple Grammar School 
about the year 1630, and he seems to be the elder 
Brancker. We meet with the same person, called 
" a very laborious and learned schoolmaster, in the 
neighbourhood" of Lymington, near Ilchester, 
Somersetshire, who had under his care John 
Conant the divine, whose uncle of the same name, 
the member of the Assembly of Divines, was 
Rector of Lymington. As the former Conant went 
to Exeter College, Oxford, in 1626, Brancker must 
have been schoolmaster near Ilchester before goin 
to Barnstaple. Furnished with these dates an 
facts, Mr. Wainwright of Barnstaple has been good 
enough to search out the following entry from, the 
parish register of that town, under date of August, 
1633 : 

" Thomas the sonne of Mr. Thomas Branker schole- 
master of the High Schole was bapt. the 25 th day arm 

We thus get a more precise date of birth than a 
Wood gives. The latter further informs us that 
Brancker was B.A. June 15, 1655, and was elected 
Fellow of his college five days after. He was one 
of many well-known pupils of the chemist and 
Rosicrucian, Peter Sthael of Strasburg, whom 
Robert Boyle had introduced into the university. 
Under this teacher Brancker developed his genius 
in the chemical and mathematical sciences. An- 
thony Wood was a fellow student ; but he resisted 
the charms of those pursuits, his mind being bent 

on antiquities and music. Brancker, having taken 
lis master's degree, April 22, 1658, became a 
Dreacher ; but not caring to conform in 1662, he 
-esigned his fellowship, and retired into Cheshire. 
There, however, he conformed ; and after ordina- 
;ion he became " minister " at Whitegate. It does 
not appear that he was vicar of that parish. In 
3rmerod's list there are no vicars nairied between. 
Devereux Frogg, instituted Oct. 5, 1643, and 
John Parker, instituted about 1687 (vol. ii. 146, 
new ed.). While at Whitegate Brancker " for his 
sufficiencies in mathematics and chyraistry" be- 
came intimate with William, Lord Brereton, who 
presented him to the Rectory of Tilston, near 
Malpas, aud who had been one of Dr. Pell's pupils 
at Breda. The present rector of Tilston, in 
whom I recognized a schoolfellow of former days, 
bas most obligingly copied for me from the register 
the following extract bearing upon Brancker : 

' Mem. That Thomas Brancker M r of Arts was ad- 
mitted into this Rectory of Tilston whereunto he had 
been instituted by y e most Reverend Richd. [Sterne] 
ArchBp of York in y e vacancy of y e See of Chester [by 
the death of Bishop Hall] at y e Presentation of y e right 
Honble William Lord Brereton, Sep. llth, 1668, 
By Rowland Sherrard, 

Rector of Tarporley. 

In presence of Francis Wright, Edwd Wright, Joha 
Catteral, Randle Turner Jun r , Tho. Ball. 

John Bennion \ Church- 
Thomas Hanley j wardens." 

Brancker did not long keep Tilston Rectory, 
for in 1668 he was succeeded by Samuel Catherall, 
A.M., Oct. 15 (Ormerod, old ed., ii. 383). Brancker 
left Tilston to become master of "the well en- 
dowed school at Macclesfield," where at an early 
age he died, Nov. 26, 1676, after a brief illness. 
A monument was set up to his memory in the 
church perpetuating his accomplishments : 

" He was well skilled in the sacred and other lan- 
guages; a lover and ornament of natural philosophy, 
mathematics, and chemistry, which he pursued with 
reputation under the auspices of the Hon. Sir Robert 
Boyle. The sanctity of his life was only equalled by his 
extraordinary courtesy : in short he was a most accom- 
plished man." 

In the Rawlinson MSS. (A. 45, fo. 9) there is 
"A Breviat and relation of Thomas Branker 
against Dame Appollin Hall alias Appollin Potter 
of London once marryed to William Churchey," 
&c. No date is given, but July, 1656, occurs in 
the body of the document. Brancker wrote the 
following in addition to the work already named : 
" Doctrines SPHJERICJE adumbratio ; una cum usu 
Globorum artificialium. OXONLE : Excudebat 
H. Hall, Impensis J. Adams. 1662," folio broad- 
side. At end of the Latin address to the reader is, 
" Vale T. B.," to which Ant. Wood has added in 
MS., " ranker, Coll. Exon." This appears in & 
Wood as if it made two books (Athen. iii. 1087). 

The table of inconiposits of Brancker has been 
reprinted with his preface, pp. 353-416 of " The 

5'h s. XI. JAN. 18, 79.] 



Doctrine of Permutations and Combinations, by 
Mr. James Bernoulli, together with some other 
useful Mathem. Tracts. Publ. by Francis Ma- 
seres, Esq., Cursitor Baron of the Court of Ex- 
chequer," Lond., 1795, 8vo. Maseres in his pre- 
face says, p. vii : 

" This Table of Prime Numbers Dr. Wallis set a high 
value on, insomuch that he took the pains to examine 
it carefully throughout, and to correct the few errors 
that he found in it; so that now, with his corrections, it 
may be considered as very accurate. This Table there- 
fore, together with the Appendix in which it is con- 
tained, I have here caused to be reprinted immediately 
after the foregoing Discourse of Dr. Wallis." 


Stretford, near Manchester. 


In the year 1821 this work was reissued by the 
celebrated William Hone, in popular form, demy 
8vo., double columns, pp. 94, " dedicated to Lord 
Castlereagh," and with a woodcut vignette on the 
title-page, from a design by George Cruikshank, 
representing a spaniel licking a scourge, with the 
motto from All's Well that Ends Well, "What a 
past saving slave is this ! " 

The editor says in his short preface that the 

" Was first privately printed at London in 1795, during 
the war against France, in a duodecimo of 360 pages, and 
a very few copies of it circulated with great secrecy. The 
time is arrived for its being removed from the shelf of 
the curious in rare books for the perusal of the British 
People ; yet its Author, and his reasons for not publishing 
it, must for the present remain unknown. His genius 
and sentiments command a respect which restrains me 
from omitting, substituting, or altering a single word ; 
even bis Italics and CAPITALS are preserved, and his 
mottoes placed at the back of the title. I have merely 
placed running head-lines to the subjects, and prefixed a 
Design, to denote that, as the fawning spaniel licks the 
scourge, so a free man, who crouches to the oppressor, 
becomes a slave and worshipper of the lash." 

In the following year (1822) the same editor 
published what may be termed a "library edition" 
of the work a handsomely printed octavo, pp. 523, 
with the name of Vicesimus Knox, D.D., the 
imputed author, upon the title-page. This eminent 
writer had died in the interval (Sept. 6, 1821) ; 
and we have therefore to depend upon the statement 
of Hone that he had fully admitted the author- 
ship. From the "Advertisement" of the editor 
prefixed, we gather that, after publishing the earlier 
edition, and " making fruitless inquiries after 
the name of the author," he succeeded in discover- 
ing this ; that he had had an interview with him 
for the purpose of apologizing for the unauthorized 
publication of the work ; and that he had found 
"that the interval which had elapsed since its 
composition had only tended to confirm the writer 
in the constitutional principles of English liberty 

that in the following pages are so forcibly main- 

Hone further states, as to the original edition, 
that the writer, upon a calm review of his work, 
fearing that the strong indignation which animated 
him in its compasition might seem to have led him 
to employ language too glowing and enthusiastic, 
determined "to suppress the publication altogether, 
and not a solitary copy had been at any time cir- 
culated with his consent," but that three copies 
had been, " by some means," preserved. From one 
of these an edition had been printed in America 
without a name; another "fell accidentally into the 
hands of a private gentleman " ; and a third was 
"accidentally purchased at a bookseller's in London 
by the editor." 

Now, has any one ever seen the original 
" privately printed " edition, of London, 1795, or 
the American reprint ] I do not find that the 
Spirit of Despotism is included by biographers 
among the admitted works of Dr. Knox ; and 
without wishing to insinuate the slightest doubt 
of the veracity of the much abused Hone, it seems 
rather odd that, seeing how " unique " and " rare " 
books have a knack of turning up everywhere, one 
has never caught a sight of the "original edition"; 
and very unfortunate that the imputed author 
should have happened to die in the short interval 
between the publication of the two reprints. 

A few passages notably one describing the 
wealthy and aristocratic suitor of some pauper 
"Iphigenia" (ed. 1821, p. 60) deemed a little too 
strong even for that day, were omitted in the issue 
of the following year. WILLIAM BATES, B.A. 


[See "N. & Q.," 5"' S. x. 448, 503.] 


A beneficed clergyman in an eastern county 
has just told me the following horrible story of 
what happened in his parish about forty years 
ago. As a piece of folk-lore it ought to be put on 
record, but my reason for sending it to you is 
moral, not scientific only. What is here men- 
tioned took place in December, 1837. There has, 
however, been little or no change since that time 
in the beliefs of uninstructed people. These 
survivals of savage modes of thought are interest- 
ing, but the suffering they entail is so great that 
one cannot but wish that schoolmasters and all 
others who come into official connexion with the 
ignorant would make it a point of duty to en- 
deavour to uproot them. 

Educated people for the most part think that 
practices of this sort are rare because they seldom 
read of them in the newspapers or hear them 
spoken of. The facts are far otherwise, but those 
who believe in and practise such rites have a 
notion that they are contemned for their faith by 


NOTES AND QUERIES. is* s. XL JA*. is, 79. 

their superiors, and will keep it secret when they 
can. They also believe that, though efficacious, 
rites of this sort are connected with things evil, 
and are, therefore, not to be spoken of. 

A little girl of about eight years of age had 
from birth been troubled with scrofulous disease, 
and had been reared with great difficulty. Her 
friends consulted "the wise man" of the neighbour- 
hood, who told the mother that if she took the girl 
and rubbed her naked body all over with the hand 
of a dead man, she would be restored to perfect 
health. The experiment was tried, and the poor 
little girl was nearly killed with fright, and, of 
course, made no better. It is hard to conceive 
more intense misery than the child must have 
suffered. She has long been dead, and, as she 
moved to a distant place, my friend cannot trace 
her history. There can be little doubt but that the 
memory of this horrible rite would haunt her ima- 
gination awake and sleeping as long as she lived. 

When I had written thus far I showed my 
letter to a lady who has much knowledge of the 
habits and feelings of the poor : she says that this 
practice of rubbing with the dead hand for the 
purpose of taking away disease is at this present 
time a constant practice in the neighbourhood 
where she lives. EDWARD PEACOCK. 

Bottesford Manor, Brigg. 

[See " N. & Q.," 1 st S. vi. 145.] 

THE ISLE OF WIGHT. The following extract is 
from a History of the Isle of Wight, published at 
Newport in 1795, by J. Albin. I give the extract 
verbatim, but am inclined to think that it is only a 
copy of some previous copy of the petition. The 
want of uniformity in spelling and close resem- 
blance in many cases to our modern orthography 
lead me to infer that it is not absolutely literatim, 
although it may be verbatim. As to the defenceless 
condition of the island, there are many documents 
which show that it was for centuries the object of 
attacks from France. Forts were built, but not 
always kept in good repair or well manned. Yar- 
mouth Castle was one fort erected by Henry VIII. 
out of the ruins of the religious houses which were 
then dissolved. Yet this castle had for defence in 
the year 1559 (Elizabeth) only one porter at 8d. a 
day, and three gunners at 6d. a day each, amounting 
to 39Z. 10s. lOd annually. The whole island was 
in a very unfit state for resistance, and for many 
reigns continued so, although spurts were occasion- 
ally made to repair and strengthen the defences. 

Defenceless Slate of the Isle of Wight in 1449. 

" Petition of the Inhabitants of the Isle of Wight to 
the King in the 28th of Henry VI., 1449. 

" Isle of Wight To the kyng our soveraigne lord : 
Please it unto youre most excellent grace to be eiiformed 
how that your isle of Wighte stondeth in the grettyst 
juperdye and daunger of any parte of youre Realme of 
Inglond ; the whiche Isle witbyne five yeres was at the 

nombre of x.m. fensable men and xxx. Knyghtes and 
aquyers dwellyng withynne ; the whiche x.m. aboveseid 
are anentised through pestellence and Werres, and some 
voided because of oppression of extorcioners, that now 
there is skante xii.c. of fencible men, and Knyghtes 
never one, and squyers no mo but Herry Bruyn squier of 
youre Howshold, that may labour aboute Werres. And 
youre castle withynne youre eeid isle is not repeired, 
nother the walles, garriettes and lopes, 'nother stuffed 
with men and barneys, nother with gonnes, gonnepowder, 
crosse bowes, quarelles, longe bowes, arrowes, longe speres, 
axes, and gloyves, as suche a place shuld be in tyme of 
Werres ; wherefore youre seid subgettes ben so discon- 
forted, and thorought the grete clamer noyse and en- 
formacion that they heren daily of youre_trewe lige men, 
that ben distressed and comen ovvte of I^ormandye, that 
youre adversaries of Fraunce ben fully purposed and sette, 
and other youre enemyes, for to conquere the seid ile, 
whiche God defende. Besechith mekely youre full 
humble subgettes of the seid ile, that it may like unto 
youre highnesse to ordeyne and appoynte other elles to 
commawnde suche as shall occupie the said isle through 
vertue of youre grante, to ordeyne and appoynte guche 
sufficiante of men, and stuffe above wretyn, as it may be- 
sufficiant for the defence of the said Castell and Isles, as 
youre said subgettes shall have no cause for to voyde owte 
of your said Isle ; and youre seid subgettes shall pray to- 
God for you. Responsio. The kyng woll that the Lord 
Beauchamp see to the rule thereof." 


THE FRENCH OATH " TUDIEU ! " The other day 
on awaking from a nap after dinner, and whilst I was 
still half asleep, the French word tudieu came why 
I know not, for I had had nothing to do with French 
oaths into my mind, and I began to consider its 
etymology. It immediately occurred to me that 
there was also the oath vertubleu = vertudieu* = 
vcrtu de Dieu, and I came to the conclusion that 
tudieu was a contracted form of vertudieu, the first 
syllable ver having been dropped. I then rushed 
off to Littre, hoping and thoroughly expecting to- 
find my conjecture confirmed ; but what was my 
surprise to find that he considers tudieu to be a 
euphemism for " tue Dieu " ! I must say that my 
own explanation, though arrived at in a half- 
waking state, seems to me much more probable and 

* Bleu was used, as in parlleu (=pardieu) and venire- 
lieu (ventre (de) Dieu), in order to avoid the use of dieu, 
much as od in English was used for God, as, e.g., in od's 
lodikins, od's pitilcins (Nares), &c. Vertuchoii was also- 
used, in which the List syllable was still less like dieu, 
and Littre seems to think that this word was formed from 
or after vertulleu. It had long struck me as singular 
ih&tdieu should have been changed into lieu, but I think 
I now see that the change was not direct, but gradual. 
I have been led to this conclusion, not by anything that 
Littre says, but by two quotations which I have found in 
his Diet., and from which it appears that in old French 
vertulieu (sixteenth cent.) and ventrelieu (fifteenth cent.) 
were used. If so, dieu in the first instance became lieu 
by the simple change of d into I, and then litu, which had 
no meaning, was changed into the very similar lieu (i with 
its dot over it is very like 1), which had. This lieu, in 
the case of ventrelieu, was, as Littre tells us, also changed 1 
into bille (making ventrelille), which formed a kind of 
feminine to it. Comp. the patois fieu (=fils) and fille. 
This lille also had a meaning. 


h S. XI. JAK. 18, 79.] 


preferable, and I shall be glad to hear whether it 
has already been given by anybody else. I have 
not been able to find it in any book possessed by 
me. F. CHANCE. 

Sydenham Hill. 

PERCY BYSSHE SHELLEY. The following is 
transcribed from the original in the poet's hand- 
writing, in the possession of the Baron de Bogou- 
shevsky. The letter occupies a quarto sheet, and 
is without address : 

" Pisa, 10 Nov., 1820. 

" Mr. Gibson has sent me a copy of the Prometheus, 
which is certainly most beautifully printed. It is to be 
regretted that the errors of tlie press are so numerous 
and in many respects so destructive of the sense of a 
species of poetry, which I fear even without this dis- 
advantage very few will understand or like. I shall send 
you the list of errata in a day or two. I send some poems 
to be added to the pamphlet of Julian and Maddolo. 
I think you have some other smaller poems belonging to 
that collection, and I believe you know that I do not 
wish my name to be printed on the title-page, though I 
have no objection to my being known as the author. 
I enclose you another poem which I do not wish to be 
printed with Julian and Maddolo, but at the end of the 
second edition of the Cenci or of any other of my 
writings to which my name is affixed, if any other should 
at present have arrived at a second edition, which I do 

not expect. I have a purpose in this arrangement 

I can sympathize, too, feelingly in your brother's mis- 
fortune. It has been my hard fate also to watch the 
gradual death of a beloved child and to survive him." 

Grampian Lodge, Forest Hill, S.E. 

lines are from a Philadelphia paper, following the 
notice of a death in Camden, New Jersey : 

" Becca, draw near, my voice rather fails me, 
I can't talk so loud, for I haven't the breath ; 
Though you 're cheering me up, yet I know it is death. 
Yet why should I fear 1 ? I am willing and ready, 
But I think of you, Becca, and the children, you know ; 
And, sister, just raise up my pillow there, steady ; 
It 's only for them I regret I must go. 
Give my farewell to each brother and member, 
And tell them to try and meet me in heaven. 
God bless the American mechanic, 'tis my last wish 

and prayer, 

For they have been good to me and those I love. 
Farewell, I am going to meet my mother in heaven." 

M. E. 



"A singular case of superstition revealed itself at the 
Borough Petty Sessions at Ludlow on Jan. 7. A married 
woman, named Mary Ann Collier, was charged with 
using abusive and insulting language to her neighbour 
Eliza Oliver; and the complainant in her statement to 
the magistrates said that on December 27 she was 
engaged in carrying water, when Mrs. Collier stopped 
her, and stated that another neighbour had had a sheet 
stolen, and had ' turned the key on the Bible near several 
houses; that when it came to her (Oliver's) house the 
key moved of itself, and that when complainant's name 
was mentioned the key and the book turned completely 

round, and fell out of their hands.' She also stated that 
the owner of the sheet then inquired from the key and 
the book whether the theft was committed at dark or 
daylight, and the reply was ' daylight.' Defendant then 

called complainant ' a daylight thief,' and charged 

her with stealing the sheet. The Bench dismissed the 
case, the chief magistrate expressing his astonishment 
that such superstition and ignorance should exist in the 
borough. It has been explained by one who professed 
to believe in this mode of detecting thieves that the key 
is placed over the open Bible at the words, 'Whither 
thou goest I will go ' (Ruth i. 16) ; that the fingers of the 
persons were held so as to form a cross, and the text 
being repeated, and the suspected person named, the key 
begins to jump and dance about with great violence in 
such a way that no person can keep it still." Birming- 
ham Daily Post, Jan. 10, 1879. 


ANCIENT STATUTES. It may be worth noting 
in the pages of " N. & Q." that the following 
curious statutes, which have remained in force up 
to the present time, are now repealed by the 
Statute Law Revision (Ireland) Act, 1878, passed 
on August 13, 1878 : 

An Act that the Irishmen dwelling in the 
counties of Dublin, Myeth, Vriel, and Kildare 
shall go apparelled like Englishmen, and wear 
their beards after the English manner, swear 
allegiance, and take English surname (5 Edw. IV., 
c. 3). 

An Act that every Englishman and Irishman 
that dwelleth with Englishmen and speaketh 
English, between sixty and sixteen in years, shall 
have an English bow and arrows (5 Edw. IV, c. 4). 

An Act to restrain the carrying of hawks out of 
this kingdom (20 Edw. IV., c. 1). 

An Act for the cleansing of the watercourse in 
St. Patrick's Street (8 Hen. VII, c. 1). 

An Act that no citizen receive livery or wages 
of any lord or gentleman (10 Hen. VII., c. 6), 

An Act abolishing these words, Crombabo and 
Butlerabo (10 Hen. VII., c. 20). 

An Act to prevent Papists being solicitors 

(10 Will. III., C. 13). HlRONDELLE. 


"A veritable centenarian expired at his cottage, near 
Clonmel, last week, named James Doheney, who had 
enlisted in the 60th Rifles previous to the famous year 
of '98. He served through the first Peninsular War 
under the Duke of Wellington, and under General John- 
son in Ireland at the time of the rebellion in the year 
'92. He retained the use of his faculties up to the last 
moment." Medical Press. 


REMARKABLE LONGEVITY. The fact mentioned 
in the following cutting from Church Bells, Sep- 
tember 21, 1878, is, I think, worthy of notice : 

"Last week a Mr. Foot, J.P. of the county of Cork, 
celebrated his hundredth birthday by giving a dinner to 
his tenantry. The day of his birth is duly attested by 
the parochial register books. He has been in the com- 



[5'h S< XL JAN. 18, 79. 

mission of the peace since 1818. He keeps all his own 
accounts, and is an excellent man of business. Mr. 
Thorns ought to be silent after this." 


THE WORD " BLOOMING." This word, used in 
the place of another word much less agreeable to 
ears polite, has lately come into use in England in 
a peculiar sense ; a few words on the matter, record- 
ing the facts of the case, may perhaps therefore 
make a useful note. The first person I remember 
making use of this word was Mr. Alfred G. Vance, 
well known in London about a dozen years ago as 
the singer of "Jolly Dogs" and other extensively 
popular songs, and at present equally well known 
in the provinces as an " entertainer." Whether 
it was an original idea of his own, or whether the 
phrase came from the United States, I do not 
know ; at all events, it took the public taste, and 
to some extent supplanted another word of a dis- 
agreeable nature. It is now used in various ways 
even by persons who pride themselves on, propriety 
of language. The other day I heard two gentle- 
men talking, when one said to the other, "Don't you 
make any blooming mistake about this matter." 
During the late frost in coming through the park 
I saw a number of youngsters sliding, and heard 
one call out, "Don't you be so blooming flash about 
your sliding." I think this word should be noted 
for the next edition of The Slang Dictionary, even 
if authorities be not agreed about the desirability 
of admitting it into " An improved Johnson's 
Dictionary." WHITEHALL. 


" Pedibusque rotarura 
Subjiciunt lapsus." 

Virgil, jEn., ii. 235. 
W. T. M. 

[We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct.] 

the authority for the well-known anecdote of 
Otway that he was choked with a piece of bread 
which he greedily ate when half starved ? John- 
son speaks of the story as related by one of his 
biographers. Possibly it is told in Gibber's Lives 
of the Poets, which unfortunately I have not at 
hand for reference ; but, even granting that the 
account were to be found there, it would be at best 
but a late version of the tradition, considering the 
date of the publication of the last-mentioned work, 
viz., the middle of the eighteenth century. It is 
strange that the account of Gerard Langbaine 
(1691), who wrote very soon after the poet's death, 
should be so meagre. His remarks are as follows : 

" He was formerly (as I have heard) bred for some 
time in Christ Church in Oxford. From thence he 
removed to London, where he spent some time in 
Dramatick Poetry, and by degrees writ himself into Re- 
putation with the Court." 

Of Otway's fate Langbaine says nothing, and 
yet in many of his notices he is needlessly diffuse. 
We could willingly lose his diatribes against 
Dryden (which seem to have been dictated by 
private pique) for a few personal details of a poet 
whom he had in all probability frequently seen, as 
a great haunter of the theatres, and might have 
easily become acquainted with. The diaries of 
Pepys and Evelyn are full of curious details of 
Dryden, Shadwell, and other celebrities of the days 
of the second Charles, but the more we strive to 
become personally acquainted with Otway the more 
he escapes us. In a copy of the poet's Works in 
my possession (Tonson, 1712) there is a short life 
of Otway, in which we are told, 

" He liv'd the most uncomfortable of all Lives, some- 
times in Excess and sometimes in Want, to the thirty- 
third year of his age. On the fourteenth of April, 1685, 
he dy'd at a Publick House on Tower Hill." 

Observe, there is no story here about the loaf. 
When, therefore, was this well-worn anecdote first 
told 1 I must remark that there is no additional 
matter in the account of Otway in Baker's Bio- 
graphia Dramatica. I have long wished (if 
possible) to clear up this point, and, having been 
a reader of your valuable publication from its first 
number, do not despair of eliciting information 
when I see how much " N. & Q." can do for the 
study of our earlier literature. Are there any 
manuscripts of Otway existing ? I have never 
been able to find any, nor, indeed, do I think there 
is much possibility of our discovering new facts 
about the poet's life. W. R. MORFILL. 

[There are various accounts of Otway's death, one 
being that he died of hunger.] 

"AND SAYESTTHOU, CARA?" In Torrens's Life 
of Lord Melbourne it is stated (vol. i. p. 109) that 
" Byron had the effrontery to address to Lady Caroline 
Lamb the lines beginning, 

' And gayest thou, Cara 1 ? ' &c., 

in which, to excuse the discontinuance of his visits, he 
tells her that in fact he is thinking of nobody else, and 
apologizes for conjugal fulelity by the assurance that 
' falsehood to all else is truth to thee.' " 

I do not find these lines in Murray's edition of 
Byron's Works, but in a one-vol. edition published 
in Paris in 1826, among "Poems never Publicly 
Acknowledged by, but which have been Generally 
Attributed to Him," are given lines "To Lady 
Caroline Lamb," beginning, " And sayst thou that 
I have not felt 1 ?" the last stanza of which runs thus : 
" Clara ! this struggle to undo 

What thou hast done too well for me 
This mask before the babbling crew 
This treachery was truth to thee." 
It will be observed that although the sentiment 

* S. XI. JAN. 18, V9.] 



is the same, neither the beginning nor the last line 

c< rresponds exactly with the quotations given by 

! ft r. Torrens. I would ask : 1. Is there any other 

I version containing the lines as quoted by ftlr. 

! Torrens? 2. Was Byron the author of them? 

The fact of their being printed in the Paris edition 

a* his is entitled to no weight, for several other 

pieces there find a place the authorship of which 

llyron distinctly denies in his letter to ftlurray, 

dated July 22, 1816. "Her treachery was truth 

to me " is a line found in The Giaour. 

G. F. S. E. 

More years ago than I like to think of, at a school 
in Brighton since, by the bye, claimed as the 
original of Dr. Blimber one Charlie Bellingham, 
over whose head the grass has been growing more 
than thirty years, used to sing, in the long bed- 
room at night, a song about Her Majesty's minis- 
ters going to dine at Greenwich I think. I know 
that the chorus was, " For pleasure and relaxa- 
tion " ; and I remember that the gentlemen in 
question came to grief at Waterloo Bridge for 
want of the necessary funds, and they appealed to 
Her Majesty, who happened to be passing. Then 
comes the verse 

' Her Majesty answered, -with wisdom sound, 
That money for them should not be found, 
But that they should walk all the way round 

For pleasure and relaxation." 
I remember, too, that the Great Duke outraged 
the finer sensibilities of Sir Eobert Peel by 

" Trying a smoke, 

Which did Sir Robert much provoke, 
And with his stick the pipe he broke," 

and explained that the duke was not now cam- 
paigning ; but the numbers in which he so ex- 
plained have passed from my memory. Can any 
of your readers help me to the words of the song ? 

Whilst engaged in writing Old and New London, 
I obtained a copy of a very scarce 12mo. volume 

Metropolis, or the Present State of London ; 
with Memorials comprehending a full and succinct 
Account of the Ancient and Modern State thereof; its 
original Government, Rights, Liberties, Charters, Trade, 
Customs, Priviledges, and other Remarkables (sic). 
Printed by G. L. for John Harris at the Harrow in the 
Poultrey, and Thomas Hawkins in George Yard, in 
Lombard (sic) Street, 1690." 

And it professes to have been " first written by 
the late ingenious Tho. Delaune, Gent., and con- 
tinu'd to the present year by a careful hand." 

I want to know 1. Whether this work is re- 
garded by competent judges as trustworthy; 2. 
What is known about its author. Was he the 
same person as, or the son of, Thomas Delaune, 
whom Allibone records as the author of " A Plea 

for the Nonconformists (1684), with a Preface by 
Defoe," and as having been put by his opponents 
in the pillory, where he lost his ears, and after- 
wards in prison, where he died ? Allibone gives 
as the dates of his birth and death 1667 and 1728, 
If he had been born in 1657 instead of 1667, he 
might easily have been the author of the work on 
London mentioned above ; and I think I can see 
in the work some internal evidence that the two- 
Thomas Delaunes were one and the same person. 
Hampstead, N.W. 

Countess of Wilton's Art of Needlework, London^ 
1840, it is stated that Leo X. ordered a duplicate 
set of hangings from the cartoons of Eafael, which 
he presented to Henry VIII., and that they hung 
in the banqueting house at Whitehall till the 
murder of Charles I., when they were sold, and 
conveyed to Spain, but that in recent years they 
had been repurchased and exhibited in London. 
What has become of them ? Additional interest 
now attaches to this art manufacture since it has 
begun afresh at Windsor. W. M. M. 


Was there never a song either with this name or 
containing the words, which are as familiar in my 
recollection as anything in " the days o' lang syne," 
half a century ago ? The musicsellers I have in- 
quired of told me they had never heard of it, and 
seemed to look upon me as a sort of poisson d'Avril 
out of season for troubling them on such an errand, 
though they have another and an excellent song 
by Haynes Bayly called The Pilot. The dealers 
in old books are equally at sea about it. But a 
librarian distinctly recollects that there was a 
political song with these words, and recommends 
my writing to " N. & Q.," as then some of its 
learned contributors will be sure to give me every 
information alike as to its history and whether 
and where it can be obtained. Any one favouring 
with an answer will sufficiently identify me by 
he well-known (and respected) name of 


SION OF BOTH." Coleridge once defined genius 
to be the carrying of the feelings of youth into 
the wisdom and maturity of age (I only give 
;his as the Coleridgean purport). This I take to 
be wonderfully good sense. He also said, " Genius 

" the highest kind implies an unusual intensity 
the modifying power." This I take to be a 
very near approach (for a man of the glorious 
Dowers of Samuel Taylor) to wonderful nonsense. 
Webster gives seven lines about genius from Sir 
Walter Scott. Everybody has tried to define 

enius, and nobody has succeeded. Newton de- 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [* s. XL JAH. is, ?. 

fined his genius, when people pestered him with 
questions, as consisting in his having more patience 
than other men. Carlyle said it lay in " a great 
capacity for work," which defines a navvy just as 
well as it fits Copernicus. Who was it said, 
" Genius is the fusion of passion in thought, and 
sometimes, alas ! the confusion of both " ? This 
remains the best hit I have seen, but where did I 
see it ? > C. A. WARD. 


OLD GAMES. I should be glad of information 
about the following old games : 

" We went to a sport called selling a horse for a dish of 
eggs and herrings." Pepys, Diary, Feb. 2, 1659-60. 

" The merry game of The parson has lost his cloak." 
Spectator, No. 268. 

' ' What say you, Harry ; have you any play to show 
them ? ' ' Yes, sir,' said Harry, ' I have a many of them ; 
there 's first leap-frog and thrush- a-thrush." H. Brooke, 
Fool of Quality, i. 25 (ed. 1859). 

" One fault brought me into another after it, like 
Water my chickens come clock." II., i. 272. 

I only conjecture this to be a game, or it might be 
an allusion to some nursery story. 

" Can you play at draughts, polish, or chess ? " lb. } i. 

" Some reminded him of his having beat them at boxing, 
others at wrestling, and all of his having played with 
them at prison-bars, leap-frog, shout the gate, and so 
forth." lb., ii. 168. 


Pear Tree Vicarage, Southampton. 

" CUCK " : " COCK " : " LIND." I should be 
glad of any information about " cuck " or " cock " 
and " lind " as constituents of local names (Cuck- 
field, Cockease, Cpckshott, Lyndhurst, Lindfield). 
An objection is raised to the obvious derivation of 
"lind" from linde, the lime, on account of an 
alleged absence of this tree in Saxon times. Mr. 
Durrant Cooper gives " priuceps " as the meaning 
of "cock." j. OTTER. 

U. U. Club. 

Kow OR KOWE. This strange spelling occurs 
twice in a black-letter small quarto Bible of 1602. 
In Isa. vii. 21, "And in the same day shal a man 
nourish a yong Jcow and two sheepe" ; in Amos iv. 3 
it is, " Every Icowe forward," Jcowe being in roman 
letters, then used as italics are now. But in the 
same Bible it is spelt cow in Levit. xxii. 28 
Num. xviii. 17, Job. xxi. 10, Isa. xi. 7. Can any 
reason be given for such diversity? Were two 
translators employed upon Isaiah? The plural 
kine would seem to come more naturally from Jcoiv 
or Jcowe. Was it ever spelt cine? In the ISrno. 
Bible, same date, cow } coive, and Tcow are found. 


SAMOSATENIANS. A Greek Testament in my 
possession, which was published in 1633, contains, 
among other appendices, a list of passages of the 
.New Testament which are differently interpreted 

by different sects of Christians. One of the sects 
mentioned is that of the "Sociniani seu Samo- 
sateniani." Were the Socinians at any time 
generally known as Samosatenians, and whence is 
the latter term derived ? E. B. 

" AKIMBO." What is the origin of this word ? 
Is it of early date ? H. B. P. 

ALTAR WINE. In the Anglican Church the 
wine used at the Communion service is always red : 
generally tent, I believe. In the Roman Catholic 
Church the wine used in the Mass is always white. 
How and when did this difference of practice 
arise ? and what was the cause of it ? 


Hampstead, N.W. 

lowing inscription is from a stone in Fearn Church- 
yard. I gave a solution of it which seemed to be 
right, but some friends, without giving a better, 
dispute its correctness. Will " N. & Q." give 
a solution ? 

" Hier lyeth John Keid. 

* ' * * * * 

Full seventy years he livd upon this earth ; 
He livd to dye the end of life is death. 
Here he was smith six lustres and three more, 
The third three wanted, it had but two before." 

JOHN MARSH. Can any of your readers show 
the connexion of the two Marshes mentioned in 
the following extracts? 1. "The estate of one 
John Marsh, D.D., of Halifax, was declared for- 
feited by treason by an Act of Nov. 18, 1652." 
2. "John Marsh, son of Dr. Rich. Marsh (Dean of 
York), was Vicar of Hooton Pagnel in 1664." 
Now, the Dean of York was Vicar of Halifax till 
1662 ; but was the John Marsh of Halifax the 
same as the Vicar of Hooton? There was one 
Marsh (whose Christian name is unknown) master 
of Halifax School until 1652. That seems to 
upply a link. T. C. 

Norway last summer I met a Mr. Wright, who 
claimed descent from the family of that name 
which was implicated in the Gunpowder Plot, and 
who stated that his ancestor had been compelled 
to flee to Norway in consequence of that con- 
spiracy. Can any light be thrown on this state- 
ment ? Who was the Wright who took refuge in 
Norway ? Was he a brother of John and Chris- 
topher Wright who perished at Holbeach ? The 
only memorial my friend possessed was a coat of 
arms, the crest of which is a horse's head. 


SILVER MEDAL, 1804. I should be obliged for 
nformation with regard to the silver medal of 
which the description is as follows : Obverse a 

fitfc s. XI. JAN. 18, 79.] 


soldier firing his musket ; reverse inscribec 
" John Eussell, Captain Hamilton's Coy., E Et Batt 
-S. V. Commanded by Lieut.-Col. Duncan. 1804, 


ST. BERNARD'S DYING SONG. In Albert Diirer' 
graphic description of his father's death he de 
scribes the old nurse as " trimming the lamp an 
setting herself to read aloud St. Bernard's dyin 
song." What was this song, and where can I se 
it? A. F. 

any readers kindly forward me references to, o 
accounts of, the legendary origin of towns o 
places in Great Britain and Ireland 1 


Castelnau, Barnes, S.W. 

mentioned by your correspondent A. J. M. as 
Lancashire dishes in his charming paper on 

" The Lancashire Border," in your No. 261. Wha 
are they, and how are they made ? H. A. B. 

MIND." Mr. Justice Field had before him. on 
Sept. 4, the case of Tennyson v. the Christian 
Signal Publishing Company, Limited. Mr. Hen- 
derson, on behalf of Mr. Alfred Tennyson, the 
Poet Laureate, applied for an interim injunction 
extending over the following Wednesday to restrain 
the defendants from publishing, without any autho- 
rity from him, a poem written by the plaintiff. The 
defendants had issued the following handbill : 
" The Christian Signal of Friday, September 6, 
will contain an early unpublished poem of over 
two hundred lines by Alfred Tennyson (Poet 
Laureate), entitled ' Confessions of a Sensitive 
Mind.' " It appeared that the Christian Signal 
was a weekly penny paper. The judge granted 
the interim injunction sought for, and on the fol- 
lowing Wednesday it was made perpetual, the 
editor having destroyed the proof and broken up 
the type on hearing of Mr. Tennyson's objections. 
It was stated that the poem had been found in a 
MS. volume of poetry belonging to a deceased 
friend of the Laureate's. Has it ever appeared in 
any form ? WILLIAM E. A. AXON. 

NUMISMATIC. I possess a curious coin in the 
form of a twopenny-piece, composed of an outer 
case of George III, dated 1797, an inner one of 
the same date, containing one piece resembling a 
halfpenny, and within it a farthing. The two 
last are dated 1799. I should be glad to know 
whether the piece complete ever passed as current 
money ; and, if so, what is its present value ? 


Whetstone, N. 

ANCE. Shine, or shindy (Limerick) : is this the 
Irish word sin, " storm " ? Muss (Westmeath) 
and quivvy (Limerick) : what is the origin of 
these? D. F. 


IRELAND. In a paper on this subject, by Mr. 
Shirley, which appeared in the Ulster Journal of 
Archaeology, vol. iii., I find the following amongst 
other maps, &c., enumerated : " 14, Lough 
Hearne, Belicke, an old Castell, Bellashange, and 
the Abbey of Assaroe, and the course of Lough 
Erne to the sea." 

As I have for some time past been working on 
the history of this neighbourhood, I am particu- 
larly desirous of obtaining a rough sketch of 
" Belicke, an old Castell," and " Bellashange and 
the Abbey of Assaroe." I shall be grateful to any 
correspondent who will inform me where these 
maps are now deposited, and how I can procure a 
sketch. H. ALLINGHAM. 


mummy-cases, discovered at Thebes during the 
Prince of Wales's visit to the Nile, have come 
nto my possession. I am anxious to discover the 
names and titles of the persons evidently priests 
whose bodies they originally contained ; but 
\mongst the many handsome decorations and mass 
if hieroglyphics with which they are covered in- 
ide and out I can find no clue to the same. Not 
being very well acquainted with hieroglyphics, I 
hould be obliged if some one well versed in the 
ubject would inform me of the most likely spot 
m the case to seek for the writings representing 
he same, or I shall have great pleasure in sending 
photograph of any part likely to contain it. 

W. G. C. 
Chew Magna, Somerset. 


Nearly a year ago (5 tn S. ix. 309) T asked who was the 
uthor of Familiar Quotations, but I received no reply, 
n " N. & Q.," ante, p. 39, MR. RULE, when answering 
nother query, mentions John Bartlett as the author of 

work with this title. Will MR. RULE kindly inform 
le whether John Bartlett wrote the work 1 inquired 
bout? J. D. 

Macbeth, a Poem, Lond., 1817 (subject, the Danes in 
cotland ; scene. Glamis and neighbourhood, Forfar- 
hire). J. 0. 

" See how these Christians love one another." 

J. A. 

" As to comedy, repartee is one of its chief grace?." 

" Sculptors like Phidias, Raphaels in shoals, 

Poets like Shakespeare, beautiful souls." 




[5"> S. XT. JAN. 18, 79. 


(5 th S. x. 469 ; xi. 19.) 

As I have in my possession the first and 
sixth editions of Paradise Lost, I beg to confirm 
the remark of your correspondent as to the date, 
and that it is without a portrait of the author. 
The story is comprised in ten books. The following 
is a verbatim notice from the printer (S. Simmons) 
to the reader : 

" Courteous Reader, There was no Argument at first 
intended to the Book, but for the satisfaction of many 
that have desired it, I have procur'd it, and withall a 
reason of that which stumbled many others, why the 
Poem rimes not." 

The use of the word " stumbled " is curious. It 
reminds us of the word " stumbling-block " in the 
New Testament sense, " difficulty " or " offence," 
or o-KOivSaXov in the Greek Testament. This 
original edition naturally holds its enhanced value 
in a library, and may be considered as second only 
to the first edition of Shakespeare. 

The sixth edition in some respects is far more 
curious for its very valuable notes. It has a por- 
trait, beneath which are the lines commencing 
" Three poets in three distant ages born," &c. 
The volume comprises the several works of " the 
authour " together with the poems. It has copious 
annotations " never before printed," which form 
the matter of more than 300 pages folio of close 
print, "wherein," to use the exact words of the 
title-page, " the Texts of Sacred Writ, relating to 
the Poem, are quoted ; The Parallel Places anc 
Imitations of the most excellent Homer and Virgil 
cited and compared ; All the obscure Parts render'c 
in Phrases more familiar ; The Old and Obsolete 
Words, with their Originals, explain'd and made 
Easie to the English Reader. By P. H. <E>iAo- 
TTOI^T^S. Printed for Jacob Tonson, at the 
Judge's Head, near the Inner Temple Gate, 
MDCXCV." Paradise Lost is here found in the 
twelve books,* and is adorned with highly wrought 
sculptures : the frontispiece, presenting Satan with 
his angels, is a marvel of light and shade. These 
bear the name of M. Burgesse. "The Table," 
under "Three Heads of Descriptions, Similies, and 
Speeches," forms an appendix. This table as well 
as the notes appears for the first time in this 
edition. Who is P. H. ^tAoTrot^rr;?, by whose 
care and labour this immense assemblage of critical 
notes has been prepared 1 It is very probable that 
a large portion of the notes was obtained from 
Milton's widow, who sold all her claims for 81. to 
Simmons, who again parted with them to Aylmer 
for 25Z., and who, in his turn, transferred them to 
Jacob Tonson, half in 1683 and half in 1690, for a 

* As arranged in the second edition of 1674 by a 
division of the seventh and twelfth. 

onsiderably increased price. That Milton should 
not have handed to Simmons the annotations with 
he first edition is not surprising, when from the 
above extract there was evidently a difficulty to 
'btain the Argument. Hence, perhaps, we may 
,ccount for the first appearance of the notes with the 
sixth edition. However this may be, <l> 1X07701^x175 
may claim all praise for their existence and his 
critical study. OSBORNE ALDIS, M.A. 

2, Chesham Place, Belgrave Square. 

HISTORY" (5 th S. viii. 58, 99, 227, 277 ; x. 347 ;. 
xi. 4.) I quite agree with your correspondent 
FIAT JUSTITIA that for the reasons given by Mr. 
Barham, and also on account of that gentleman's 
literary experience and his knowledge of all that 
was going on in the literary world, it is only justice 
to Lady Anne Hamilton that his opinion that she 
had no more to do with the Secret History than 
Lady Godiva should be recalled to the attention of 
those interested in the history of that disreputable 

I deeply regret to say that I do not share that 
opinion. I will not now enter on the question 
of Lady Anne's share in that book, but will 
confine myself to one statement of the reverend 
gentleman's which is certainly at variance with 
probability, namely, "that it was pretty well 
known to have been written by the notorious Jack 
Mitford." I doubt this. The book, though not 
circulated till 1838, bears date in 1832, and I can 
show pretty strong evidence that it was actually 
printed in the autumn of that year, and I think also 
why it was so printed but of that hereafter. Now 
Mitford died in St. Giles's Workhouse in Dec., 1831, 
and loDg before that was, I believe, from drink and 
other causes, unfit for any sustained literary work,, 
and would in these more humane days have been 
put under medical restraint, as he had been before 
his celebrated trial for perjury in 1814. By the 
bye, that trial shows that at that time Lady Hamil- 
ton was mixed up with the prosecutrix, Lady 
Perceval, in that trial when Jack Mitford (whom 
Lord Ellenborough in his charge to the jury spoke 
of as "the unfortunate gentleman, perhaps not 
perfect in his mind,") was acquitted. 

The real history of this farrago of libels will 
probably never be clearly demonstrated until we 
find a perfect copy of the book that is, a copy 
with the sixteen pages which have been withdrawn 
from the work as now issued, after p. viii of the 
preface, and the commencement of the Secret 
History itself, which commences on p. 25 (sheet 0), 
for which I have hitherto sought in vain unless 
some one with leisure and an opportunity of 
examining a file of the Satirist newspaper for 
1831-2 should find in that newspaper some account 
of it ; for the Authentic Records, which is really 

5h S. XL JAN. 18, 79.] 



the first edition of the Secret History, was pub- 
lished at the office of the Satirist. 

Let me add a query. Having referred to Bar- 
ham's Life, I find appended to the letter which 
you have reprinted a note containing the following 
statement : 

" It [the Secret History'] was suppressed. Some years 
afterwards certain MSS. belonging to the author were 
advertised for sale by auction, but were hastily bought up 
on behalf of a royal personage, and, it is believed, 

I think there is some mistake here ; but any 
information respecting this announced sale con- 
firmatory of or disproving this statement may be 
of importance, and is earnestly solicited. 


398 ; x. 39, 77, 108 ; xi. 14.) The communication 
from MR. E. T. SAMUEL, in which he relates the 
testimony of a Scotch gentleman, is so inaccurate 
that, in the interests of your readers, I desire to 
set the matter right. The token is still in use in 
many parts of Scotland, especially in rural dis- 
tricts. Of late a printed card has taken its place 
in some congregations, both in the Established and 
non-Established Churches ; but the token continues 
still to be in more common use than the card. The 
token was not given out a "week or ten days before 
the Sacrament," but on the fast day, when, after 
the services (which were exactly of the same nature 
as on an ordinary Sabbath, except that the sermons 
had a direct bearing on the solemn nature of the 
rite to which they were preliminary), the congre- 
gation filed past the pulpit stair, and then received 
from the hand of the minister the token. Where 
the organization of the church was in proper 
order, all persons who were in full communion, 
and not under discipline, were entitled to and 
received a token, which they handed to an elder, 
stationed at the church door or at the entrance to 
the portion of the church set apart for the " table," 
as they entered on the Sabbath, though in some cases 
they are handed to an elder appointed to collect 
them before the ordinance is observed. They were 
not dropped into wooden boxes, which are used in 
many places to take up the collection on the Lord's 
Day or other occasions of worship. No meeting 
of the congregation needed to be called for the 
distribution of the tokens, seeing that the fast 
day was the proper time, and furnished an occasion 
without any special call. It is a mistake also to 
speak of the kirk session being composed of the 
minister, elders, and deacons, for the session is 
confined to the two former, whose sphere of duty 
is the moral and spiritual supervision of the con- 
gregation, while the deacons, who look after the 
finances and distribution of the church's charities, 
form a different court, because exercising a different 
kind of jurisdiction. There is no need for any 
special meeting of the session to go over the roll 

of membership or inquire into the fitness of those 
whose names are upon it. If a person's name was 
upon the roll he was entitled to a token. If any one 
had been guilty of conduct calling for dealing- 
with by the session, his case was disposed of in the 
ordinary course ; and if persons had been sus- 
pended or excommunicated they were refused a 
token until restored in the ordinary way. 

The tokens, as has been said, were of lead or 
pewter, and were sometimes circular, sometimes 
square, sometimes oval, and sometimes oblong. 
Those of the square or oblong shape sometimes- 
had the corners trimmed off. They were generally 
about the size of a shilling, and had words stamped 
upon them. These little symbols were regarded 
by those who handled them with great veneration, 
almost amounting to superstition, and were treated 
with greater care, even by the poorest, than if they 
had been golden guineas. The female communi- 
cants, in particular, always made it a point to 
have a clean white handkerchief with them at 
church, and into a corner of it the token wa& 
usually tied, or it was folded into the very inner- 
most recesses of it. If members were not present 
on the fast day, they could obtain a token by 
applying to the elder of their district ; and if they 
had got one on the fast day and could not be 
present at the communion, they dropped it into 
the collection plate or box on the first day they 
were at church afterwards. C. G-. 


I take the opportunity to confess the error of 
my former conjecture upon this subject. The use 
of these tokens among the Presbyterians of Scot- 
land is well illustrated by a little tale in Prof. 
Wilson's Lights and Shadows of Scottish Life. 
Can any reader of " N. & Q." inform me whether 
there is any clergyman of the English Church who- 
observes the rubric of the Prayer Book which 
directs that " So many as intend to be partakers of 
the holy communion shall signify their names to the 
curate, at least some time the day before " ? This 
question was asked some twenty years ago in 
Mr. Masters's magazine, the Churchman's Com- 
panion. The only clergyman then known to obey 
this rubric was the (alas ! now late) Kev. Patrick 
Cheyne, of the Scotch Episcopal Church. 


The Temple. 

"HUGUENOT" (5 th S. x. 113, 215, 276.) The 
following account of the derivation of this term 
appears to be trustworthy in itself, and a more 
correct version than those given at 5 th S. x. 215. 
The Catholic Moderator, a work translated from 
the French, and published in 1624, has a noting 
between the prefaces of the translator and author 
but which, from its wording and its reference to 
the author's frequent use of the word "Huguenot," 
would rather appear to be by him which runs as 



. XL JAN. 18, 79. 

follows. The word was first used in 1599 [but 
this date should rather, according to the evidence 
given in 5 th S. x. 215, be 1560]. Before that time 
they were called Tourengueux,* from the town of 
Tour. In that city was supposed to walk a night 
spirit called King Hugon, and one of the city 
gates was named King Hugon's Gate. Some 
Protestants having been seen passing this gate by 
night to their religious assemblies [more probably 
having been commonly seen to do so], they were 
nicknamed Hugonots. For more on this name 
and the occasion of it the writer refers us to 
Pasquier, Recherches, lib. vii. c. 52. 

The translator signs himself W. W., the author 
H. C. The latter shows so much more than 
tolerance the charity of a true Christian that I 
would he could be identified with Henry Con- 
stable, the poet. But the very vague indications 
of his nationality, and these, indications which one 
might naturally expect in a work written in French 
and for Frenchmen, rather favour the belief that 
he was of that country. B. NICHOLSON. 

MAJOR ANDRE (5 th S. xi. 7, 31.) In reply to 
A. P. S. I have the portrait of Major Andr by 
Sir Joshua, bought by me at the sale of the North- 
wick collection. It represents a young man of 
about five-and- twenty, with a very handsome, 
energetic face and a red uniform. 


Blairliill by Dollar, Scotland. 

Sir Joshua Reynolds's portrait of Major Andre 
may be seen at No. 38, Avenham Lane, Preston. 


states in his paper, " Christmas in England," that 
in some parts light-haired people who are the first 
to enter a house on Christinas morning are sup- 
posed to bring ill luck. In Edinburgh a strong 
prejudice exists among the old folk against light- 
haired people being the first to enter the house on 
New Year's morning, where first footing is begun 
immediately after the striking of the last hour of 
the year. This feeling exists in the Lowlands of 
Scotland also ; and two sad stories were recently 
told me of the ill luck which is said to have 
actually fallen. On both occasions the old women 
so visited strongly at the moment expressed their 
regrets, and one said, "Eh, man ! I wud raither hae 
lost^ five shillings than a fair-haired man first footed 
me." Some of the superstitious prejudices handed 
down from the old world are founded on reasonable 
grounds, but that against light-haired people has 
always been inexplicable to me in a Saxon land. 
I have long desired to know how and why it 
arose ; can any one enlighten me ? 


* [The gueux of Tours.] 

CELTS AND SAXONS (5 th S. xi. 5.) Possibly the 
writer in the Daily News was thinking of the fol- 
lowing passage in Macaulay's History, chap. xiii. : 

" It would be difficult to name any eminent man in 
whom national feeling and clannish feeling were stronger 
than in Sir Walter Scott. Yet when Sir Walter Scott 
mentioned Killiecrankie he seemed utterly to forget that 
he was a Saxon, that he was of the same blood and of 
the same speech with Ramsay's foot and Annandale's 
horse. His heart swelled with triumph when he related 
how his own kindred had fled like hares before a smaller 
number of warriors of a different breed and of a different 
tongue." Ed. 1864, vol. iii. p. 59. 


Alfred Terrace, Glasgow. 

VANDUNK : CLARET (5 th S. x. 429, 455, 477, 
519.) Many years ago I knew a country gentle- 
man who expended much time and money in the 
production of " home-made " wines, which, as he 
never bottled any that were in the smallest degree 
unsatisfactory, probably cost more than port or 
sherry. Among the best was clary, which when 
about a year in bottle effervesced like champagne. 
It retained its strength and flavour several years, 
but lost its effervescence. He grew the plants in 
his kitchen garden, and was very careful in pro- 
curing the seed from what he said was the only 
trustworthy shop. Their height was from eighteen to 
twenty-four inches, and the flower resembled that of 
a white nettle, but was of a pale blue, with a strong 
and pleasant smell. I am unskilled in lachanology, 
and perhaps have been describing a commonly 
known plant, but I never saw it elsewhere nor met 
with the wine. The flowers mixed with mead took 
off the mawkishness which that wine usually has. 

Salmon states the virtues of clary, some of which 
are fitter to be read than reprinted : " It cures all 
dimness of sight and other infirmities thereof, and 
scatters congealed blood. It is most commonly 
steept in wine, and so drunk : the seed is of the 
same virtues, and, being put into the eyes, clears 
them"! (Dispensatory, p. 64, London, 1702). 
Liddell and Scott has, " opfjuvov, a kind of sage, 
clary." I think it is not sage, but a salvia, as it 
turns black and withers at the first frost. Was 
clary used for wine in the olden time ? 


Garrick Club. 

" THE LASS OF RICHMOND HILL " (I* 4 S. ii. 103, 
350 ; v. 453 ; 2 nd S. ii. 6 ; xi. 207 ; 3 rd S. xi. 
343, 362, 386, 445, 489 ; 5 tb S. ix. 169, 239, 317, 
495 ; x. 69, 92, 168, 231, 448.) From long resi- 
dence in Richmond I am enabled to testify to the 
accuracy of MR. JOHN BELL'S letter ("N. & Q.," 
5 th S. x. 448). I was till his death most inti- 
mately acquainted with Mr. I'Anson of Prior 
House, and he frequently related to me the story 
of his sister's wooing by the brilliant barrister Leo. 
McNally, and the song addressed to her at her 
home, still named " The Hill." Unworthy as the 

5* S. XI. JAK. 18, 79.] 



poetry was, it was luckily married to a pretty an< 
attractive air, which soon gave it popularity, anc 
here, at its birthplace, immortality. The daughter 
of Leo. McNally married a banker at Richmond 
and she, herself a fine musician, always proudly 
acknowledged her mother as the Lass of Richmond 
Hill. The great singer Incledon, in a musical 
tour he made early in this century, sang it here to 
the gratification of his audience, who never doubtec 
their right to it. My own father, who had sung 
it from his twentieth year even till his ninetieth 
birthday, always regarded it as a local production 
The I'Anson family still hold the Harmby pro- 
perty, and descendants of the Hutchinsons of 1 
Hill still remain here, and will not relinquish their 
heirloom. I am sorry so many have been misled 
by traditions. I speak with the authority ol 
eighty years on facts, and have no hesitation in 
signing my allegiance to the honour of my Rich- 
mond, Yorkshire, as the origin of the much dis- 
puted Lass of Richmond Hill. 

Richmond, Yorkshire. 

" THE PROTESTANT FLAIL" (5 th S. x. 451, 518.) 
I have not yet had an opportunity of inspecting 
the plate referred to by D. P., but I can give your 
correspondent a description of a similar implement 
which I saw and handled not ten years ago, and 
which was sworn to in open court as being then 
actually in use. If I can make myself clear the 
illustration will confirm D. P.'s proposition that 
we must divest our minds of all notion of " a short 
loaded club," or what I may call the modern life- 
preserver analogy. Let the reader imagine an 
ordinary round desk ruler, say eighteen inches long, 
only of hard, white boxwood. Each extremity is ring 
turned, to give a firm grip, so that either end can 
form the handle. Conceive this sawn across the 
middle and thus divided into two equal parts. 
These parts are then connected with two thongs 
of narrow leather, about three inches in length, 
one on each side of each piece, by two rivets, 
screws, or studs, to each end of the leather, making 
eight fastenings in all, or four on each side. If 
the reader can follow a word picture, necessarily 
difficult to convey without the aid of engraving, 
he must now figure to himself that the thongs 
extend for about an inch down each piece of wood 
from the clean central division, which will give a 
"play "of an inch to the loose leather. You get 
thus a weapon of nine inches long, capable of 
being folded and carried concealed in a moderate 
sized pocket, and, except in size, exactly similar to 
the agricultural implement known as a flail. The 
one I saw was produced on a trial for night 
poaching as a specimen of the armament with 
which a " strictly preserving " country squire had 
provided his gamekeepers. S. P. 


BELL INSCRIPTION (5 th S. x. 515.) Is not "Rex 
gentis Anglorum " St. Edmund ? J. T. M. 

" LAY OF THE LAST MINSTREL" (5 th S. xi. 28.) 
JAYDEE may be assured that the two lines 
which he quotes from the above-named poem do 
not require correction. Scott has simply taken 
a line of triplets to relieve the ear from too many 
iambics. It is quite usual in poetry to do so. 
Does JAYDEE remember the nursery rhyme be- 

" Dickery, dickery, dock, 

The mouse ran up the clock " ? 
There we have the triplets before and the iambics 
after ; but in the sequel, 

" The clock struck one, and down she come, 
Dickery, dickery, dock," 

we have a line of iambics followed by triplets, as 
in Sir Walter's poem, 

"And each | St. Clair | was bu | ried there | 
With | candle, with | book, and with | knell." 

In setting these lines to music the iambics would 
all be turned into trochees by placing the first 
syllable " And " before the bar, because it is un- 
accented. WM. CHAPPELL. 

(5 th S. x. 269.) This cross has no connexion with 
Sir Walter Raleigh. It is supposed to have been 
erected to mark the manorial boundary of the 
ancient family of Raleigh of Nettlecombe, and 
undoubtedly was in existence centuries before 
Elizabeth's time. Its date is probably tem,p. Ed. I. 
(cf. Pooley's Crosses of Somersetshire). The manor 
of Nettlecombe was, in the time of Hen. II., 
granted to Hugh de Raleigh, of Raleigh in the 
county of Devon, and to his heirs, and continued 
in that family until about the middle of the 
fifteenth century (or nearly a century before the 
birth of Sir Walter Raleigh), when it passed 
through heiresses to the Whalesborough and Tre- 
velyan families, in which latter family it still 
remains. D. K. T. 

MR. R. P. HAMPTON ROBERTS inquires whether 
any more Transactions of this society have been 
published since " The Spoon," as others on culinary 
utensils were promised. I have not met with 
any subsequent lucubrations by Habbakuk 0. 
Westman. This nom de plume was assumed 
by Thos. Ewbank, Esq., formerly Commissioner of 
Patents in the United States. He was author of 
a work on hydraulics I presume of a more serious 
character but I have not seen it. Ewbank's 
Hydraulics are referred to in "The Spoon," 
pp. 118 and 271. EXPERTO CREDE. 

BRASS TRAYS (5 th S. x. 495.) There is a pair 
>f old-looking brass trays, such as A. J. K. de- 
cribes, in the South Kensington Museum, and I 


[5 th S. XT. JAN. 18, '79. 

think he will find them labelled " nineteenth and eldest surviving son of the latter, the Ven. 
century." I have also seen similar trays exposed Archdeacon Clive, is the gentleman referred to 
for sale at Eastbourne and elsewhere, and, what is above. He was born in March, 1795, and is now, 

worse, I bought a pair and believe myself sold. 


therefore, eighty-three. Though his birth was 
twenty years later than the death of his uncle, 
Lord Clive, in 1774, the fact still remains that 
only two generations are comprised within the 

There is a winding stream at Hail Weston, near 
StNeots which is made useful in skin diseases ,- descendant, the Earl of 

Wnnto v,n IrnnwH n.nvthW about the crookedness P enod - * T - - tLUG [ES> 

Neots who knows anything about the crookedness 
ofCrawley. ST. SWITHIN. 

CLEVELAND FOLK-LORE (5 th S. x. 287.) In 

My ancestor, John Standerwick, died in 1568, 
and his descendant in the eighth degree, my father, 

i died in 1876, the average for each generation being 
Anglesey they say that if you do not wear some thirt d ht ' and a hal f vearg . 


new article of dress on Easter Day the birds will 

" drop" on you, which in that county makes the , .,* , 

I f 

But in the indi- 
generations the most marked departures 

birds harpies at Easter, instead of angels as in 
Cleveland. E. P. HAMPTON EGBERTS. 

LENGTH OF A GENERATION (5 th S. ix. 488, 518 ; 


Sir J. William Hort, Bart., of Hortland 
House, in the county of Kildare, J.P. and D.L., 

x. 95, 130, 157, 197, 315, 524.) With respect to died suddenly in London on the 24th of August, 
the link with the past which MR. A. S. ELLIS 1876. He was born July 6, 1791. It is note- 
mentions in the case of Mr. Horrocks, it is nothing worthy that the baronetcy, to which the late Sir 
less than astounding that a man living in Queen William succeeded in 1807, was granted to his own 
Victoria's reign should have been able to speak of father 109 years ago, and that his grandfather, Dr. 

his father as having been born during the Com 
monwealth, when Oliver Cromwell was actually 
alive in the flesh ! MR. ELLIS, I observe, does not 
vouch for the truth of this statement ; he merely 
" says the tale as 'twas said to him." Is it a well- 
authenticated fact 1 What says our good friend 

I am sorry to intrude anything more of a per- 
sonal nature on your readers with regard to this 
subject, but MR. ELLIS has fallen into a slight 
error, which I should like to correct. He says 
that Lord Mendip could have said a good deal 
more than either MR. BOUCHIER or MR. HOWLETT 
will ever be able to say, even if they live to be 
centenarians, inasmuch as Lord Mendip died 
nearly 200 years after the birth of his grandfather. 
So far as I am concerned, if I were to live to be a 

Hort, Archbishop of Tuam, was born in the reign 
of Charles II. JOHN LANE. 

I have a cousin now living whose father was 
born in 1737. My cousin's grandfather might 
therefore easily have been born before the Eevo- 
lution. E. H. A. 

WlLLOUGHBT OF PARHAM (5 th S. X. 387, 503.) 

If it is true, as stated by MR. C. F. S. WARREN, 
that " an erroneous writ creates a new barony," a 
curious question arises respecting the head of the 
ducal house of Northumberland. His predecessor, 
Hugh, third duke of the present creation, was 
called to the House of Peers, vita patris, about the 
year 1814, as Baron Percy of 1299, under the 
idea, since abandoned as erroneous, that his father 

centenarian (which I am sure I have little enough <>w ned that barony in fee in right of his mother, 
expectation of doing), it would be just 200 years the first duchess. Such being the case, the ques- 
>"'' ' i ' ' "- i tion arises whether (since the king can do no- 

from my grandfather's birth in April, 1738, to my 
hundredth birthday in February, 1939. 


wrong) the act of the Crown in calling him to the 
Upper House created a new barony, with the date 
of 1814, or whether it really created in his favour 
Though not altogether relevant to the question a barony in fee, with the precedence of 1299. If 
at issue, I cannot refrain from sending you a the former supposition is true, the title died with 
notice of a remarkable fact which has more than him, as he had no son ; but if the other supposition 

once been recently observed by me, viz., a gentle- 
man passing the statue of his own uncle, who was 
born in 1726, 152 years ago. 

Eobert, Lord Clive, was born Feb. 24, 1726, 
and a bronze statue of him by Marochetti adorns 
the Market Square of Shrewsbury. His brother 
William was born Aug. 29, 1745. The second 

is correct, then the present duke would seem 
have acted prematurely in disclaiming that ancient 
title, for, in the event of his male descendants fail- 
ing, it would pass to females, instead of becoinii 
extinct. It should be remembered that it is nc 
impossible for the Crown to grant a peerage wit! 
the fictitious precedence of an earlier date than the 

5th s. XI. JAN. 18, 79.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


actual one ; at all events, such a thing was occa- 
sionally done in Scotland. 


KENNET WHARF (5 th S. x. 228, 393.) This i s 
to correct a slight error into which MR. SOLLY ha s 
evidently fallen in regard to Downes's Wharf, 
which subsequently was " called the Leith and 
Glasgow Wharf," and which he states as the wharf 
from which the Newbury barges sailed, and as 
being in Thames Street. This is wrong. Downes's 
or Downes' Wharf was in Lower East Smithfield, 
and was the focus of the north of England and 
Scotch trade solely, I may say, for many years ; 
while the Kennet subsequently the Kent and 
Avon trade was all above bridge, more recently 
at Steel Yard Wharf, where now crosses the 
South-Eastern Railway bridge in Upper Thames 
Street. W. PHILLIPS. 

Is SUICIDE PECULIAR TO MAN ? (5 th S. x. 166, 
313.) The following extract appeared first in the 
Shrewsbury Chronicle of Friday, Oct. 25, 1878. 
Thinking it would interest the readers of our 
parochial magazine, I caused inquiries to be made, 
and found the particulars to be strictly accurate. 
The owner of the dog does not, however, wish his 
name to appear: 

story is told in connexion with a valuable St. Bernard 
dog belonging to a gentleman who resides near to the 
town. It appears that a day or two ago the animal 
received a castigation for having chased a pig, and the 
dog took it so much to heart that it is said to have run 
and jumped into a deep pool of water, and, as the animal 
made no apparent effort to pave itself, was drowned. 
The dog was valued at from 20*. to SOI." 


Of all the lower animals, the " fittest " to commit 
this act is the ape, and, until an instance be 
adduced thereof, supposed cases in any other 
animal are quite imaginary. E. 

"SuissEs" (5 th S. x. 188, 315.)-This French 
word for a porter in some places became established 
in England. Over the lodge of the door-keeper of 
Ripley Castle, near Harrogate, there is written in 
old letters the direction, " Parler au Suisse." 

J. E. B. 

A water-carrier is still in Paris called an Au- 
vergnat ; a foreign banker, whatever his nationality, 
was formerly in London called a Lombard; and in 
our Midlands a peddler is often called a Scotchman. 


BOSTON SOUNDED " BAWSTON " (5 th S. x. 338, 
357, 377, 526; xi. 34.) I do not wish to prolong 
this discussion, but must beg leave to say, in reply 
to W. E. H., thai; not possessing a Lancashire note- 
book, I have not made the mistake which he sug- 
gests ; that my examples of Lincolnshire dialect 
were written down within a few minutes of their 

utterance, and that they were corroborated and 
amplified by the native who (as recorded in my 
book), prompted by good nature and curiosity, 
accompanied me two days in my walk from Wain- 
fleet to the Wash, and thence along the coast to 

During that walk I learned that the heavy 
leather gaiters worn by drain- diggers were called 
yants and splats. Yants comes near to the yanks 
of your contributor SALF (p. 38). 


THE LATE W. G. CLARK (5 th S. x. 400, 407, 
438 ; xi. 38.) Perhaps it may be worth while 
noting that he was one of the Tres Viri Floribus 
Legendis (T. V. F. L.), the three Salopians who 
edited the Sabrince Corolla, the first edition of 
which was issued in 1850, a book as creditable to 
the scholarship of Shrewsbury as it is to that of 
England. His two colleagues were B. H. Ken- 
nedy, D.D., formerly Head Master of Shrewsbury 
School, and James Riddell, M.A., late Fellow and 
Tutor of Balliol College, Oxford. Mr. Clark was 
personally known to me, but only towards the 
close of his life. For incidentally interesting 
notices of him during his undergraduate career at 
Cambridge let me refer your correspondents to 
Five Years at an English University, by Charles 
Astor Bristed. JOHN PICKFORD, M.A. 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

EMBEZZLE (5 th S. x. 461, 524; xi. 30.) Four 
additional instances will be found in Archbishop 
Trench's Select Glossary, s.v. (4th ed., 1873, p. 84). 
He says, " There is a verb ' to imbecile,' used by 
Jeremy Taylor and others, which is sometimes 
confused in meaning with this." W. C. B. 


WILL-O'-THE-WISP (5 th S. x. 405, 499.) Here is 
another name for the ignis fatuus, quite in analogy 
with those I have already sent you : " Ghosts, 
hobgoblins, Will-with-wispe, or Dicke-a-Tuesday" 
(Sampson's Vow-Breaker, 1636, quoted in Nares). 
Will-with-ivispe is to me a new varietal form of 
the name. The quotation is also eighteen years 
earlier than Gay ton's Notes. Halliwell gives Dick-a- 
Delver as East Anglian for the periwinkle. Dicken 
certainly means the devil, but there seems hardly 
any necessity to explain the Dick of Dick-a-Tues- 
day thus. As to the Tuesday element, I suspect 
some abbreviation or corruption. Halliwell also 
gives Jack of the Wad, which may be compared 
with the similar Somersetshire names already noted. 


To " POOL " (5 th S. x. 368, 503.) I think pool 
is a misprint for tool. To tool a coach is the slang 
term for driving a coach, and hence to tool railway 
traffic may mean to carry it on, to manage, to 
conduct it. ST. SWITHIN. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [^ s. XL JAN. is, 79. 

BALCSNY OR BALCONY (3 rd S. ix. 303, 380, 519; 
5 th S. x. 299; xi. 39.) As to the pronunciation of 
this word, I may mention that those who throw the 
accent on the second syllable have the authority of 
Cowper, as the following stanza from The Diverting 
History of John Gilpin will testify : 
" At Edmonton his loving wife 

From the balcony spied 
Her loving husband, wondering much 

To see how he did ride." 

As to its origin I quote the following passage from 
Eich's Travels in Kurdistan, leaving it to your 
readers to decide as to its value : " On the side of 
the hall are two little galleries called bala khoneh, 
from whence (sic) comes our English word balcony." 


MR. BERNHARD-SMITH, by the way, is wrong in 
claiming Byron as an authority for the short o in 
balcony. He has clearly misread and misquoted 
the passage from Marino Faliero. It is from the 
first scene of the last act (vol. xii. p. 180 of the 
edition of 1833), and runs thus : 

" Guards ! lead them forth, and upon the balcony 

Of the red columns," &c., 

the line being one of eleven syllables, like the two 
before and the one after it, and like so many of 
the lines in Shakspere. If Byron had intended 
the o to be short he would have written " and on 
the balcony," as MR. BERNHARD-SMITH quotes 
him ; but he wrote " upon the balcony," because 
in this way he made the o long. 0. T. B. 

Byron makes the o long twice in Beppo : in the 

first instance (stanza 11) making it rhyme to 

Giorgione, in the second (stanza 15) to that name 

and Goldoni. C. T. B. 

[Old-fashioned people speak of the doom of St. Paul's.] 

A " FUSSOCK" (5 th S. x. 349, 521) pronounced 
fuzzoclc here, not/wssoc/c is a stupid person, one of 
confused, tangled brain, for the inside of the 
head, analogous to the epithet " fuzzy " for the 
outside a " head of fuzzy hair." Favourite word 
with boys of Richmond Grammar School twenty- 
five years ago. E. 

Richmond, Yorkshire. 

" EAINING CATS AND DOGS " (5 th S. viii. 183 ; 
x. 299.) In seeking the origin of many popular 
sayings it should be borne in mind how prone our 
English sailors, and perhaps others beside them, 
are to turn the sayings of the French sailors into 
some English which sounds like the French. Is 
there not a French word catadoup or catadoupe, 
meaning a waterfall? and, if so, will not this 
account satisfactorily for the saying that it rains 
cats and dogs ? Moreover, Kara 8oav has nothing 
to do with a heavy rainfall ; it will apply as readily 
to the fisherman who enclosed a great multitude of 
fishes, or to the sportsman shooting in Sussex for 

the first time, who found that his partridge pudding 
had a crust such as he never saw before. 

T. W. E. 

ALLEY FAMILY (5 th S. x., 388, 455.) A friend 
writes : 

" No Alleigh (Alley) ever held a bishopric in Ire- 
land. My ancestor was born at Wickham, in Bucks ; 
educated at Eton, and graduated at Cambridge ; became 
Divinity Lecturer at St. Paul's, London, and Bishop of 
Exeter, 1561 ; a high favourite with the Queen, who 
gave him yearly a silver cup in token of respect. He 
lies near the high altar in Exeter Cathedral, with in- 
scription, ' acerrimus propugnator veritati?,' &c. He 
was thirty-fifth bishop, and reigned nine years." 

E. N. 
Beechingstoke, Wilts. 

349, 413.) Wilkinson's Atlas Classica, published 
in 1827 by Hamilton, Adams & (Jo., is no doubt 
the atlas referred to. It contains one map of the 
ancient dioceses of England, also a table showing 
" The Succession of Bishops with the Alteration 
of Dioceses at Different Times in England since 
the Arrival of St. Augustine in 597, with their 
Contemporary Sovereigns." T. J. 

WATCH-CASE VERSES (5 th S. x. 66, 135 ; xi. 
19.) The lines beginning " Absent or dead," &c., 
are by Pope, and occur in his Epistle, to the Earl 
of Oxford. ' G. F. S. E. 

[This answers CHILI'S query.] 

345, 394.) The following quotations from Best's 
Rural Economy in Yorkshire in 1641 (Surtees 
Society) illustrate the above subject : 

" Wee have allwayes of a stricken bushell of corne, an 
upheaped bushell of meale, i.e., sixe peckes, or very 
neare." P. 103. 

" If the miller bee honest you shall have an upheaped 
bushell of tempsed meale of a stricken bushell of corne ; 
and of meale that is undressed, an upheaped bushell and 
an upheaped pecke." P. 104. 

" Md that the 10th of Jully, 1608, the Earle of Cumber- 
land's steeardes did wryett and send Richard Cootea 

and William Parke, yeoman, to gett one pecke sealled 
with our standard, but this pecke to conteyne stryken 
with a strykell as mutche as our standerd pecke holdeth 
upeheaped, because their measuers at Skipton is ussed to 
be with our standerd but upeheaped (Extract from the 
Corporation Books of Richmond)." P. 104, note. 


Castelnau, Barnes. 

226, 375, 397, 419, 525.) May I point out that 
the same person is archbishop " respectu episco- 
porum quorum princeps est," and metropolitan 
" respectu civitatum in quibus constituuntur epis- 
copatus " (Lyndw., lib. v. tit. 15, gl. f.). Commonly 
and correctly we speak of London as the " capital," 
not the metropolis, of England. St. Paul's, London, 

5th S. XL JAN. 18, 79.] 



is certainly not the see of the metropolitan, a title 
reserved to the two archbishops. That cathedral, 
therefore, is clearly not metropolitan or metropoli- 
tical: the resumption of this title by Cranmer 
marks a momentous change in the history of the 
Church of England. 


It is quite right to call St. Paul's a metropolitan 
cathedral, and Westminster Abbey a metropolitan 
abbey. Canterbury and York are not metro- 
politan, but metropolitical, cathedrals. 

"DUNCE": "CLERK" (5 th S. x. 225,454.) 
MR. SCOTT confounds John Duns, the Doctor 
Subtilis, born in the thirteenth century, and 
usually called Duns Scotus, with John Erigena or 
Scotus, the well-known preceptor of Charles the 
Great. The first is generally supposed to have 
been of a family taking its name from the barony 
of Dunse, in Berwickshire, but some have asserted 
that he was born in Northumberland and others 
in Ireland. SUSSEXIENSIS. 

BACON ON "HUDIBRAS" (5 th S. xi. V, 30.) I 
have the portrait of Sam. Butler by Sir Godfrey 
Kneller from, I think, the Hastings collection. 

Blairliill by Dollar, Scotland. 

PLATT DEUTSCH "GAT" (5 th S. xi. 31.) MR. 
WEDGWOOD refers, sub voce " Yateley, Hants," to 
the PI. D. gat, "the outpouring or mouth of 
a stream, any narrow passage of waters." He need 
not go so far as the PI. D. Along the coast of 
Norfolk and Suffolk the entrances or passages 
between the shoals are called gats. There is Cor- 
son Gat off Yarmouth, and many others, as any 
nautical chart shows. Query, has the famous 
Hell-gate at New York the same origin ? 

W. G. F. P. 

" EETE CORVIL " (5 th S. xi. 27.) Does not this 
refer to the " crow-net " ordered by Act of Parlia- 
ment (24 Hen. VIII. cap. 10) to be maintained in 
every parish 1 There is possibly a mistake in the 
second word, which, I should imagine, was some 
abbreviation of cormnurn. Bishop Stanley 
(Familiar Hist. Birds, 2nd edit., vol. i. p. 243) 
quotes an entry among certain presentments con- 
cerning the parish of Alderley in Cheshire in 1598 : 
" We find that there is no Crow-nett in the parish, 
a payne that one be bought by the charge of the 
parish." See also Yarrell's British Birds, fourth 
edition, in course of publication, vol. ii. p. 293. 


GEFFERY'S BEQUEST (5 th S. xi. 22.) The extract 
from Sir Kobert Geffery's will of the portion con- 
taining the particulars of his bequest for the 
maintenance of a daily service at St. Dionis Back- 

church, and the mention of his burial in a private 
vault in that church, have a melancholy significance 
at this time. The church was pulled down last 
year, and the remains of Sir Robert and his wife 
have been removed to the burial ground of the 
Ironmongers' Almshouses in the Kingsland Road. 
The last clause in the extract provides that in case of 
default in the reading of the prayer in the church 
for more than three days the rents and profits of 
the premises directed to be purchased " shall go 
and be paid to the Hospital of Bethlehem and 
Bridewell." Will the governors of that institution 
now claim the bequest 1 P. W. TREPOLPEN. 

S. ix. 168, 214, 239, 276, 352.) -Thackeray men- 
tions this custom in the Virginians. The Dowager 
Countess " presented compliments (on the back of 
the nine of clubs), had a card-party that night, 
and was quite sorry she and Fanny could not go 
to my tragedy." May I be permitted to point out 
this as an instance of Thackeray's study of the 
period of which he wrote ? ALICE B. GOMME. 

ix. 328 ; x. 55, 76, 119 ; xi. 16.) I have a volume 
of almanacs for 1739, apparently all that were 
published that year, and probably from the Royal 
Library, as the binding is adorned with the royal 
cipher crowned. Among them is An Ephemeris, 
by William Andrews, Student in Astrology. 

G. T. 

Deanery Square, Exeter. 

(5 th S. xi. 8.) In reply to the latter part of this 
question, the Abbes Giuliani and Liccia of Corsica 
in 1767 devised a contrivance which they called 

II Corriere Volante," and of which a brief but 
not very clear account may be found in the 
London Magazine, vol. xxxvi. p. 16. It was not a 
flying machine, but a portable machine, which 
served for the purpose of communicating notices or 
advice twenty-five or fifty miles, by night or by 
day. Some English gentlemen who saw it in 
operation were highly satisfied and pleased with-it. 
This may possibly be the contrivance 0. is inquiring 

Sutton, Surrey. 

O. will find much curious matter and illustra- 
tions relative to Dr. Musgrave in the Oxford 
Magazine for the year 1769. G. T. 

Deanery Square, Exeter. 

CHRISTMAS CHEER : " PIG'S FRY " (5 th S. x. 
514.) The same notion has prevailed here, and 
perhaps still does. It is also customary to send 
presents of " beslings," the first milk of a cow after 
calving, for " beslin' " puddings. It is very un- 
lucky not to send them, or for the recipients to 



[5 th S. XI. JAK. 18, '79. 

wash out the vessels in which they have been 
sent. See Peacock's Glossary, s.v. " Beastlings." 

J. T. F. 
Winterton, Brigg. 

RIDLEY FAMILY (5 th S. x. 516.) Your corre- 
spondent will find a description of the Ridley 
monument in St. Nicholas Church in Brand's 
History and Antiquities of the Town and County 
of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 1789, vol. i. p. 282 ; 
and the like in Richardson's Collection of Armorial 
Searings, Inscriptions, &c., in the Church of St. 
Nicholas, Newcastle, 1820, with an engraving of 
the medallion which forms the base of the monu- 
ment. J. MANUEL. 

Ne wcastle-upon-Tyne. 

THE AMERICAN CLERGY (5 th S. x. 496.) No 
such names as those of " 1. J. N. McJilton," and 
"3. C. W. Everest," are to be found, either in 
11 The Clerical Guide and Churchman's Directory : 
an Annual Register for the Clergy and Laity of 
the Anglican Church in British North America " 
(Ottawa, 1877, J. Durie & Son, Sparks Street, 
edited by C. V. Forster Bliss, pp. 421) ; or in 
The Protestant Episcopal Almanac and Directory 
(New York, 1878, Bible House) ; and The Church 
Almanac (New York, 1878, P. Episcopal Tract 
Society) ; but in the last appears, " Rev. Ed- 
ward J. Stearns, D.D., Rector of Denton, Mary- 
land," who may be 2, as inquired after by MR. 
INGLIS. It is therefore probable that the other 
two American clergymen are both dead, or, at all 
events, not now living in the New World, and I 
regret I cannot afford any further information 
regarding them. A. S. A. 


446.) The sheriffs of London and Middlesex take 
office on Sept. 28 in each year. JAS. CURTIS. 

(5 th S. x. 247, 336, 396.) Gavantus, Thesaurus 
Sacrorum Rituum, pt. iv. tit. vii. n. 19, says : 
" Notse illse + C. S. Non sunt antique, auctorem 
habent incertum, et puto, eas significare Christum, 
Chronistam, Synagogam. Alii, Christum, Can- 
torem, Succentoreni." C. J. E. 

THE SUNFLOWER (5 th S. viii. 348, 375, 431, 
497 ; x. 14, 156, 352.) Surely it is obvious that 
the flower was so called from its disc, which re- 
sembles the old pictures of the sun. But from 
what does the heliotrope take its name ? and what 
is the flower into which Clytie was changed 1 

H. A. B. 

249, 354.) A complete and trustworthy list of the 
public libraries of Europe, and especially of Great 
Britain, is a pressing want. Valuable materials as 

the foundation for such a list will be found in 
Edwards's Statistical View of the Principal Public 
Libraries of Europe and America, 1848, and in 
the same author's Memoirs of Libraries, and in his 
Free Town Libraries . ... in Britain, France, 
Germany, and America. 


388, 435 ; x. 317.)" William Fitz Nicholas 
Blaking," in 1297, is clearly a misreading of 
" Willielmus filius Nicholai Blaking," or William, 
the son of Nicholas Blaking. The surname is pro- 
bably Blakeney, not Blaking. The work quoted 
(Druery's Yarmouth) is not one of any authority. 



CURIOUS CHRISTIAN NAMES (5 th S. x. 106, 196, 
376.) The prenomen or Christian (?) name of a 
male patient under my care at the present time is 
Virgo. Why so named I have been unable to 
ascertain. As a surname it is not uncommon in 
this county, and a desire to perpetuate it in a 
collateral branch of the family may have led to 
the singular transposition. It is scarcely necessary 
for me to point out its inappropriateness as a 
Christian term to a man. 


Brookwood, Surrey. 

A brother of the first Lord Ravensworth was 
christened Henry Jupiter. According to the Times 
recently a witness was examined who bore the in- 
congruous names of Thomas Jolley Death. 


A man named Golden Prentice, formerly of 
Rayleigh, Essex, is advertised for in the Times of 
November 1st or 2nd. E. WALFORD, M.A. 

OBSCURE EXPRESSIONS (5 th S. x. 267, 409.) 
Brogger, a corn factor. In East Yorkshire this 
word may still be traced in the provincialism for 
broker, who is here called a broger. This pronun- 
ciation also runs through the compound forms, as 
stock-broger stock-broker, &c. S. G. 

Butcher's broom (Ruscus aculeatus, Linn.) is 
perhaps meant. Cotgravehas, " Houssoir, a brush 
or beesome made of butcher's broom," The Alvearie, 
1580, says, " A certain rough and prickled shrubbe, 
whereof bouchers make their beesoms Euscum 
sive ruscus, &c. Meurte sauvage." 


105, 214, 396.) In the little village of East Til- 
bury, in Essex, situate on the banks of the Thames, 
and not far from Romford, is a house known as 
Whalebone Cottage, in front of which is an arch 
composed of the jaw-bones of a huge whale. From 

5"' S. XI. JAN. 18, 79.] 



;heir weather-worn appearance they may possibly 
have belonged to that alluded to by S. P. 


TOUCHARD-LAFOSSE (5 th S. ix. 29.) From Dr. 
Jules Jusserand, now vice-consul for France in 
London, and author of an excellent work on 
Le Theatre en Angleterre depuis la Conquete, I 
hear that Touchard-Lafosse wrote in the present 
century and belonged at one time to the French 
Civil Service. Dr. Jusserand adds that his com- 
pilation has no more historical value than the 
Souvenirs de la Marquise de Crequi, one of the 
most impudent of literary frauds. I am thankful 
for the information. This does not explain, how- 
ever, why it is that neither the Biographie Univer- 
selle, which mentions the spurious work attributed 
to the marchioness, nor the Dictionnaire des Litte- 
rateurs of M. Vapereau gives the name of a man 
whose influence on the romance literature of 
France has been strong and distinct. M. Vapereau 
has a bare reference to the Chronique de I'CEil de 
Boeuf under the head " Chronique," where he 
classes it with the Chronique Scandaleuse and the 
Chronique du Temps de Charles IX. as belonging 
to romance rather than history. J. KNIGHT. 

The Lusiads of Camoens. Translated by J. J. Aubertin. 

2 vols. (C. Kegan Paul & Co.) 

WHEN a translator places the original alongside his ver- 
sion he means you to observe one of two things ; either 
with what carefulness he has rendered stanza for stanza, 
line for line, if not word for word, or else with what an 
accuracy of sense and expression he has paralleled idiom 
with idiom, and by a truthful, yet audacious, vivacity 
has secured for his copy the freshness of an original 
poem. The former has evidently been Mr. Aubertin's 
object. Faithful to his author, he reminds one of 
Huggins in his literalness of rendering, though the 
Lusiads of Mr. Aubertin are far superior as works of 
art to the Orlando Furioso of Mr. Huggins (or Temple 
Henry Groker, as the name stands in some copies of the 
book, but not in ours, which was once James Boswell's 
own). To us Mr. Aubertin's reads as a work of unex- 
ampled regularity, and this, considering the versions we 
possess of the Lusiad, is a very distinct praise : Fan- 
shaw, full of life, but not unfrequently of low life; 
Mickle, fine, free, but faithless, a most beautiful de- 
ceiver ; Moore Musgrave, stately in his lack-lustre blank 
verse; Quillinan, scholarlike in quality, but imperfect 
in quantity, not of syllables but cantos (he has done but 
five); and lastly Sir Thomas Mitchell, in his Lusiad akin 
for licence to Mr. Barter in his Iliad, whom, by the bye, 
Mr. Richmond Hodges quaintly cites in his Dissertation 
on the Lusiad and on Epic Poetry, prefixed to his 
seasonable^ and most welcome edition of Mickle. To 
give an adequate sample of Mr. Aubertin's continuous 
excellence in his own well-considered line is, of course, 
for us impossible. We may, however, specify a few pas- 
sages of his translation, for the sake of comparison with 
those that have gone before. The night scene, canto i. 
stanzas Ivii.-lix., of Mr. Aubertin may be compared with 
p. 20 of Mr. Christmas (1st Lusiad), which contains the 
three stanzas in Spenserian stanza, that adopted by 

Wiffen in his translation of the Jerusalem Delivered. 
With canto ii. stanzas xxxii.-xxxviii., a picture of Dione 
(Dionsea= Venus), compare Fanshaw, p. 29. In canto iii. 
with the episode of Inez de Castro, stanza cxviii. adf., 
may be compared Quillinan, p. 114, &c., especially the 
beautiful daisy-stanza cxxxiv., reminding the reader in 
some degree of Euphorbus in Homer (IL, xvii. 53), and 
Euryalus in Virgil (JEn., ix. 435), and especially of jEn., 
xi. 68. Over Velloso's grand "Lay of the Twelve" we 
will pass with the simple remark that, like a second 
Berni to another Boiardo, Mickle has made it his own 
and England's for all time, while 
" The green-boughed forests by the banks of Thames 
Behold the victor champions, and the dames 
Bouse the tall roe-bucks o'er the dews of morn, 
While through the dales of Kent resounds the bugle 


The specimens noted above must suffice as tests of the 
good, sound workmanship of Mr. Aubertin. 

In the event of a second edition being called for, we 
would suggest to Mr. Aubertin that, having in these 
beautiful volumes furnished the English public with a, 
very good edition of the original (that published by the 
Conego Francisco Freire de Carvalho, in Lisbon), he 
should in his next dispense with the Portuguese text, and 
from Fonseca's edition (Paris, 1849) supply, by way of 
appendix, a version of all the stanzas which Camoens 
himself rejected, omitted, or altered, as they were 
originally written by him, and exist in two remarkable 
manuscripts. This would be exceedingly interesting and 
useful ; and for this reproduction Mr. Aubertin's truthful 
mode of working is excellently well adapted. Perhaps 
another reading aloud of Fanshaw might suggest to Mr. 
Aubertin a little more of that dash and freedom in parta 
which, controlled by a judgment sound as his, would be 
never out of place in a poem as full of life and adventure 
as is the great Ulysseid of Portugal. 

Old and New London. Vol. VI. The Southern Suburbs, 

By Edward Walford. (Cassell, Petter & Galpin.) 
THIS concluding volume of Messrs. Cassell's handsome 
work on the history of London is the most interesting of 
the series, for it deals with the vast district of Southern 
London, a great part of which has not previously found 
an historian, so that both letterpress and illustrations are 
full of freshness. Mr. Walford has gathered together 
much useful information on the various places and in- 
terspersed it with many amusing anecdotes. How ex- 
tensive is the field he has undertaken to cultivate may 
be seen from the table of contents. He starts from 
London Bridge and the once famous " Bear at the Bridge* 1 
foot," the first of the noted inns that have long formed 
one of the distinguishing features of the " Borough," and 
after lingering for a time among the churches and prisons- 
of South wark, he passes on to Bermondsey, looking in at 
Jamaica House, where Pepys took his wife and her maida 
fora day's pleasure ; then to Deptford, where Henry VIII. 
first founded the Royal Dockyard, where Drake's ship 
the Golden Hind was visited as a sight until it fell to 
pieces from age, and where Peter of Russia worked as a 
shipwright. From thence he takes his reader to Green- 
wich, with its palace, park, and observatory, back to 
Camberwell, Peckham, and Dulwich, to Streatham, re- 
minding us of Dr. Johnson and Mrs. Thrale, toClapham 
(Ingoldsby's " sanctified ville "), Brixton, St. George's 
Fields (" fields no more "), and Lambeth. Here he starts 
afresh for \ auxhall, loved by Johnson, Battersea the 
retreat of Bolingbroke, and Wandsworth and Putney, the 
home of more celebrities than can be mentioned here. 
Over Putney Bridge we come to Fulham and Hammer- 
smith and end with Chiswick, still one of the least 
changed of the villages around London. The whole 



[5th s. XL JAN. is, 79. 

volume is full of interesting associations of statesmen, 
authors, artists, and actors, and the chapter containing 
notices of Pope, Hogarth, Ugo Foscolo, and Chiswick 
House,, where Fox and Canning both died in the same 
room, brings the volume to an appropriate conclusion. 
Most of these places had once their special customs, their 
well attended fairs, their mineral springs, their manor- 
iouses, their windmills and other rural characteristics, 
but all these features are now wiped out and dull uni- 
formity reigns in their stead. In taking a survey of the 
entire work, we find that the plan laid down has been 
carried out successfully, so as to form a satisfactory whole. 
The first two volumes, which were compiled by the late 
Mr. W alter Thornbury, contain an account of the City. 
The last four are by Mr. Walford : vols. iii. and iv. give 
the history of Westminster and the West-end ; vols. v. 
and vi. that of the suburbs. The illustrations, which are 
chiefly taken from Mr. Grace's splendid collection of 
London views, form a most valuable feature of the book. 
The contrast here, as in most collections, between the 
artistic views of places that have passed away and the 
bald representations of existing buildings, is striking. 
Formerly it seems to have been a custom for artists to 
make drawings of the chief features of London and its 
environs, and these were engraved with care, but none 
such are now seen, and in their place we have photographs. 
If Canaletti, Gainsborough, and Paul Sandby could find 
points of view in Old London worthy of their pencil, the 
landscape painters of to-day need not be ashamed to 
follow in their steps. 

It would not be just to omit a word of praise for the 
useful index, which forms a most acceptable key to the 
contents of the six volumes. 

The Magazine of American History, with Notes and 
Queries. Edited by John Austin Stevens. (New York 
and Chicago, A. S. Barnes & Co.) 

WE have received the current number of this excellent 
monthly, which enters its third year of existence. It is 
a magazine of the very highest order, creditable in every 
way to both editor and publishers. In the eighty pages 
which compose the present number we fail to find an 
article that is not only not worthy of preservation, but 
that is not actually a valuable contribution to general 
history as well as to that of the country to which it is 
specially devoted. It should have in this country, as it 
has at home, an extensive circulation among historical 
and political students. 

As we are going to press we regret to learn the fatal 
termination of the illness of a valued and kind-hearted 
contributor, E. M. WAKD, R.A., whose paintings have 
charmed more than one generation of our countrymen, 
and whose loss will be widely deplored. 

THE merits of the late Mr. Edward T. Stevens, F.S. A., 
Honorary Curator of the Blackmore Museum at Salis- 
bury, were widely known to antiquaries during his life- 
time. Many of our readers may like to know that the 
Mayor of Salisbury, J. W. Lovibond, Esq., is honourably 
associated, as treasurer, with several of our most dis- 
tinguished archaeologists, such as Mr. Franks, Prof. 
Boyd Dawkins, Sir John Lubbock, Mr. John Evans, &c., 
on a committee which has been formed to raise some 
funds for the widow of one who, " after devoting much 
of his time and energies to the public good, died a poor 

THE " Cyprus " is the name of a stand well adapted for 
holding a newspaper or a piece of light music, and, being 
most simply contrived and of but slight dimensions, it 
bids fair to prove very acceptable to readers in general. 
A great want having been so far met, we hope to see 

supplied by the same firm a stand, on 
with the " Cyprus," but of a somewhat stronger build, 
that shall be capable of holding an ordinary sized book, 
and not be very easily tilted over. This latter quality 
might possibly be secured by substituting a flat circular 
and somewhat larger base for the present form of a tripod 

flotiteti to C0rretfj)anlffitt*. 

We must call special attention to the following notice: 

ON all communications should be written the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

TV. WYCHERLEY (Wellington). The Town and Country 
Mouse, or, in the original Scottish, The Uplandis Mous 
and the Surges Mous, a poetic fable, was written by 
Robert Henrysoun (d. 1508). The City Mouse and 
Country Mouse was written by Prior and Montague 
(afterwards Earl of Halifax) in 1687. The latter is not 
generally included in an edition of Prior's poems ; doubt- 
less it will be found as a separate publication in the 
British Museum. 

MR. FRANK J. PARR (Ledbury) writes : " Will some 
of your correspondents communicate direct to me pedi- 
grees of Parr from the following works'? Gentleman's 
Magazine, 1829, i. 397; Topographer and Genealogist, 
iii. 352, 597 ; Berry's Kent Genealogist, 404 ; Burke's 
Landed Gentry, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 5th editions ; Chetham 
Society, Ixxxi. 120; Whitaker's Richmond 'shire, ii. 167 J 
Nichols's History of Co. Leicester, iv. 725-725* ; Baker's 
Northampton, ii. 61; Burke's Patrician, iii. 593; 
Bridges's Index to Printed Pedigrees; The Old Bool: 
Collector's Miscellany, vol. iii. Living in a small country 
town I have not the opportunity to look over a good 
reference library." 

J. TAYLOR (Northampton). We are much obliged for 
A Calendar of Payers of the Tresham Family, of the 
Reigns of Elizabeth and James L, 1580-1605. Preserved, 
at Rushton Hall, Northants. Many of our readers may 
be glad to know that this pamphlet is published by 
J. R. Smith, Soho Square. Your paper will appear next 

RIVTJS. You have probably slightly misread the coat. 
The nearest we can find is, Sa., a chevron between three 
owls arg. Crest : A cubit-arm erect, vested gu., cuffed 
erm., holding in the hand ppr. a hand-beacon sa., fired 
ppr. Motto as described by you, and all borne by Pres- 
cott of Theobalds, Bart., cr. 1794. 

J. T>.One is quite sufficient, and certainly more 
convenient to us. 

J. C. (Bolton). The subject has already been noted in 
our columns. 

M. P. Many thanks. Next week. 

F. S. H. A proof will be sent. 

E. W. (Cannes). We shall be glad to have the paper 
you propose. 

0. R. More suited to one of our scientific contem- 

CORRECTION. " Privileged Flour Mills," ante, p. 29. 
For " fruiting " in title of Act, read grinding. 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to " The 
Editor of 'Notes and Queries '"Advertisements and 
Business Letters to " The Publisher "at the Office, 20, 
Wellington Street, Strand, London, W.C. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print ; and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 


S. XL JAN. 25, '79.] 





' TOTES : Calendar of Chichester Cathedral, Fourteenth Cen- 
tury, 61 Was St Paul's Cathedral ever called East Minster ? 
62 -A List of Anti-Usury Books, 63 Town Jeremaiah, 64 
" Feather "-Sir Walter Scott and the Poet Hayley The 
Wesleys and Colleys, 65 An Emigre Poet Hammer-cloth 
Gifts placed in the Stocking at Christinas Riding the Staag 
Witchcraft in Dorset, 66. 

QUERIES -Shelley and Byron, 66 -Suffragan Bishops Top- 
ham Family Walking in Snow and Frost -Race-horses 
famed in Irish Turf Annals Lysiensis -A Mystery Seal of 
King Richard III F. Carneri, 67 Boswert the Engraver 
Digbeth "Smurring" " Wrest- Beer" and "Kilderkin" 
Miss Mitford Manchester Parish Church Moot-hills 
E. P. Lovejoy Lieut. -Gen. A Hamilton Rev. H. Christ- 
mas, 68 "Godivo" The "Blue Pig" Canons, Preben- 
daries, and Honorary Canons Authors Wanted, 69. 

HEPLIES: John Butler, Lord Dunboyne, R. C. Bishop of 
Cork, 69 " How Lord Nairn was Saved" Percy Bysshe 
Shelley, 70 Epigram on Beau Nash Lavater on Ghosts, 
71 Curious Coincidences, 72 Verbal Catches Funeral 
Armour in Churches, 73 Superstition in Shropshire Lamb's 
"Tales from Shakespear " T. Otway, the Dramatist, 74 
Motto for an Index Simpson's Hymns Local Toasts 
Laura Bassi " The Pilot that weathered the Storm " Altar 
Wine Genius An Ancient Pair of Boots Edward Long- 
shanks, 75-Abp. Sheldon Mrs. Melroe " Bindery " 
Treatment of Smallpox " Ditty," 76-Ploughing by the 
Horse's Tail "Lay of the Last Minstrel "Length of a 
Generation Curious Christian Names" Raining cats and 
dogs "Actresses first permitted on the Stage Guide's 
"Cleopatra" Houses of Parliament " Boss," 77 Fowler 
of Islington Balcony Maps and Plans relating to Ireland, 
&c., 78 Servants' Hall Forfeits Authors Wanted, 79. 

INOTES ON BOOKS :" The Poets Laureate of England" 
"Historical Memorials of Beauchief Abbey." 

.Notices to Correspondents, &c. 


The volume called Liber Cicestrensis has un- 
liappily lost its fourth part, containing a catalogue 
of bishops, statutes, appropriation of churches to 
monasteries, and notices of buildings little known 
or forgotten, such as S. Cross Hospital, Win- 
chelsea. I give now, in continuation of the 
MS. Hereford and St. Alban's Calendars, that of 
Chichester towards the close of the fourteenth 
century. It probably was compiled for Bishop 
'.Robert Rede. * marks red letter days. 

Jan. 8. S. Luciani sociorumque ejus. 

14. S. Felicis ep. et mart. 

15. S. Mauri abb. 

16. S. Marcelli ppe. 

17. S. Sulpicii epi. 

18. S. Prisce virg. 

19. S. Wlstani epi.* 

20. S. ffabiani et Seb.* 

21. S. Agnetis virg.* 

22. S. Vincentii mart.* 

27. S. Juliani epi. 

28. S. Agnetis secundo. 
30. S. Batildis regine. 

Feb. 1. S. Brigide virg. 
3. S. Blasii epi. 
6. S. Vedasti et Amandi. 
10. S. Scolastice virg. 

Feb. 14. S. Valentin? mart. 

16. S. Juliane virjr. 
Mar. 7. S. Perpetue et Felic. virg. 
12. S. Gregoriippe.* 

18. S. Edwardi regis.* 

20. S. Cuthberti epi. * 

21. S. Benedict! abb.* 
April 3. Depositio S. Ricardi epi.* 

14. S. Tiburtii et Valer. mar. 

19. S. Ealphegi archiepi. 

23. S. Geornii mar.* 

24. Translacio S. Wilfrid! epi. Sells.* 
28. S. Vitalis mart. 

30. S. Erkenwaldi epi. 
Mail 10. S. Gordiani et Epimachi. 

12. S. Nerei et Achillei. 
19. S. Dunstani epi.* 

25. S. Aldelmi epi.* 

26. S. Autfustiniepi.* 
28. S. German i epi. 

31. S. Petronille virg. 
Junii 1. S. Nichomedis mart. 

2. S. Marcellini et Petri. 

5. S. Bonifacii soeiorumque. 

8. S. Medardi et Gildardi. 

9. Translacio S. Edmundi.* 
11. S. Basilid. Cirini. Nabor. 

14. S. Basilii epi. 

15. S. Viti et Modesti. 

16. Translacio S. Ricardi.* 

18. S. Marci et Marcell. 

19. S. Gervasii et Protha. 

20. Translacio S. Edwardi.* 

22. S. Albani mart. 

23. S. Etheldrede virg. 
26. S. Johan. et Pauli. 
28. S. Leonis ppe. 

Julii 2. S. Process, et Martiniani. 
4. Transl. et Ord. 8. Martini.* 
7. Translacio S. Thome mart.* 

10. 7 f rat rum mart. 

11. Translacio S. Benedict! ab.* 
15. Translacio S. Swythini.* 

17. S. Kenelmi regis. 

18. S. Arnulphi epi. 

22. S. Mar. Magd.* 

21. S. Praxedis virg. 

23. S. Apollinaris. 

24. S. Christine virg. 

26. S. Anna mater Marie mxtris Dei. 

27. 7 Dormienc. 

28. S. Sampsonis epi. 

29. S. Felic Simplicii fr. 

30. S. Abden et Sennes. 

31. S. Germani epi. 
Aug. 2. S. Steph. ppe. 

& Inventio S. Steph.* 
B. S. Oswald! regis. 

6. Sixti Felicissimi. 

7. S. Donati epi. 

8. S. Cyriaci sociorumque ejus. 

9. S Roman! mart. 

10. S. Laurencii mart.* 

11. S. Tiburcii mar. 

13. S. Ypoliti sociorumque ejus. 

14. S. Eusebii presb. 
18. S. Agapeti mart. 
19 .S. Magni mart. 

23. S. Timothei et Appoll. 

27. S. Rufi mart. 

28. S. Augustini doct.* 
30. S. ffelic. et Adaucti. 



|5 h S. XL JAN. 25, '? 

Aug. 81. 
Sept. 1. 


Oct. 1. 









Dec. 6. 

S. Cuthburge virg. 

S. Egidii abb.* 

Transl. S. Cuthberti.* 

S. Bertini abb. 

S. Gorgonii mart. 

S. Prothi et Jacincti. 

S. Edithe virg.* 

S. Lambert! epi. 

S. Mauritii soc. ejus.* 

S. Tecle virg. 

S. ffirmini epi. 

S. Cipriani et Justine. 

S. Cosme et Damiani. 

S. Jeronymi presb.* 

S. Remigii, Germani.* 

S. Leodegari epi. 

S. ffidis virg. 

S. Marci Marcelli. 

S. Dionysii Rustici et Eleutherii.* 

S. Gereonis sociorumque ejus. 

S. Nichasii socior. ejus. 

Nat. S. Wilfrid! epi. Selis.* 

Transl. S. Edwardi regis.* 

S. Kalixti ppe. 

S. Wulfranni epi.* 

S. Michaelis in raonte.* 

S. ffrideswyde virg.* 

XI. milia virg. 

S. Romani epi. 

S. Crispin! et Crispiani. 

S. Quintini mart. 

S. Leonard! abb.* 

IV. Coronator. 

S. Theodori mar. 

S. Martini epi.* 

S. Bricii epi. 

S. Maclmtiepi.* 

S. Edmundiarchiepi.* 

S. Hugonis epi.* 

S. Edmundi regis.* 

S. Cecilife virg.* 

S. dementis ppe.* 

S. Crisogonii mart. 

S. Katerine virg.* 

R. Lini ppe. 

S. Saturnini et Sisinnii. 

S. Nicholaiepi.* 

S. Lucie virg.* 

S. Thome archiepi.* 

S. Silvestri ppe.* 

[Ashm. MS. 1146.] 


Erasmus positively states that it was ; for he is 
speaking in the following extract of St. Paul's 
Cathedral : 

" Nee admodum gratus erat plerisque sui collegii, quod 
tenacior esset disciplines regularis, ac subinde querita- 
bantur se pro monachis haberi, quanquam hoc collegium 
olim fuit, et in vetustis syngraphis vocatur orientale 
monasterium." Erasmi Epistola Jodoco Jonce, p. 708 of 
Des. Erasmi Epistolce, 4to., London, 1642. 

But is there any solid ground for this assertion 1 
The question hinges upon the origin of the name 
Westminster, and as to this the authorities are by 

no means agreed. Newcourt makes a very cautious 
statement : 

'' Once it [Westminster Abbey] was call'd Thorney, 
from the Thorns; now Westminster, from its westerly 
situation, and the minster" Repertorium, i. 709. 

Stow is, however, very much more definite : 

" Westminster had its name from the minster, that is, 
the monastery, situate westward ; as there was another 
minster, not far from the Tower of London, eastward of 
the City, called Eastminster." Stow's, Survey, byStrype, 
fo., London, 1755, i. 575. 

Maitland grapples with this statement very 
vigorously, and takes up a line in direct opposition 
to Stow : 

( This abbey, according to divers modern historians 
and surveyors of London, was denominated Westminster, 
to distinguish it from the Alley of Grace on Tower-Hill, 
called Eattminster ; but that this is a very great mistake, 
is manifest by the charter granted to the former by 
Edward the Confessor in the year 1066, whereas the 
latter was not founded till anno 1359 ; the appellation of 
Westminster was given to distinguish it from the church 
of St. Paul, in the City of London." Maitland, History, 
p. 1328, citing Spelman's Cone., torn. i. 

From these conflicting statements I naturally 
turned to the historian of Westminster, the Eev. 
Mackenzie Walcott, whose valuable Memorials of 
Westminster are known to every student : 

" The abbey church of the convent we have mentioned 
was called West Minster, in order to distinguish it from 
St. Paul's Cathedral, the metropolitan church of the 
East Saxons, and which lay to the eastward in London." 
Memorials, p. 2. 

Taking down my Monasticon (fol., Lond., 1817), 
I find (vol. v. pp. 717-20) an account of the 
" Abbey of St. Mary Graces, East- Minster, or New- 
Abbey, without the walls of London." Dugd ale's 
editors quote, " with the correction of a single 
date, 1359 to 1349," Newcourt's account of the 
Abbey of St. Mary Graces. I need not burden 
your pages with a long extract from so well known 
a book as Newcourt ; suffice it to say that he 
states that Edward III., " after having been in a 
tempest on the sea, and in peril of drowning," 
built ^this monastery in fulfilment of a vow, 
" causing it to be called East-Minster, placing in 
it an abbot and monks of the Cistercian, or White 
Order." The abbey stood east from East Smithfield. 

Dugdale prints the charter of foundation granted 
by Richard II., from which we learn that the 
abbey was to be founded "in novo cimiterio sanctaa 
Trinitatis juxta Turrim nostram London." The 
abbey is not described in the charter as East Min- 
ster, but simply as " Abbatia Beatse Marias de 
Graciis," or some equivalent name; and I should 
be glad to be informed in what authoritative docu- 
ment the Abbey of St. Mary Graces is first called 
East Minster. Dugdale gives it this name in the 
heading of his article, but does not specify his 
authority ; and I do not find the name in the few 
documents relating to the abbey which he has 

5"> S. XI. JAN. 25, 79.] 



If the name of East Minster is rightly applied 
>y Dugdale to the Abbey of St. Mary Graces, 
md I have no reason to doubt his accuracy, is not 
.his abbey the true ORIENTALS MONASTERIUM, 
md has not Erasmus blundered in applying the 
aame to St. Paul's Cathedral ? 

As an ardent lover of the cathedral (of which I 
have been a minor canon eighteen years this very 
day), I cannot allow that the name East Minster 
san be applied to it, and that for two reasons. In 
the first place, St. Paul's was not a monasterium ; 
and in the second, it is not in the cist. West- 
minster men may be so bold as to assert that it is, 
but I venture to maintain that St. Paul's is the 
very heart of London, and that other buildings, 
however important, must be spoken of as east or 
west, north or south, from it. Westminster is, 
according to this view, the minster west from St. 
Paul's, as East Minster was the Abbey of St. 
Mary Graces, east from St. Paul's. 


January 11, 1879. 

(Continued from 5 th S. x. 423.) 

Sandys (Edwin), Archbishop. The sermons of E. S.... 
Edited for the Parker Society by the Rev. John Ayre.... 
Cambridge, printed at the University Press, 1841. 8vo. 
pp. (6) +32+ (4) +468. Pp. xxvi, 50, 136, 182-3, 202-4. 
" Whatsoever thou receivest upon condition, or by what 
means soever thou receivest more than was lent, thou 
art an usurer." P. 203. M. 

Andrewes (Lancelot), Bishop. Reverendi in Christo 
patris, Lancelot!, episcopi Wintoniensis, opuscula quae- 
dam posthuma. [Device.] Londini, excudebat Felix 
Kyngston pro R. B. & Andrsea Hebb, 1629. 4to. pp. 
(14)+200+(2)+88. Pp. 111-138, De usuris, theologica 
determinatio, habita in publica schola theologica Can- 
tabrigias. Per Lancelotum Andrewes. M. 

Opuscula quaadam posthuma L. A., episcopi Winton- 
iensis. Accedit in opera ejus Latina index copiosissimus. 
Oxonii, J. H. Parker, 1852. Londini, excudebat R. 
Clay. 8vo. pp. (8) + 216 + 70. Pp. 117-150, De usuris. M. 
^31st March, 1591. Henrie Hass[el]op. Entred unto 
him for his copie, A ballad wherein is discovered the 
great covetousnes of a miserable usurer, and ye wonder- 
full liberally tie of his ape &c., by warraunt from Master 
Warden Cawood, iujd. [This is cancelled, and a marginal 
entry made] Assigned to William Wright 9 Aprilis, 1591. 
(T. S. R., ii. 577.) See below. 

Smith (Henry). A preparative to mariage. The summe 
whereof was spoken at a contract, and inlarged after. 
Whereunto is annexed a treatise of the lords supper, and 
another of usurie. By Henrie Smith. Newly corrected, 
and augmented by the authour. At London, printed by 
J . Charlewood for Thomas Man, dwelling in Paternoster 
Row, at the siirne of the Talbot, 1591. 8vo. pp. 12+96. 
Sigs. A 2-7, B Gin eights. 

A treatise of the lords supper, in two sermons.... Im- 
printed at London by Thomas Orwin for Thomas Man, 
dwelling in Paternoster Row, at the signe of the Talbot, 
1591. 8vo. pp. 2+54+58. Sigs. A-G in eights and H 1. 

The examination of usurie, in two sermons. Taken 
by characterie, and after examined.... Imprinted at 
London by Thomas Orwin for Thomas Man, dwelling in 

Paternoster Row, at the signe of the Talbot, 1591. 8vo. 
pp. 4+36+6+ff. 7 to 14. Sigs. H 2-8, I, K, L in eights. 

Three praiers, one for the morning, another for the 
evening, the third for a sick-man. Whereunto is annexed 
a godlie letter to a sicke-friend, and a comfortable speech 
of a preacher, upon his death bed, 1591. London, 
Imprinted for Thomas Man, 1591. 8vo. pp. 16+15 to 
20. Sigs. A 1-8; M 1, 2, 3. Being one work, in four 
parts. M. 

A preparative to mariage. The summe whereof was 
spoken at a contract, and inlarged after. Whereunto is 
annexed a treatise of the lords supper, and another of 
usurie. By Henrie Smith.... Newly corrected and aug- 
mented by the author. Imprinted at London by R. 
Field for Thomas Man, dwelling in Paternoster Row, at 
the signe of the Talbot, 1591. 8vo. pp. 8+272. Pp. 
193-248, The examination of usury, in two sermons. 
Taken by characterie, and after examined.... Imprinted 
at London by R. Field for Thomas Man, dwelling in 
Paternoster Row, at the signe of the Talbot, 1591. 
Pp. 200-1, Usurie is that gaine which is gotte by lend- 
ing, for the use of the thing which a man lendeth, 
covenanting before with the borrower to receive more 
than was borrowed. M. 

9th April, 1591. William Wright. Entred for his 
copie by warrant from Master Cawood and Henry Has- 
selups consent. A ballat intitled, A warninge to word- 
linges (sic) discoveringe the covetousnes of a usurer and 
the liberalyty of his ape, iiijd (T. S. R., ii. 578.) 

Turnbull (Richard). An exposition upon the xv. 
Psalm, devided into foure sermons. Compiled by 
Richard Turnbull,... as they were by him preached at 
Pauls Crosse.... Imprinted at London by John Windet, 
1591. Svo. ff. 8+59. Ff. 43-53, Usury. M. 

[Four sermons on Psalm xv. By Richard Turnbull. 
London, 1606.] 4to. Without pagination. Sigs...., A-G 
in eights. M. copy lacks all before sig. A. Fourth 
sermon, sigs. E7-G2, Usury. 

Anonymous. The death of usury ; or the disgrace of 
usurers, compiled more pithily then hitherto hath bene 
published in English : wherein usury is most lively 
unfolded, defined and confuted by divines, civilians, 
canonists, statutes, schoolemen, olde and newe writers. 
With an explanation of the statutes now in force concern- 
ing usury : very profitable for this present age. Cam- 
bridge, John Legatt, 1594. 4to. B. Another edition, 
1634. 4to. 

Phillips (George). Five sermons. ...2. The end of 
usurie, on Habac. ii. 19.... London, 1594. Svo. 

19th June, 1594. John Danter. Entred alsoe for his 
copie under the hande of Master Cawood a ballad called, 
The usurer's rewarde, vjrf. (T. S. R., ii. 654.) 

Mosse (Miles). The arraignment and conviction of 
usurie. That is the iniquitie, and unlawfulness of usurie, 
displayed in sixe sermons, preached at Saint Edmunds 
Burie in Suffolke, upon Proverb. 28. 8. By Miles Mosse, 
minister of the worde, and bacheler of divinitie. Scene 
and allowed by author! tie.... Reade all, or censure 
none.... At London, printed by the widdow Orwin for 
Thomas Man, 1595. 4to. pp. 20+172. Black letter. M. 
[Entered 18 Feb., 1595; 4 Aug., 1608; 12 Aug., 1635; 
27 March, 1637 ; see Transcript Stationers' Registers, 
ii. 671, iii. 386, iv. 345, iv. 379.] Miles Mosse suffered 
from literary pirates ; on p. 19 he writes of " one, who 
taking the names of my mouth, and not understanding 
them, hath published them in print farre otherwise then 
they were delivered by me, or they are in themselves." 

Cabasilus (Nicolaus) the younger, Archbishop of 
Thessalonica. Nicolai Cabasilae oratio contra foenera- 
tores. A Davide Haeschelio edita.... Augustas Vindeli- 
corum ad insigne Pinus. Cum privilegio Caes. perpetuo. 
Anno 1595. 4to. pp. 2+22. Greek text. M. 



[5' S. XL JAN. 25, '79. 

Magna bibliotheca veterum patrum et antiquorum 
scriptorum ecclesiasticorum. Priino quidem a Margarine 
de La Bigne. ...Coloniae Agrippinae, sumptibus Antonii 
Hierati, sub signo Gryphi. Anno 1618. 15 vols., fol. 
Vol. 14, pp. 132-136, Nicolai Cabasilae oratio contra 
fcerieratores, nunc primura Latine etlita. M. 

Maxima bibliotheca veterum patrum. Margarino de 
La Bigne. Lugduni, 1677. Folio. Tom. 26, pp. 169-173, 
N. C. oratio contra fceneratores. Latin. M. 

Patrologije cursus complectus J. P. Migne. Paris, 
1865. 4to. Tom. 150, cc. 727-750, N. C. oratio contra 
feneratores. Gr. and Lat. M. 

Shakespeare (William). The Merchant of Venice. 

Gregorius (Petrus). Tractatus de usuris. 3 libris. 
Francofurti, 1598. 8vo. B. 

Beyma (Julius van). Commentaria in varios titulos 
juris, de pignoribuset hypothec!?, deusuria et hypothecis, 
de usuris et fructibus, de acquirenda vel amittenda 
possessione, de duobus reis constituendis ; item, tractatns 
singulares de mora, de usura, de eo quod interest. 
Louvanii, 1645. 4to. (Watt.) 

F. W. F. 
(To 1>e continued.) 

TOWN JEREMAIAH,* between Chaje and Teraz, 
supposed to be Jerma, 170 miles north-east from 
Kabul (W. H. Smith & Son's map of Afghanistan). 
According to Mahummadan historians generally, 
the countries Hindf and Sind were founded by and 
called after two brothers, Hind and Sind, two of 
the nine sons of Ham, one of the three sons of the 
Nabi or Prophet Noah, which genealogical accounts 
are no doubt derived from the Talmud or other 
Hebrew work of authority. The united J accounts 
of the Mahummadan mullahs and the learned rabbis 
of Balkh and Bokhara are described by the Eev. 
Joseph Wolff as showing that the cities Balk and 
Bokhara are the same as Habor and Halah of 
pur Bible, and that the country Turkistan, which 
is intersected by the Oxus and forms the northern 
boundary of Afghanistan, must be the land of 
Nod, the city now called Balakh or Balkh having 
been built on the site where Nod stood. 

According to the A srdr-ul- Afdghinah by Hiisain, 
the son of Sabir, the son of Khizr, the disciple of 
Hazrat Shah Kasim, Sulaima'ni, a notice of whose 

* Geography of Alul Kasim Muhammad Ibn, the son 
of Haukal, an Arabic traveller, A.D. 976, translated by 
Sir William Jones, p. 274. The year or place of his 
death has not been ascertained. Perhaps the tomb at 
Chunar, erected by one of the Afghan emperors over 
a father and a son of whom nothing is known, may be 
their burial-place (Bishop Heber's Travels in India, 
vol. iii. p. 410). 

t History of India, by Sir Henry Elliot, edited by Prof. 
Dowson; Shajrdl-ul-Atrdk, or Genealogies of the Turks, 
translated by Col. Miles, p. 21, according to which the 
countries Turkey, Sclavonia, Russia, and China were 
founded by and called after Toork, Suklub, Roos, and 
Cheen, four of the eight or nine sons of Japhet. 

I Researches and Missionary Labours, by the Rev. 
Joseph Wolff, 1835, p. 191. 

Asrdr-ul-Afdghinah, Secrets of the Afghans, trans- 
lated by Sir William Jones; Bengal Asiatic Researches, 
1807, vol. ii. p. 69. 

tomb at Chunar on the Ganges is given in Darnell's- 
Views of India, as well as the Mnjmd-al-Ansdb, the 
house of Afghanistan is Bani Israil, a branch of 
the house of Israil, claiming descent from Afghan, 
one of the grandsons of the Melik Talut or King 
Saul. In one account || Afghan is described as 
being the architect employed by Solomon in build- 
ing the temple at Jerusalem, and in another as 
being the nephew of Asaph, the sou of Berachia, 
the builder, which adds that he was banished from 
Jerusalem to Damascus a year and a half after the 
death of Solomon on account of his ill conduct. 
The Persian word Afghan means lamentation, 
groaning, alas, as in Afghan kardan, to make 
lamentation. A map is given in Thornton's 
gazetteer of Afghanistan in which Kilah (Fort) 
Afghan is marked about twenty miles north from 
Takht-i-Suliman (throne of Solomon) and seventy 
west from Jerma. Unfortunately, however, no 
descriptive notice whatever about any one of these 
three ancient cities is given, but it seems more 
than probable that Kilah Afghan marks the site of 
a fort founded by Afghan, and is the place from 
which Afghanistan derives its name. 

According to the Asrdr-ul-Afdghinah, Afghan,, 
the founder of the Afghan dynasty, and Osbek, of 
the Osbek family of Khiva and Bokbara,T from 
Os, self, and Bek or Beg, a lord, implying not 
entitled by birth to the succession, were cousins, 
the sons respectively of Berkia and Irmia, who 
served David and were beloved by him. 
Melik Talut or King Saul. 


Afghan, distinguished for 
his corporal strength. 


Usbec, Osbek, or Osbeg, 
eminent for his learning. 

While according to the Majmd-al-Ansdb, or 
Collection of Genealogies, Afghan, on the contrary, 
was the son of Irmia** (Jeremiah), the son of 
Talut (King Saul), the son of Keis, the son of 
Falegh, the son of TJkhnuakh, the son of Ushruah, 
the son of Judah, the son of Jacob ; the brothers 
Berkia and Irmia, according to both, being sons of 
Saul, tending thereby to show that Hilkiah, the 
devoted to God (as the father of Jeremiah is de- 
signated in the Bible), refers to their grandfather, 
the Melik Talut or King Saul. Is Jerma of 
Elphinstone's, Thornton's, and Smith's maps of 
Afghanistan identifiable with Jeremaiah of Ibn 
Haukal 1 and in what work of travels is any 
account to be found of Kilah Afghan, Takht- 
i-Suliman, and Jerma? K. E. W. ELLIS. 


Researches and Missionary Labours, by the Rev. 
Joseph Wolif, pp. 208-229. 

f Wolff, p. 170. 

** D'Herbelot's Billiolheoue Orientale,vol. ii. p. 338 , 
Wolff, p. 229. 

5"' S. XL JAN. 25, 79.] 



" FEATHER." There are several secondary senses 
of this -word, which it is Avorth while throwing 
together for comparison, and endeavouring to trace 
the thread of connexion between. 

To cut a feather is a sea phrase, used of a ship 
when she makes the sea foam before her (Phillips). 
Connected perhaps with this is the expression to 
feather an oar, that is, to turn the blade hori- 
zontally in the back stroke, so as to cut more 
quickly through the resisting air or wind of the 
boat's way. Following out the same analogy, in 
carpentry feather-edged boards are planks thicker 
on one edge than the other (Bailey), and Halliwell 
gives a feather-edged stone in the same sense. In 
his Dictionary I also find that to feather means 
to bring a hedge or stack gradually and neatly to 
a summit. In this sense, I presume, must mid- 
feather, which I have heard dozens of times in 
Cheshire, be explained. It there means the narrow 
ridge of dry land left between two marl-pits dug 
side by side.* In Yorkshire, mid-feather is given by 
Halliwell as meaning the upright beam that takes 
the two leaves of a barn-door ; for which same 
thing an equivalent Old English word, middle- 
spear, is also quoted. Now all these uses seem 
capable of being traced from/ea/ier=pluma, but 
I would ask philological experts if the second 
element in mid-feather is so to be derived. There 
may be here a corruption of quite a distinct word. 


The following letter from Sir Walter Scott to 
William Hayley has, so far as I am aware, never 
appeared in print ; it would certainly have been 
introduced by Lockhart in his life of the great 
novelist had its existence been known to him. 
The " Drum and Trumpet performance " referred to 
in the letter is The Vision of Don Roderick, pub- 
lished on the 15th of June, 1811. The " two emi- 
nent public characters" are thus referred to by 
Sir Walter in the preface to his poem : 

" I think it proper to mention tnat while I was hastily 
executing a work, written for a temporary purpose, and 
on passing events, the task was most cruelly interrupted 
by the successive deaths of Lord President Blair 'and 
Lord Viscount Melville. In those distinguished charac- 
ters I had not only to regard persons whose lives were 
most important to Scotland, but also whose notice and 
patronage honoured my entrance upon active life ; and I 
may add, with melancholy pride, who permitted my more 
advanced age to claim no common share in their friend- 

In the second paragraph Sir Walter refers to his 
meditating the erection of a cottage on his newly 
acquired lands on the banks of the Tweed. As he 
purchased the farm of Clarty Hole for 4,OOOZ. of 
borrowed money, it is not to be doubted that he 

* Cotgrave gives " Knirefo*se, the distance or space 
that is between pit and pit or between ditch and ditch," 
the exact French equivalent of the Cheshire mid-feather. 

was perfectly sincere in his expressed intention of 
constructing on it only a "cottage" or "bower." 
But his views rapidly expanded, and within a few- 
months builders were at work rearing the first 
portion of the stately house of Abbotsford. A 
garden with " fruit walls " was part of the original 
design ! This letter, I must add, is another con- 
tribution to the columns of " N. & Q." from the 
collection of the Baron de Bogoushevsky : 

" Edinburgh, July 2, 1811. 

" My dear Hayley, I have not yet thanked you 
for your kind and valued recollection of me in 
the acceptable present of a copy of your plays, be- 
cause I was then in the very agonies of bringing 
forth the enclosed Drum and Trumpet performance, 
which I sent to the press sheet by sheet as fast as 
it was written. The death of two eminent public 
characters interrupted my task not a little, and took 
from me for some time all power of proceeding in it. I 
was intimately acquainted with both, and in frequent 
intercourse both familiarly and in the way of public 
business. We shall not soon see two such men in Scot- 
land, to the welfare of which country they were devotedly 

"I am just now setting about a task in which I wish I 
had some of your good taste to assist me. I mean build- 
ing myself a cottage, or, in the language of romance, a 
bower upon Tweedside. The situation has a pastoral 
character, but is not of a romantic or beautiful descrip- 
tion. As the little property lies half a mile along the 
banks of a bold and rapid river, I hope I shall find a good 
place for my proposed hut. Can you direct me to any 
good plan for such a cottage ? I know you are distin- 
guished for good taste in rural affairs as well as in litera- 
ture. Two things I have determined: one is to have my 
little garden (having no pretension to fruit walls) close 
to the house, and entering from it like some of your beau- 
tiful old rectories; the other is to have the offices adjoin- 
ing to the house, for you must know I like to spend 
time in 

Twisting of collars my dogs to hold, 
And combing the mane of my palfrey bold. 
Besides, as my boys, according to the habit of the country, 
will be a great deal in the stable, I wish the said stable 
to be under my own eye. Excuse my plaguing you with 
these trifles. I have a great notion you can assist me if 
you will think about it. Adieu. Believe me, ever dear sir, 
" Your truly obliged and faithful 


Grampian Lodge, Forest Hill, S.E. 

not generally known that Mrs. Wesley, sister of 
the great-grandfather of Arthur, Duke of Welling- 
ton, is mentioned as a friend by Swift in the first 
of his Letters to Stella. The Dean writes under 
date Dublin, Sept. 2, 1710, "I write by this post 
to Mrs. Wesley, and will tell her that she may 
have her bill of one hundred and fifty pounds 
whenever she pleases to send for it." The lady 
whom he thus mentions is stated in a foot-note in 
my edition of Swift to have been " Elizabeth, 
wife of Garret Wesley, Esq., and one of the 
daughters of Sir Dudley Colley." Burke, in his 
Peerage, mentions this Dudley Colley, but does 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [e> s. XL JA. 25, 79. 

not style him a knight, but adds that he was " of 
Castle Carbery, and member of the first Parlia- 
ment after the Restoration." 


AN EMIGRE POET. There was issued at the 
close of the last century a small poetical pamphlet 
with the following title-page : 

" Opuscules Poetiques, par 1'auteur de 1'Epitre a. mon 

' I only wish to please the gentle mind, 
Whom Nature's charms inspire and love of human 

kind.' DR. BEATTIE. 

A Chelsea : de 1'imprimerie de Jaques et Thomas, at the 
Neat Houses, et se vend chez 1'auteur, No. 28, Bobin- 
son's Lane, 1797." 8vo. pp. 46. 

He received the substantial encouragement of a 
goodly number of subscribers. The chief poem 
"Les Epoux malheureux" is given in French 
and in English, "translated by Mr. Ewen." 
There is some local interest in the lines " On John 
Paulin, Esq., who died at Chelsea, the 19th April, 
1797." Here is one of the smaller pieces : 

" A Mademoiselle sur son Mariage. 

Aimable objet en tout terns fait pour plaire ; 
Tu viens de ton epoux de recevoir la foi : 
Un tel serment ah ! n'est point temeraire, 
Qui te connais ne peut aimer que toi." 
Another neat trifle is this translation of Pope's 
famous epitaph on Newton : 
" La nuit voiloit les lois de la nature entiere ; 
Dieu dit, ' Que Newton soit ! ' et tout devint lumiere.' 

The author of the tract was a M. de Cubieres, of 
whom further particulars would be acceptable. 

HAMMER- CLOTH. Former volumes of " N. & Q." 
have contained notes as to this word. The earliest 
instance I have noticed of it occurs in a document 
of the time of Queen Mary Tudor, printed in the 
Arcliceologia : " Hamer clothes with our arnies & 
badges of our colours and all other things apper- 
teininge unto the same wagon " (xvi. 91). 

[See " N. & Q.," 2 n(1 S. viii. 381, 407, 439, 539 ; ix. 284.] 


I have not seen the following observance recorded 
anywhere, and having only lately been told it by a 
country person cognizant of its observance both in 
Herefordshire and Worcestershire from personal 
knowledge reaching up to last year, perhaps in 
addition to other folk-lore it may be worth a 
place in " N. & Q." 

On Christmas Eve, when the inmates of a house 
in the country retire to bed, all those desirous of 
a present place a stocking outside the door of 
their bedroom, with the expectation that some 
mythical being called Santiclaus will fill the 
stocking or place something within it before the 
morning. This is of course well known, and the 
master of the house does in reality place a Christmas 

gift secretly in each stocking ; but the giggling 
girls in the morning, when bringing down their 
presents, affect to say that Santiclaus visited and 
filled the stockings in the night. From what 
region of the earth or air this benevolent Santiclaus 
takes flight I have not been able to ascertain, but 
probably he may be heard of in other counties than 
those I have mentioned. An Exeter resident tells 
me this custom prevails also in Devonshire. 

Green Hill,, Worcester. 

RIDING THE STANG. According to the Penrith 
Observer, this ancient ceremony was " perpetrated" 
on Friday, the 10th instant, at Sedbergh, in York- 
shire. The "subject," who is left undescribed, 
was, it appears, " suspected of some act of im- 
morality." The worthy Observer is much exercised 
about the "perpetration," but confesses that the 
Sedbergh folks rather enjoyed it. A. J. M. 


"Reports continue to be received, a correspondent 
writes, of a remarkable case of superstition in the village 
of East Knighton, in Dorset. In a cottage dwells a 
woman named Kerley and her daughter, a girl of about 
eighteen, and the latter is supposed to be bewitched 
to be the subject of the strangest manifestations. It is 
positively declared that articles have been thrown out 
of the cottage into the street although neither window 
nor door was open, and these are stated to have been 
sent flying about in all directions. An old woman 
named Burt is set down as the cause of all the mischief, 
and she is declared to have assumed the form of a hare, 
to have been chased by the neighbours, and then to have 
sat up and looked defiantly at them. It is positively 
believed that until blood is drawn from the witch the 
manifestations will not cease." . 

The above is from the Reigate and lied Rill 
Journal of January 14. I believe Dorset has 
always been rich in witchcraft, and I hope that 
some competent inquirer in the neighbourhood of 
East Knighton will watch the symptoms and de- 
scribe them in " N. & Q." FITZHOPKINS. 

Garrick Club. 

[We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct.] 

SHELLEY AND BYRON. In 1826 Messrs. 
Baldwin & Co. published the prospectus of a book 
entitled Letters to an Atheist, apparently intended 
to be a reply to Shelley's Oxford pamphlet. The 
following extract is of interest just now, when 
the subject of Byron's religious belief has been 
revived by the publication of Mr. Hodgson's corre- 
spondence : 

" Lord Byron, it is at present sufficiently known, 
very opposite feelings upon this momentous subject from 
those of his sometime companion. Two or three year 


5th S . XL JAN. 25, '79.] 



before the death of the former an Irish nobleman, then 
recently returned from Italy, said to the author of these 
Letters, ' Take my word for it, if Lord Byron lives long 
enough he will die a Methodist ! ' The same informant 
added that it was an anecdote then current in Italy that 
Lord Byron, upon Shelley's speaking, one stormy evening, 
in his usual atheistical manner, exclaimed, ' For God's 
sake, Shelley, do not talk in that manner now ; I don't 
mind it by daylight, but I can't bear it at night.' " 

The writer or projector of this work was, I 
believe, Mr. E. A. Kendall, the author of a once 
well-known book on Catholic Emancipation and 
of several admirable stories for children. Was it 
ever published ? BIBLIOTHECARY. 

SUFFRAGAN BISHOPS. What is the proper 
style of epistolary address for these bishops ? The 
common idea is that they are simply helpers to 
the regular bishop, analogous to a curate to an 
incumbent. This is borne out by Kelly's Upper 
Ten Thousand, which gives the forms as " The 

Eight Rev. the Suffragan Bishop of ," and 

" Right reverend sir." As some of these bishops 
claim to be called " My lord," and addressed as 
" The Bishop of So-and-so," and quarter the arms 
of the diocese with their own, and put the mitre 
on their servants' liveries and horses' trappings, it 
behoves us to know their real position. If they 
have a right to a territorial title (apart from that 
of the diocese to which they were consecrated 
suffragans) and to be styled "My lord," the 
general idea of their subsidiary character and 
the text of our books of authority upon prece- 
dence, &c., ought at once to be set right. 


TOPHAM FAMILY. I am anxious to know 
whether the following are of one family : Edward 
Topham, Trin. Coll., Camb., A.B. 1729, A.M. 
1733, and Fellow ; Matthew Topham, St. John's 
Coll., A.B. 1727 ; Francis Topham, Sidney Coll., 
LL.B. 1734, LL.D. 1739, and Dean of the Arches, 
York, in 1764 ; Edward Topham, Trin. Coll., who 
died 1820, aged, sixty-nine, in whose memory was 
a tablet in Doncaster Church. A daughter of Dr. 
Francis Topham died at Doncaster, 1822, aged 
eighty. The first Edward Topham published 
a sermon preached in Selby Church (date not 
known). T. C. 

of his letters to Stella in January, 1710-11, 
observes : 

"It is a good proverb that the Devonshire people 
have : 

' AValk fast in snow, in frost walk slow, 
And still as you go tread on your toe ; 
"When frost and snow are both together, 
Sit by the fire and spare shoe leather.' " 

The " proverb " is certainly suited to our sharp 
frosty and snowy Christmas of 1878. But does it 
come from Devonshire ? I doubt. 


What is known of a horse called Skewball, which 
tradition asserts defeated a celebrated mare called 
Miss Grizzle at the Curragh 1 And when was the 
race run 1 Also, is any printed information to be 
got concerning the sporting triumphs of two Gal- 
way families, the Kirwans and the Lamberts 1 
Another renowned animal was Diamond, begot, 
they say, of a sea-horse on the banks of the 
Shannon. D. F. 

LYSIENSIS. May I revert to a query about this 
word which I put forth eight years ago (4 th S. v. 
360), and to which I received no satisfactory reply 1 
It occurs as indicating the nationality of Thomas 
Gemini, who published in Latin an abridgment of 
Vesalius's Anatomy in 1545, and English versions 
of the same work in 1553 and 1559. In the Latin 
edition he calls himself Geminus, in the English 
ones Gemini. Several correspondents were kind 
enough to offer explanations, among them our 
lamented old friend F. C. H., ever ready with his 
stores of varied learning. The towns of Licium, 
Lissa, and Lisi were suggested, and even the river 
Lysis in Asia ; but evidently Lysiensis must be 
the adjective of Lysia or Lysium. What country 
or town was there so designated which might have 
given birth to this Thomas Gemini? Among 
ancient geographical names I find two towns called 
Lysia in Asia and one in the Peloponnesus, but 
none of these can have been the engraver's birth- 
place. J. DIXON. 

[See " N. & Q-," 4* S. v. 435, 516 ; vi. 344, 427, 514.] 

A MYSTERY. May I try the ingenuity of your 
correspondents with the following fragment from 
Lampadius, De Illuminatione ? 
rjva&a AaZTraav 3iav ae 8' err av <vAe 




SEAL OF KING RICHARD III. In a collection 
of heraldic seals one of the completest that exist, 
and therefore one of even scientific importance 
the seal of King Richard III. is wanting, and I 
have been induced to ask whether a cast of it (in 
plaster, wax, or gutta-percha) could be found. 
Would any of the readers of "N.^ Q." be kind 
enough to help me to supply this want of the 
above-mentioned collection 1 F. A. Lso. 

31, Matthaikirch-Strasse, Berlin. 

FRANCOIS CAFFIERI, second son of Philip 
Caffieri and of Franchise Renault de Beauvallon, 
born in Paris June 18, 1672, died in London 
Feb. 27, 1713, husband of Marie Franchise Grenel, 
born June 18, 1676. From family papers and a 
descriptive indication found on the back of an oil 
picture belonging to one of his descendants 

NOTES AND QUERIES. IB* s. XL JA*. 25, 79. 

Francois Caffieri is called " Medallist to Queen 
Ann of England." The portrait holds in the 
hand a round box, which seems to contain a large 
medal. Are there any proofs, papers, medals, &c., 
which would show whether he was an engraver of 
medals or whether Queen Ann had given him a 
medal as a reward for some service done ? Where 
could one find an account of the above or see some 
of his works 1 E. D. 

BOSWERT THE ENGRAVER. Can any of your 
readers give me any information about Boswert 
the engraver and the value of his engravings of 
Rubens's landscapes 1 As works of art they are 
poor enough, but I shall be glad to know whether 
they are of any interest to collectors. 


1, New Burlington Street, W. 

DIGBETH. Can any of your readers favour me 
with the origin of this name ? I only know of 
two instances of it at Walsall and Birmingham 
and in both towns the place which bears that 
name lies at the foot of a hill and upon a stream. 


" SMURRING." Mrs. Grote, in a letter to Sir 
W. Molesworth, Aug., 1837, says, "Don't sit 
smurring indoors, but take air and exercise " 
(Personal Life of George Grote, p. 121). Was this 
word coined by Mrs. Grote ? I can find it in no 
dictionary or glossary. A. L. MAYIIEW. 


or was " wrest-beer " 1 I find in Selden's Table 
Talk, under the head of "Parliament," paragraph 4, 
the following : 

" Dissenters in Parliament may at length come to a 
good end, tho' first there be a great deal of do, and a 
great deal of noise, which mad wild folks make ; just as 
in brewing of Wrest- Beer, there's a great deal of busi- 
ness in grinding the Mault, and that spoils any man's 
cloaths that comes near it ; then it must be mash'd, then 
comes a Fellow in and drinks of the wort, and he 's 
drunk, then they keep a huge quarter when they carry 
it into the cellar, and a twelve month after 'tis delicate 
fine Beer." 

Being on the subject of beer, I should like to 
hear of any reasonable derivation for " kilderkin.' 
Is it connected with the Dutch word kinnetje, and 
how came it to be accepted as a measure of capa- 
city ? That it has long been so appears from the 
following extract (Diary of Henry Machyn, Camd. 
Soc. Reprint, p. 147), " The xiij day of August 
(1557) was a proclamasyon of alle and bere and 
whatt men shall pay for barelles of alle and bere 
and kylderkyns." H. E. W. 


Miss MITFORD. May I ask whether the late 
Mary Russell Mitford left any heirs or relatives ? 

I ask because I have lately come across a water- 
colour miniature of a " Mary Mitford." She is 
represented as wearing a spreading lace cap, and 
an old-fashioned shawl thrown round her shoulders, 
I should be glad also to know in what parish her 
cottage near Reading was situated, and whether 
~wallowfield was the original of Our Village. 

Hampstead, N.W. 

Mr. Dean's Life and Teachings of Theodore Parker 
that Parker, when at Manchester, was told that 
Cromwell's soldiers made barracks of the church, 
and broke down the carved work there (see p. 92). 
Was he not misinformed 1 I have not means at 
hand to decide the question, but am of opinion 
that the damage done to the old church at 
Manchester was not the work of Oliver. ANON. 

MOOT-HILLS. I should very much like to be 
made acquainted with instances of Moot-hills in 
England. I happen to require the information to 
illustrate some researches I am making, but I think 
the subject would prove interesting to " N. & Q.," 
as a parallel to the Toot-hills lately collected. 


E. P. LOVEJOY. I have the biography of this 
martyr of the anti-slavery cause, written by J. C. 
and Owen Lovejoy, and published at New York 
in 1838. Ought there to be a portrait in it 1 If 
so, my copy is defective. Has any portrait been 
published of this fine spirit ? 


Bank Cottage, Barton on-Irwell, Manchester. 

In St. Peter's Church, Dublin (which has been 
rebuilt within the last few years), there is a mural 
tablet, in the north transept, with this inscription : 

" Near this place lieth the body of Lieutenant Gener 
Archibald Hamilton, who was an officer in the Siege 
Londonderry, in the year of our Lord 1688, where he dis 
tinguished himself in the defence of the religion at 
liberties of his country, and served abroad with reput 
tion during all the wars of King William and Queer 
Anne. He died the 15"> day of July, 1749, aged eighty- 

Can any one tell me to which branch of the great 
family of Hamilton this distinguished officer '" 
longed ? I am anxious to ascertain what I asl 
without delay ; and I have consulted Sir Beruar 
Burke and other authorities, but without success 
Some correspondent of " N. & Q." may be able 
inform me. ABHBA. 

CHRISTMAS, F.R.S. Can any correspondent either 
supplement or complete the following list of 
this author's publications ? For many years 
Mr. Christmas filled the post of Librarian 
at Sion College in London Wall, was some 


S. XI. JAN. 25, 79.] 



Ame Incumbent of Verulani Chapel, Lambeth, 
md Thursday morning lecturer at St. Peter's 
upon Cornhill, London. He died about ten 
years ago, and was buried at Norwood Cemetery. 
The notice of his books in Allibone's Dictionary 
of Authors, vol. i. p. 381, is as meagre as it is 
incomplete. My small library contains the fol- 
lowing books of his : 

The Cradle of the Twin Giants Science and History. 
2 vols. post 8vo., 1849. Pp. 354 and 402. (Prefixed 
to vol. i. is a very long list of books consulted on the 

The Shores and Islands of the Mediterranean. 3 vols. 
post 8vo. (frontispieces from sketches by the author), 
1851. Pp. 324, 326, and 374. 

Scenes in the Life of Christ. 1 vol. post. 8vo., 1853. 
Pp. 191. (These are lectures delivered at St. Peter's 
upon Cornhill.) 

Echoes of the Universe (seventh edition). Small 8vo., 
1863. Pp. 294. (An advertisement at the end of this 
book mentions him as the author of Sin : its Causes and 


JNewbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

"GoDivo." Bailey, in his Dictionary, gives 
this word, adding " in cookery a delicious kind of 
fare." I never heard of it. Are the ingredients 
of the dish known and revivable in days degene- 
rate, or must we set it down as a delightful some- 
thing appertaining to the joys of the good old 
time now lost ? C. A. WARD. 


THE "BLUE PIG." What is symbolized by that 
mythical animal the " blue pig "1 It is used as 
a public-house sign, and the armorial bearings of 
the Scrovigni di Padova were, Argent, a sow azure, 
referred to by Dante : 

" Un, die d' una scrofa azzurra e grossa 
Segnato avea lo suo sacchetto bianco." 

Inf., xvii. 64. 
B. D. M. 

CANONS. What is the exact difference between 
prebendaries and canons ? When, and under 
what circumstances, was the office of honorary 
canon instituted ? When an honorary canon 
removes to another diocese from the one in which 
he was when he was so honoured (not to say, as I 
might, from Ireland to England), is he justified in 
carrying his title with him 1 And would it not be 
well, for the sake of distinction, that honorary 
canons should at all times be so styled ? 


" Then silent, but with blinding tears, 
I gathered all the love of years," &c. 

F. E. E. 


(5 th S. xi. 8, 31.) 

An interesting account of Lord Dunboyne will 
be found in the Eev. Thomas R. England's Life of 
the Eev. Arthur O'Leary (Lond., 1822), p. 222 et 
seq. Father O'Leary himself, it appears, had been 
charged with having read his recantation in St. 
Werburgh's Church in Dublin, and in a letter 
referring to this statement the witty Franciscan 
friar observed : 

" I do not consider Lord Dunboyne as a model after 
whom I should copy. With his silver locks, and at an 
age when persons who had devoted themselves to the 
service of the altar in their early days should, like the 
Emperor Charles V., rather think of their coffins than 
the nuptial bed, that prelate married a young woman. 
Whether the glowing love of truth or Hymen's torch 
induced him to change the Roman Pontifical for the 
Book of Common Prayer, and the Psalms he and I often 
sang together for a IriJal hymn, his own conscience is 
the best competent to determine. Certain, however, it 
is, that if the charms of the fair sex can captivate an 
ol<l bishop to such a degree as to induce him to renounce 
his Breviary, similar motives and the prospect of 
aggrandizement may induce a young ecclesiastic to change 
his cassock." 

Mr. England asserts that 

" Lord Dunboyne never officiated in the Protestant 
Church. After his apostasy he frequented the services 
of that religion on Sundays ; and on one or two occa- 
sions, when ordinations were held in the chapel of Trinity 
College during his residence in Dublin, he was invited 
to assist at the imposition of hands, but he studiously and 
anxiously declined doing so." 

On the painful intelligence being conveyed to 
Rome of the bishop's marriage, Pope Pius VI. 
addressed to him a letter, of which the Latin 
original and an English translation are printed in 
the work above cited. 


A few additional particulars of the career of this 
Bishop of Cork, who is the only authenticated 
instance of apostasy among the Irish hierarchy 
from the period of its disestablishment in 1533 by 
King Henry VIII., may be added in amplification 
of DR. JESSOPP'S notice. He was a younger son 
of a noble and ancient house, being third son of 
Edmond Butler, of Dunboyne, in the county 
of Meath, by courtesy eighth Baron Dunboyne (who 
died Nov., 1732), and Anne, daughter of Oliver 
Grace, of Shanganagh, in the county of Tipperary. 
He succeeded to the titular dignity of Lord Dun- 
boyne on the death of his nephew, Edmund Creagh 
Butler, styled eleventh baron, in his minority, 
Dec., 1785, and to the family estates on conform- 
ing to the established religion of the kingdom, and 
reading his recantation of the faith of his fore- 
fathers in the parish church of Clonmel, Aug. 19, 
1787. He had been nominated to the see of Cork 



[5th S. XI. JAN. 25, '79. 

by brief of Pope Clement XIIL, dated April 16, 
1763, being consecrated in June following, and 
resigned that bishopric December 13, 1786. The 
aged ex-bishop next consummated his apostasy by 

violating his vow of celibacy, and marrying , 

daughter of Theobald, Esq., of Wilford, co. 

Tipperary, who survived him sixty years. She 
entered into a second matrimonial engagement 
with J Hubert Moore, Esq., of Shannon Grove, 
King's County, barrister-at-law, but died issueless 
August, 1860, aged ninety-six years. 

Lord Dunboyne, as he was designated being by 
courtesy twelfth Baron Dunboyne died May 7, 
1800, at his residence, Dunboyne Castle, an octo- 
genarian, having a few days before his death been 
reconciled to the Catholic faith by the Rev. William 
Gahan, D.D., a well-known Augustinian friar. 
This venerable priest had been acquainted with 
him from 1783, when he visited him at his country 
seat of Monkstown, near Cork, and was summoned 
at his own particular request to attend him in his 
last illness, by permission of Archbishop Troy of 
Dublin. By his will he bequeathed the Dunboyne 
estate to Maynooth College for the education of 
Catholic youths intended for the priesthood, de- 
vising his other estate to his heir-at-law and family. 
But this bequest was disputed in December, 1801, 
in a suit against the trustees of Maynooth, on the 
ground that any one " relapsing into Popery from 
the Protestant religion was deprived of the benefit 
of the laws made in favour of Roman Catholics, 
and was therefore incapable of making a will of 
landed property under the penal laws." Dr. Gahan 
was examined at the Assizes at Trim, August 24, 
1802, to elicit from him whether he administered 
the last sacraments to Lord Dunboyne ; and on 
his refusing to reveal the secrets of the confessional 
was sentenced to imprisonment in the gaol of 
Trim " for contempt of court " by Lord Kilwarden. 
But the jury having found, on a separate issue sent 
to them, that the deceased had died a Catholic, the 
judge directed the witness's release after a week's 
confinement ; and this venerable " confessor " died 
on Dec. 6, 1804, in the seventy-fourth year of his 
age, and fiftieth of the priesthood. 

The title of Dunboyne in the peerage of Ireland 
was created by King Henry VIII. on June 11 
1541, but was forfeited in the person of James, 
fourth baron, for his implication in the rebellion o1 
1641 ; he was outlawed in 16.91 for adherence to the 
cause of King James II. The attainder was not 
reversed till Oct. 26, 1827, when James, thirteenth 
titular baron, was restored by the reversal of the 
outlawries affecting the title. A. S. A. 

Richmond, Surrey. 

"How LORD NAIRN WAS SAVED" (5 th S. xi. 
9, 38.) A friend of mine points out to me that a 
correspondent asks of you (ante, p. 9) for an ex 

>lanation of a line occurring in some verses of 
mine : 

" And Kenraure lads were men in vain," 
One of the most spirited of the Scotch Jacobite 
songs, with which everybody was familiar when I 
was young, begins thus : 

" Oh, Kenmure's lads are men, Willie, 
Oh, Kenmure's lads are men." 

I shall be surprised to learn that they are less 
popular now than then. What the song specially 
refers to I do not know, but any Scotch gentle- 
man whose ancestors were "out" in '15 or '45^ 
could probably supply the required information. 

PERCY BYSSHE SHELLEY (5 th S. xi. 45.) DR. 
ROGERS has kindly presented us with a slightly 
modified version of about two-thirds of a letter 
printed at pp. 139 and 140 of The Shelley 
Memorials (either edition the text is identical in. 
all three) ; but this extract is not, I observe, 
described as a part of a letter. Will DR. ROGERS 
say whether he himself transcribed the extract 
from " the original in the poet's handwriting, in 
the possession of the Baron de Bogoushevsky " ?' 
If he did transcribe it, and if the name which 
occurs at the opening is Gibson instead of Gisborne, 
the baron's document is not the original, but, I 
should fear, a forgery perpetrated since last 
summer. The original letter was sold by Messrs. 
Puttick & Simpson on July 22 last. Mr. Naylor, 
the well-known autograph dealer, bought it for 
4Z ; 5s., and afterwards offered it for sale at the 
price of Si. 8s., and, in doing so, printed in his 
catalogue precisely that portion of the letter which 
DR. ROGERS has communicated, Gibson and all, 
including the dots in DR. ROGERS'S last line but 
three, which represent the words, "and have 
marked the poem I mean by a cross." The original 
letter, which came straight from the family of Mr. 
Oilier, to whom it was addressed, then had the 
name Gisborne plainly enough, as Mr. Naylor will 
see if he still has it ; and I believe it was headed 
"Pisa, November 10th, 1820," as in the Memorials? 
while Mr. Naylor and DR. ROGERS agree in giving 
the date as " Pisa, 10 Nov., 1820." The original 
unquestionably bore an address last July (" Messrs. 
Oilier, Booksellers, Vere Street, Bond Street, 
London") and two postmarks ("Pisa" and 
"F. P. 0., De. 19, 1820"), and it was marked 
outside with 5s. 9<t postage. Mr. Naylor described 
it as having an address, but did not give it or say 
to whom ; and DR. ROGERS says the baron's 
" original " has no address. DR. ROGERS gives two- 
emendations on Mr. Naylor's version : he reads- 
a for the at the end of his fourth line, and without 
for with in his fifth line. The two curious mis- 
takes thus corrected are not Shelley's, and help to 
furnish a basis of speculation. If Baron de Bogou- 
shevsky has not been the victim of a forgery 

5>h S. XI. JAN. 25, 79.] 



( xecuted by transcribing in an assumed hand Mr. 
I Taylor's extract, how came his document into 
( xistenee in so different a form from that of the 
true original 1 DR. EOGERS will doubtless obtain 
i nd place before us a history of that document. 
38, Marlborough Hill, St. John's Wood, N.W. 

EPIGRAM ON BEAU NASH (5 th S. x. 429 ; xi. 
12.) As the authorship of this epigram is any- 
thing but certain, it is unfortunate that the epi- 
gram collectors have not paid more attention to 
the subject. Booth (3rd ed., 1874, p. 81) and 
Dodd (1870, p. 345) both attribute it to Chester- 
field, without suggesting any alternative, while the 
latest editor, Davenport Adams (p. 139), though 
he assigns it to Mrs. Brereton, so painfully mis- 
quotes it as to show that he has not seen either 
Mrs. Brereton's book or the point of the epigram. 

I have taken the trouble to consult Poems on 
Several Occasions, by Mrs. Jane Brereton, Lend., 
1744, and I think that MR. SOLLY will be sur- 
prised to hear that the verses printed there at 
pp. 121-2 consist of the six stanzas that he has 
found in Dr. Maty's edition of Chesterfield's Mis- 
cellaneous Works, published in 1777. The stanza 
beginning " Immortal Newton " does not appear. 
And indeed this stanza can surely never have 
belonged to the original epigram ; nobody prefaces 
his own epigrams with a commendatory verse. 

The matter is certainly not quite clear ; but it 
appears to me probable that Mrs. Brereton wrote 
these six stanzas (the first five of which, it must 
be admitted, are scarcely worthy of the sixth), and 
that the " Immortal Newton " stanza may have 
been Lord Chesterfield's comment upon Mrs. 
Brereton's epigram. The lady's one vigorous 
stanza and Chesterfield's comment may then have 
passed into circulation together. At the same 
time it is not so easy to see how in the Gentleman's 
Magazine this verse came to be prefixed to Mrs. 
Brereton's, for she was a contributor to the Maga- 
zine, and we should rather expect to find her 
verses published there in their integrity. I ought 
perhaps _ to add that in the final stanza there are 
some slight variations between the version of the 
Magazine (already quoted by MR. SOLLY) and 
that in Mrs. Brereton's Poems. In the latter 
place the exact words are : 

" The Picture placed the Busts between 

Adds to the Thought much Strength ; 
Wisdom and Wit are little seen, 
But Folly 's at full Length." 


" On Mr. hash's Picture at full Length, between the 
Busts of Sir Isaac Newton, and Mr. Pope. 

The old ^Egyptians hid their Wit 

In Hieroglyphick Dress, 
To give Men Pains to search for it, 
And please themselves with Guess. 

Moderns to tread the self same Path, 

And exercise our Parts, 
Place Figures in a Room at Bath : 

Forgive them, God of Arts ! 

Newton, if I can judge aright, 

All Wisdom doth express ; 
His Knowledge gives Mankind new Light, 

Adds to their Happiness. 


Pope is the Emblem of true Wit, 

The Sun-shine of the Mind ; 
Bead o'er his Works for Proof of it, 

You '11 endless Pleasure find. 


Nash represents Man in the Mass, 

Made up of Wrong and Right ; 
Sometimes a Knave, sometimes an As?, 

Now blunt, and now polite. 


The Picture, plac'd the Busts between, 
Adds to the Thought much Strength, 
Wisdom and Wit are little seen, 

But Folly 's at full Length." 

From Poems on Several Occasions, by Mrs.. 
Jane Brereton, p. 121 (London, printed by Edw. 
Cave at St. John's Gate, 1744). E. F. S. 

The version of this epigram which appeared in 
the Gentleman's Magazine for February, 1741, 
consists of two verses only (beginning with the 
words " Immortal Newton " and " This picture "), 
and does not bear any signature. They have been 
already printed in the columns of " N. & Q." la 
the volume of Poems on Several Occasions, by 
Mrs. Jane Brereton (London, printed by Edward 
Cave, 1744), the epigram is diluted into six verses, 
the second verse of the original remaining unin- 
jured and concluding the poem. The latter version 
is reprinted with a few unimportant verbal altera- 
tions in Pearch's Collection of Poems (1770), 
vol. iv. pp. 57-58, and is of course attributed by 
the compiler to the E of C . 


15, Queen Anne's Gate. 

LAVATER ON GHOSTS (5* S. x. 496.) -The 
author of this curious book, to which Teissier 
gives great praise, was a Swiss Protestant, who 
died in 1586, canon and pastor of Eibourg, in the 
canton of Zurich. Besides several theological 
works he wrote the treatise referred to, of which 
the following is the full title : 

" De Spectri?, Lemuribus, et Magnis et Insolitis. 
fragoribus, variisque prsesagitionibus, quae plerumque 
obitum hominum, magnas clades, mutationesque Im- 
periorum prsecedunt. Liber unus. Ludovico Lavatero 
Tigurino Autore." 

The first edition of this was printed at Zurich in 
1570, Svo.; my own copy bears the imprint 
" Geneva, apud Eustathium Vignon, M.D.LXXX."; 
there is an edition, Lugd. Bat., 1687, 12mo ; 
and there is a French version, 1571, Svo. In the 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [6* s. XL JAN. 25, 79. 

year following this appeared the^English transla- 
tion, of which the title runs : 

" Of Ghostes and Spirites walking by Night, and of 
Strange Noyses, Crackes, and Sundry Forewarnynges 
which commonly happen before the Death of Menne, 
great Slaughters, and Alterations of Kyngdoms," &c. 
Translated into English by R. H. London, 1572, 4to. 

This writer must not be confounded with his 
grandson, Johannes Rodolphus Lavater, who died 
Canon of Zurich, in 1625, author of a curious and 
rare volume, De Variis Prodigiis, anno 1608, visis, 
&c., nor, of course, with the much more recent and 
far better known John Caspar Lavater, also of 
Zurich, the celebrated author of the Essays on 
Physiognomy, whose ghost-beset and wonder- 
haunted youth would suggest some hereditary con- 
nexion with these like-named thaumaturgists of 
an older day. WILLIAM BATES, B.A. 


Louis Lavater was a Protestant divine, 1527- 
1586, who lived and died at Zurich. He was a 
voluminous writer, and took an active interest in 
the labours of his father-in-law, Henry Bullinger. 
The title of his book on ghosts, &c., is thus given 
in Ames's Typo. A ntiq. : 

" Of ghostes and spirites walking by night, and of 
strange noyses, crackes, and sundry forewarnynges, 
whiche commonly happen before the death of menne, 
great slaughters, and alterations of kyngdomes. One 
booke, written by Lewes Lauaterus of Tigurine, and 
translated into Englyshe by R. H. Imprinted by 
Richard Watkins, 1572. Title, translator's epistle, dedi- 
cation to Lord John Steigerus, Cosul of Berna, table 
of chapters, faultes escaped, &c., an advertisement, and 
pp. 220, 4to." 

There was also a second edition printed by 
Thomas Creed in 1596. The book is not rare. 
Lowndes mentions five copies sold at auction as 
fetching from 18s. to 21 It was first printed in 
Latin at Zurich in 1570, and a French translation 
was published in 1571. EDWARD SOLLY. 

Ludwig Lavater was the author of a number 
of works on theology and history, ecclesiastical 
and literary, which are not without learning 
or merit (Biog. Universelle). Amongst others, 
he wrote the life of the Reformer Bullinger, 
who was his father-in-law, and the work on 
ghosts, &c., which was published at Zurich in 
Latin, 1570, and was soon translated into several 
other languages. Two editions of the English 
translation are in the British Museum library, one 
published in 1572 and another in 1596. A copy 
bearing date 1572 was bought for 21. at Sir Mark 
Sykes's sale, from, which it seems to be a scarce 

work - J. BROWN. 


The price at sales has varied from 21. to 18s. 

r his other writings, The Boole of Ruth ex- 
pounded in Twenty- eight Sermons was translated 
by Ephraim Pugitt, Lond., 1586; and Three 

Sermons on 2 Chron. vi. 26-31 was translated by 
W. Barlow, B.D., Lond., 1596. 


CURIOUS COINCIDENCES (5 th S. x. 385, 502 ; xi. 
32.) The rejoinder of DR. CHANCE so puzzles me 
that I have re-read his original communication 
and my reply to see whether I can discover my 
" misapprehension." I made an omission cer- 
tainly, " that the sisters had met there before, but 
oniy once or twice, and that at long intervals, and 
the place was chosen because there is an entrance 
hall where one can sit down " ; but this only 
makes an addition to my theory of "probabilities." 

Then he says, " The Crystal Palace Bazaar was 
simply chosen as a place of meeting ; neither of 
the sisters wished to buy anything, and having 
met outside they did not go into it " ; and then 
adds, " so much for CLARRY'S first probability " 
a conclusion which to my simplicity appears most 
lame and impotent. 

Then the learned doctor pelts me with proverbs. 
He says I am " not one to whom ' a word to the 
wise/ &c., will apply." I argued the question on 
the evidence he supplied, and if he made it " too 
concise " that is not my fault. If I am to give an 
immediate assent to every story without testing it 
by the laws or principles of evidence or by com- 
mon sense, or if I am " to believe without exami- 
nation," then I should have that sort of wisdom, 
that our figurative neighbours indicate when they 
denominate a man who possesses it a gobemonche. 
Then the doctor speaks of "glass houses and 
throwing stones." I was not guilty of this. Every 
person who prints and publishes his opinion chal- 
lenges criticism ; and I simply tried to argue that 
something that he would make out as wonderful 
or miraculous was only one of those chance meet- 
ings of which every one's memory can supply 
instances without end. 

The proverbs remind me of what Don Quixote 
says : " Likewise, Sancho, intermix not in your 
discourse that multitude of proverbs you are wont : 
for though proverbs are short sentences, you often 
drag them in by the head and shoulders, that they 
seem rather cross purposes than sentences." 

" Heaven alone can remedy that," quoth Sancho, 
" for I know more proverbs than will fill a book ; 
and when I talk they crowd so thick into my 
mouth, that they jostle which shall get out first, 
but my tongue to.sses out the first it meets, though 
it be not always very pat." 

DR. CHANCE adds in a note, " But my opinion 
is that in ninety-nine cases out of a hundred there 
would have been no previous meeting or agree- 
ment, and certainly there was not in this case." 

Does he mean to say that out of one hundred 
meetings at, in, or outside the Crystal Palace 
Bazaar ninety-nine are by chance or accident? 
If he does, that was and is the extent of my con- 


S. XI. JAK. 25, 79.] 


t( ntion ; and if in my little or no wisdom I can 
g( a nothing " curious " in the meeting of his two 
IE dies making part of the ninety-nine cases, he 
n ust forgive me, and I respectfully bid him fare- 


(5 th S. x. 442, 500.) I am surprised that DR. 
CHANCE has not met with " a single example in 
German." I have heard several which are not only, 
l'.ke those quoted by your correspondents, allitera- 
tive catches, but also shrewd proverbial philosophy. 
1 only remember one, which I learned more than 
thirty-five years since, when beginning the study of 
German, and which I have frequently since heard 
repeated both in England (by teachers and 
learners) and in Germany. Indeed, I thought it 
was generally taught to boys in this country, so as 
to help them in acquiring the pronunciation of the 
German ch: 

" Wenn raancher Mann wiiszte wer mancher Mann war' 
That mancher Mann mancbem Mann munchmal mehr 

Weil mancher Mann aber nicht weisz wer mancher 

mann ist 
Drum mancher Mann manchen Mann manchmal 




429; x. 11, 73, 129, 152, 199, 276, 317.)-! 
should say, from my own experience, that in some 
cases the armour and weapons suspended in 
churches were those actually worn, and in others 
they were merely imitations, and this opinion 
many of your readers would, I am sure, endorse. 
Shakspeare alludes to the custom as follows : 

" Iden. Is't Cade that I have slain, that monstrous 

traitor 1 ? 

Sword, I will hallow thee for this thy deed, 
And hang thee o'er my tomb when I am dead." 

j&T. Henry VI., Part II. Act iv. sc. 10. 

Thomas Hearne, the Oxford antiquary, has the 
following note upon the origin of the custom : 

" 1718. April 19. The custom of hanging up the 
armour of kings and nobles in churches came from 
Canute's placing his crown upon the head of the crucifix 
at Winchester, after he found that he could not make 
the waters obey him." Second ed., vol. ii. p. 59. 

Napoleon I., on entering Potsdam in 1806, after 
the battles of Jena and Auerstadt, is recorded to 
have taken the sword of Frederick the Great from 
the church where it hung, and to have sent it, 
with other relics of that great captain, to the In- 
valides at Paris. " I am better pleased with these 
relics," said Napoleon, as he took the sword of 
Frederick from above the tomb where it hung and 
drew it from its scabbard, "than if I had found a 
treasure of twenty millions of francs." 


Kewbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

The practice of hanging the arms and accoutre- 
ments of persons of note over their tombs is not 
confined to England. In 1444 a dispute arose 
betwixt the two powerful Angus families of Lind- 
say and Ogilvy as to the justiciarship of the regality 
of the Abbey of Arbroath. The matter could not 
be peaceably settled, and the parties came to blows 
at Arbroath on Sunday, January 23, 1445, when 
was fought betwixt the adherents of the Earl of 
Crawford and those of Sir Alexander Ogilvy of 
Inverquharity what is known in local history as 
the battle of Arbroath. It resulted disastrously 
to the Ogilvys, Sir Alexander being killed in a 
running fight at the Loan of the Leys during the 
flight after their discomfiture at Arbroath. Ogilvy 
was interred in the Ogilvy aisle of the parish 
church of Kinnell, and over his tomb was sus- 
pended his boot with the spur attached. In pro- 
cess of time the boot rotted away, but the spur 
remained suspended in the aisle until about the 
year 1815, when the aisle was taken down. After- 
wards it was kept in the church, which too was 
demolished in 1855, and a new one erected on a 
slightly different site. But the spur was preserved 
by the then minister, the Eev. Dr. Walker, and 
was hung up in the vestibule of the new church. 
The spur is of great size, being nine inches in 
length, and four in width at the fork ; the rowel 
is as large as a crown piece, and has twenty-seven 
points. About a year ago I was in the church of 
Kinnell, and saw the spur still hanging up in the 
vestibule of the church, a curious relic of a san- 
guinary fight that occurred above four centuries 


The various communications on this subject 
suggest the question as to in whom is vested the 
ownership of these relics. Who, for instance, could 
claim the right to remove to Farleigh Hungerford 
the old armour which was preserved in the prebendal 
church at Exeter 1 Again, how did Mr. Stanhope 
obtain permission to remove to Cannon Hall the 
bow which used to hang in Hathersage Church, 
and which has been known for centuries as the 
bow of Little John, who was buried there ? 

The inquiry is partly answered by Gerard Legh 
in his Accidence of Armoury, f. 134, where he 
says : 

" Therefore gentlemen should not suffer Little John 
or Much the Miller's son to be arraied in cotes of arms, 
as I have scene some wear at Whitsontide in May polo 
mirth, which have bin pulled downe and given to them 
by the churchwardens of Gotham." 


About 1850 (I am not certain of the year) I was 
in Aldborough, Holderness, Yorkshire, and was 
there informed that there was an old iron helmet 
in the church, which was employed habitually as 
a coal-scuttle to replenish the church fires in 
winter. I was not there at any Sunday service, so 



s. XI. JAN. 25, 79. 

that I cannot give ocular evidence of this archaeo- 
logical profanation. D. D. 

Lower Peover, Cheshire, may be added to the 
list of churches where these relics are preserved, 
or were preserved five or six years since, for I 
have not visited it very lately. There were one or 
two gauntlets, a helmet, and other fragments of 
armour hanging upon the wall on each side of the 
chancel within the altar rails. 



In the interesting old church of Lower Peover, 
near Knutsford, co. Chester, there is a mortuary 
chapel of the Shakerley family, in which, above 
the monument of a member of that house, are sus- 
pended some small pieces of funeral armour. I 
have not visited the church for more than eight 
years, so I cannot speak with precision, but I 
believe there are gauntlets, spurs, and helmet. 

Some ancient helmets and swords, and, if my 
memory is not at fault, at least one breastplate, 
used to hang on the wall over the north side of 
the communion table in the church of my native 
parish, Hatfield Peverel, near Chelmsford. I do 
not know whether they still are there, as I have 
not seen them for twenty years, and the church 
has passed through the modern process of " restora- 
tion ": I know not whether to its improvement or 
not. E. WALFORD, M.A. 


In the most interesting church of Astley, War- 
wickshire, there are some helmets, &c., high up on 
a window-sill of the northern wall of the nave. 
These, doubtless, once belonged to the vanished 
tombs of the beautiful and most interesting ala- 
baster effigies of the Greys (Marquis of Dorset, 
temp. Henry VII. and VIII.), now stuck upright 
in the tower wall. This deeply interesting church 
deserves to be better cared for. W. H. H. E. 

^,, helmets are hung up in the parish church 
of Hayes, about twelve miles out of London on the 
& W. R. W. S. RANDALL. 

There is a helmet and moor-hen in the church of 
Netherbury, Dorset; Melplaish Court, an old 
manor-house (now a farm-house), in that parish, 
having formerly belonged to Sir Thomas More, and 
the crest is his. C. E. K. 

I was in the large church at Burford three or 
four years back, and remember seeing a very good 
specimen of a tilting helmet in a mortuary chapel 
I forget whether there were other pieces of armour 
The church has lately been undergoing some 
restoration, I hope without prejudice to the helmet 


An excellent article on this subject appeared in the 
Daily Telegraph of the 17th inst. The writer 
jointed out that the method of divination 
commonly called the "Bible and the key " which so- 
sorely scandalized the Ludlow magistrates is closely 
ikin to the well-known mediaeval diversion called 
:he Sortes Virgiliance, which consisted in opening 
a, volume of Virgil's works and forecasting the 
uture from some word or passage taken at random. 
The sacred book is now the modern substitute, 
and there is little doubt but that the superstition 
"s thousands of years older than even the Virgil of 
:he Augustan age. It is worthy of notice that in 
some parts of England a custom is practised on 
New Year's Day called " Dipping." A Bible is 
[aid on the table at breakfast time, and those who 
wish to consult it open it at random, and it is sup- 
posed that the events of the ensuing year will 
be in some way described by the contents of the 
;hapter contained in the two open pages. For 
further information on this point consult Brand's 
Popular Antiquities, 1849, vol. i. p. 20; Thiselton 
Dyer's British Popular Customs. 1876, p. 5 ; and 
'' N. & Q.," 2 n * S. xii. 303. H. Y. N. 


SHAKESPEAR " 1 (5 th S. xi. 27.) I possess the 
third edition of Lamb's Tales from ShaJcespear, 
London (M. J. Godwin & Co.), 1816, 2 vols., with 
twenty plates, being one to each tale. I have 
always understood that these plates were designed 
by Mulready, but I cannot refer to any recorded 
authority for this opinion. I believe that I was 
first itold the fact by the late Mr. John Miller, 
bookseller, who had it from Mr. Sheepshanks, and 
a better authority than Mulready's patron could 
not well be. HENRY B. WHEATLEY. 

I have the edition of 1807, said to be illustrated 
by Mulready, but from the style I should think 
more likely by Blake ; also a copy of the edition 
of 1857, illustrated by Harvey. 


Bury St. Edmunds. 

Gibber tells that Otway attempted to borrow a 
shilling of a gentleman of whom he had some 
knowledge : 

" The gentleman was quite shocked to see the author 
of Venice Preserved begging bread, and compassionately 
put into his hand a guinea. Mr. Otway, having thanked 
his benefactor, retired, and changed the guinea to pur- 
chase a roll ; as his stomach was full of wind by excess 
of fasting, the first mouthful choaked him, and in- 
stantaneously put a period to his days." 
He mentions this, however, only as a report, his 
own account being that "Poor Otway died of 
want in a public-house on Tower Hill, in the 
thirty-third year of his age, 1685." 


5'h s. XI. JAN. 25, 79.] 


MOTTO FOR AN INDEX (5 th S. xi. 5.) The 
loratian quotation of W. T. M. could not well be 
urpassed in brevity and neatness. If anybody 
lissents, I would suggest another, very like it, 
rom Virgil : " Coram quern quseritis adsum " 
(jfin., i. 595). But I prefer Horace. 

Hampstead, N.W. 

S. x. 469.) The volume inquired for is : 

"A Collection of Psalms and Hymns and Spiritual 
Songs, for the Use of Christians of every Denomination. 
By the ,Rev. D. Simpson, M.A. The Second Edition, 
with an Appendix. Macclesfield, printed for T. Bayley, 

Shakespere, Spenser, Milton, Thomson, Pope, 
Giles Fletcher, Bunyan, Young, and Dryden are 
all laid under contribution. It is rather startling 
to one's nerves to come upon the following : 

" Weep no more, Christian Friends, weep no more, 
For Lycidas your sorrow is not dead." 

But I suppose we must accept the editor's apology 
in the preface : 

" Some few of the Compositions may rather be called 
divine Poems than Songs or Hymns. These are more 
particularly intended for the Improvement and Enter- 
tainment of young People, and those among the Poor 
whose Minds have happily taken a religious Turn, but 
who are not able to purchase many Books." 

The book shall be forwarded for A MANCHESTER 
PYTHAGOREAN'S inspection on receipt of his name 
and address. W. T. BROOKE. 

157, Richmond Road, Hackney. 

LOCAL TOASTS (5 th S. x. 513.) To those who 
are interested in this subject it may not be unin- 
teresting to record the following agricultural 
" health." It is frequently to be heard in Fifeshire 
taverns during the ploughmen's hiring fairs. 
" Here 's health to men, daith to swine, an' a 
hellish crap o' tatties ! " It might be difficult to 
find a more appropriate toast for a ploughman, or 
one expressed with such Scotch earnestness. The 
wish of death to the swine is expressive at the 
Martinmas time, when the pig-sticking generally 
takes place, and so provides the farm-servant's 
household with bacon. The "hellish crap o' 
tatties " is a true ploughman's wish, especially 
when so many yards of growing potatoes on the 
farm form a part of his wages. 


_ LAURA BASSI (5 th S. xi. 8) was one of the many 
distinguished ladies who have at various times 
helped to add to the fame of the illustrious Univer- 
sity of Bologna ; but, inasmuch as she lived in the 
reigns of George I. and II., it is not likely that she 
an have given Shakespeare the character of Portia. 
He may have taken it, however,' rom Novella 
d' Andrea, another of these ladies, who was Pro- 

fessor of Jurisprudence in the university about the 
year 1366, and was celebrated, like Hypatia, for 
her beauty as well as her learning. The names of 
the female professors are still held in honour at 
Bologna, and portraits, more or less authentic, of 
several of them are to be had there. I bought 
a set at the university not long ago, and the 
portrait of Novella fully justifies her reputation. 
The following list (I do not say it is exhaustive) 
gives the name and chair and approximate date of 
every female professor at Bologna whom I know of : 

Calderini, 1360 : Jurisprudence. 

Novella d' Andrea, 1366 : Jurisprudence. 

Properzia de' Rossi, 1500 : Sculpture. 

Elisabetta Sirani, 1600 : Painting. 

Laura Bassi, 1723 : Mathematics and Natural Philo- 

Manzolini, 1760 : Anatomy. 

Matilda Tambroni, 1794 : Greek. 

Matilda Tambroni was a friend of Mezzofanti. 
Properzia de' Rossi, who is buried in the cathedral, 
had a history, and a romantic one. A. J. M. 

(5 th S. xi. 47.) This well-known song was written 
by Canning in 1802. GEORGE M. TRAHERNE. 

Mr. H. Cleland, in his Life of William Pitt 
(1807), states of this song, written by Canning, 
that " the verses were composed for a convivial 
party in the City in honour of Mr. Pitt, under the 
title of ' The Pilot that weathered the Storm.'" 


[We have forwarded both copies of the song to THE 

ALTAR WINE (5 th S. xi. 48.) With reference to 
MR. WALFORD'S query, tent is not a red wine. 
The colour is dark brown, and not being red or 
ruby coloured, like claret and port, it is called 
white in contradistinction to red. F. W. C. 

GENIUS (5 th S. xi. 47.) Did not the Great Duke 
define genius to be " common sense adapted to un- 
common circumstances " 1 


AN ANCIENT PAIR OF BOOTS (5 th S. xi. 24.) 
These boots are, no doubt, cavalry boots of the 
extreme end of the seventeenth century. The 
effigy of John Clobery in Winchester Cathedral, 
who died 1687, represents him in such a pair, and 
the full-length portrait of Charles XII. of Sweden, 
who died 1718, preserved in the British Museum, 
exhibits him in boots of the same kind. At 
Canons Ashby, Northamptonshire, is a similar pair 
of boots in excellent condition. A. H. 

Little Baling. 

EDWARD LONGSHANKS (5 th S. xi. 9.) The per- 
sonal description of King Edward I. is generally 
taken from the MS. of John of London, entitled 
Chronica de rebus Anglicis a Conquestu ad 



[5' h S.XI. JAN. 25, '19. 

MCCCXVIL, dedicated to Queen Margaret, the 
king's widow. Tyrrell, in his History of England, 
vol. iii. p. 179, says it is very likely that this 
monk knew the king personally, and he thus 
describes him : 

" He was very tall, exceeding the common size of 
men ; his legs were long, which as they made him have 
the better seat on Horseback, BO it gave occasion to his 
enemies the Scots to give him the nick-name of Long- 
shanks. He was also broad-chested and strongly made : 
Hia hair was flaxen in his youth, Brown in his middle 
age, and in his old years grizled. ...In one thing he par- 
ticularly resembled his Father, that the eye-lid of his 
left eye almost covered the pupil." 

The nickname was, therefore, probably given 
him about the year 1292. EDWARD SOLLY. 

ARCHBISHOP SHELDON (5 th S. xi. 9.) Ant. 
Wood (A then. Oxon., "Hist, of Oxford Bishops," 
p. 677, edit. 1692) says : " Gilbert Sheldon, the 
youngest son of Roger Sheldon, of Stanton, in 
Staffordshire, .... was born there on the 19 of 
July, 1598." ED. MARSHALL. 

Archbishop Sheldon, I regret to say, was not 
a Somersetshire man. His epitaph at Croydon 
begins, " Hie jacet Gilbertus Sheldon, antiqua 
Sheldonianorum faniilia, in agro Staffordiensi 
natus" (Bill. Topogr., ii. ; Ilist. of Croydon, app., 
81). Gilbert Sheldon was the youngest son of Roger 
Sheldon, of Stanton, Staffordshire, near Ashbounie, 
and was born there July 19, 1598 (Wood, iv. 854). 
Sims's Heraldic Visitations contains several re- 
ferences to pedigrees of the family. 


MRS. MELROE (5 th S. x. 387.) Her honoured 
Christian name was Elizabeth, and the following 
is the title-page of her admirable book, published 
1798 by Chappie, Pall Mall, and Longman, Pater- 
noster Row, price 3s. 6t7., or ten copies for 12s. 
It is called 

"An Economical and New Method of Cookery, including 
upwards of eighty wholesome and nourishing Dishes, 
Roast, Boiled, and Baked Meats, Stews, Pries, and about 
forty Soups, and a variety of Puddings, Pies, &c. With 
New and Useful Observations on Barley, Peas, Oatmeal, 
and Milk. Adapted to the Necessity of the Times by 
Elizabeth Melroe." 

J. E. G. 

"BINDERY" (5 th S. x. 447.) This word has 
been "imported" already into the English lan- 
guage. It is to be found in Ogilvie's Imperial 
Dictionary (1865), with the same meaning attached 
as in Noah Webster's Dictionary (1832), " A place 
where books are bound." Certainly it is not a 
very pretty word, and will be followed, I suppose 
with equal propriety before long by grindery, 
for a mill, zndfindery for a lost-property office. 

This word is commonly used in New York and 
the New England states to describe a bookbinding 

establishment, but I do not know whether it is so- 
used in the southern or western states of America. 
In Canada it is in general use, and over the 
entrance to bookbinding shops in Montreal and 
Toronto may be seen such signs as "Smith's 
Bindery," " Brown's Bindery," &c. Its use in the 
English language would, I think, be quite as- 
allowable as " Ropery, a place where ropes are 
made," or " Tannery, a place for tanning," words 
to be found in every dictionary. 


This word of Yankee origin might have been 
seen for years, and possibly may be yet, on a sign- 
board in Kelso, " Rutherfurd's Bindery." It 
indicated the whereabouts of the bookbinding 
workshop of Mr. J. H. Rutherfurd, an enterprising 
publisher here, who has been in other parts of the 
world besides making a lengthened sojourn ia 
America. His residence in inventive and word- 
making Yankeeland may be inferred from his 
adoption of the word bindery. C. G. 


On a signboard over the door of the house, 
10, Montague Street, Dublin, are the words, 
" Doyle's Book-bindery." M. A. 

TIME (5 th S. x. 447.) ED. S. R. may perhaps find 
the following interesting : 

" The connexion of the properties of substances with 
their colour is also an opinion of great antiquity. White 
was regarded as refrigerant, red as hot hence cold and 
hot qualities were attributed to different medicines. 
This opinion led to serious errors in practice. Red 
flowers were given for disorders of the sanguiferous 
system, yellow ones for those of the biliary secretion, 
&c. We find that in small-pox red bed-coverings were 
employed with the view of bringing the pustules to the 
surface of the body. The bed furniture and hangings 
were very commonly of a red colour, red substances 
were to be looked upon by the patient. Burnt purple, 
pomegranate seeds, mulberries, or other red ingredients 
were dissolved in their drink. In short, as Avicenna 
contended that red bodies moved the blood, everything 
of a red colour was employed in these cases." Petti- 
grew's Superstitions connected with the History and 
Practice of Medicine and Surgery, 1844, p. 18. 

Many instances might be given of the curative 
virtues attributed to colours, not only in Europe, 
but also in other parts of the world, and the writer 
hopes in the little work he is preparing for the 
Folk-Lore Society on Folk- Medicine to touch upon 

1, Alfred Terrace, Billhead, Glasgow. 

DERIVATION OF " DITTY " (5 th S. x. 308, 355 r 
415.) With thanks to W. M. B. for the con- 
jecture, hardly from " ditto." Jack's " ditty-box" 
never had to do with his " kit." It is about a foot 
long, by six inches deep, and (as I said in my 
query) his strong-box, with his letters and other 
private valuables. There is no more unpardonable 

5th s. XI. JAN. 25, 79.] 



nto a 

among messmates than opening or breaking 
uuu d, comrade's locked "ditty-box." It is, in 
act, the bluejacket's only private property on 
ward a man-o'-war. Anything else may and must 
oe turned out and inspected, but the " ditty-box " 
is sacred. GREYSTEIL. 

366, 503.) A statute directed against this prac- 
tice (not the first of the kind) was enacted by the 
Irish Parliament in the reign of Charles II. ; but 
notwithstanding this the practice continued, and 
Arthur Young speaks of it as not uncommon in 
the mountain part of the county of Cavan when 
he visited it. 

The practice died hard (I believe it is now 
defunct), for an ex-M.P. for the above-named 
county told the writer that some twenty or thirty 
years ago he had seen a mule attached by the tail 
to a harrow. SUSSEXIENSIS. 

" LAY OF THE LAST MINSTREL " (5 th S. xi. 28, 
53.) Surely MR. CHAPPELL, in suggesting a 
musical apology for Scott's lame line, has over- 
looked the fact that Harold's Lay consists of thir- 
teen stanzas, and that only in one stanza (the last) 
does this change of measure occur ? As MR. 
CHAPPELL has brought a mouse upon the scene, 
may I introduce another animal, and say that the 
stanza as printed not, I believe, as written by 
Scott reminds me of the sudden change of pace 
in a dog, who, using his proper number of feet, 
suddenly gets a rap on one of them, and forthwith 
lifts it up and hobbles off in a canter ? JAYDEE. 

LENGTH OF A GENERATION (5 th S. ix. 488, 518 ; 
x. 95, 130, 157, 197, 315, 524 ; xi. 54.) The per- 
sonal instance of unexpectant longevity quoted by 
MR. BOUCHIER in reference to MR. ELLIS'S state- 
ment is not a solitary one. My grandfather, John 
Larpent, for so many years employed with his 
nonagenarian father in the Foreign Office, was born 
Nov. 14, 1741. I, the youngest son of his second 
son, was born in July, 1843, so that if I live to be 
a centenarian which I do not suppose any one is 
desirous of being the lapse of time between 
my grandfather's birthday and my hundredth 
birthday would be slightly longer than the corre- 
sponding period in MR. BOUCHIER'S case. 


CURIOUS CHRISTIAN NAMES (5 th S. x. 106, 196, 
376 ; xi. 58.) Can MR. LEATON BLENKINSOPP 
verify his note at the last-given reference that 
a brother of the first Lord Eavensworth was chris- 
tened Henry Jupiter ? The Lamesley register 
records the burial, July 1, 1776, of Henry George, 
the eldest son of Sir H. G. Liddell, Bart, (father 
of the peer in question), as an infant aged three 
months, and later, the baptism, July 22, 1787, of 
another Henry George, the third son. This child, 

who in after life became Rector of Easington, and 
died so recently as March, 1872, aged eighty-four,, 
was jocularly known in the county of Durham as 
" Jupiter/' but I learn now for the first time that 
he received this name at the font. "Jupiter" 
Liddell's eldest son is the present very reverend 
and learned Dean of Christ Church, Oxford. 


S. viii. 183; x. 299; xi. 56.) Ralph Thoresby, in 
his Diary, vol. i. p. 267, describes his passing- 
Windermere waterhead and the ruins of Ambog- 
lana (now voted to be Dictis), and he then proceeds 
to Wrynose, and passes " a remarkable Catadupa or 
waterfall, which, falling from a great height and 
breaking upon the rugged rocks, affected both the 
eyes and ears with somewhat of horror, especially 
us that were riding on the steep and slippery side 
of the hill." This was Col with (Coldwath) Force. 

W. G. 

(5 th S. x. 468 ; xi. 39.) Much curious information 
upon this subject is to be found in D'lsraeli's 
Curiosities of Literature and in Mr. Duttoi* 
Cook's recently published Book of the Play. 


The Temple. 

GUIDO'S "CLEOPATRA" (5 th S. x. 247, 336.) 
I have a very old painting of Cleopatra, attributed 
to Guido, upon copper, six inches by four and a 
half, which I shall be happy to submit to the 
inspection of any artistic connoisseur for his opinion, 
as to its genuineness. W. GIBBS. 

Belle Vue House, Watford, Herts. 

MENT, 1834 (5 th S. x. 167, 332.) Miss Jane Place 
writes to me as follows : 

" My father's library was sold at Sotheby's, and bought 
principally by his old friend Joseph Parkes. His manu- 
scripts and other papers of value were purchased by the 
British Museum. 1 do not remember that there was 
anything particular about the destruction of the Houses 
of Parliament; as I was at Rio then of course I could 
know nothing about it, but something no doubt will be 
found in his cuttings from newspapers in many large 
volumes now at the British Museum." 

F. B. 

" Boss " (5 th S. x. 289, 338, 357.) This word is 
taken from the Dutch settlers in New York, and 
means master. In Dutch it is spelt baas. In the 
United States the word is in common u?e ; as boss 
shoemaker, boss carpenter, &c. In the New York 
Herald of May 24, 1850, you will find: "The 
Father of Holiness is the dependent of the Jew, 
and Rothschild is the real Pope and boss of all 
Europe." In Bartlett's Dictionary of Americanisms- 
more will be found on the word boss. 




[5th fc. XL JAN. 25, 79. 

x. 208, 335.) W. F. C. will find a long genealogy of 
Henry Savile's family in the first volume of Whita- 
ker's Loidis and Elmete, chapter on Thornhill ; and 
in Hunter's Antiquarian Notices of Lupset there is 
a full and interesting pedigree of this family. Both 
these writers, however, agree in styling Henry 
Savile's wife Margaret Fuller of Islington, instead 
of Fowler. Weever also must have fallen into 
error, as in the inscription cited by MR. MARSHALL 
on the infant child he is stated to be the son of 
John Savile and Margaret his wife, instead of 
Henry Savile. G. D. T. 


HAIR (5 th S. x. 356, 413, 457.) I well remember 
in my youth people who had lived in the last cen- 
tury speaking of the sign of Absalom suspended by 
his hair in a tree as not uncommon over barbers' 
shops in country towns and villages. The couplet, 
-however, accompanying these signs ran thus : 

" Absalom, my son, my son ! 
If thou hadst worn a wig thou 'dst not have been undone." 

It would be impossible to say on which side of 
the Channel the idea originated, but I have heard 
of a similar sign in France over a perruquier's 
shop, with these lines : 

"Passants, contemplez la douleur 

D'Absalom pendu par la nuque ; 
II n'aurait pas eu ce malheur 

S'il eut voulu porter perruque." 
Is anything of the sort found in other languages ? 

E. McC . 

143, 253, 501.) The English male glowworm is 
a slender dusky beetle, about five-eighths of an 
inch long, which frequently flies into open win- 
dows in Kent and Sussex in June or July, but 
gives no light. The female, which shines, has no 

The "lucciola" in Italy is smaller than his 
English cousin, but closely resembles him. He 
carries a light as he flies, and as they abound in 
damp spots, hundreds may be seen at once in 
the air, affording a most beautiful spectacle. 
Whether both sexes fly and both shine I do not 
know, but I do not remember to have seen many 
(if any) lights on the ground. As, however, the 
light comes from segments of the abdomen covered 
by the elytra when the insect is in repose, the 
light would be scarcely perceptible unless when 
in the act of flying. SUSSEXIENSIS. 

394.) By " curious coincidence," while telling me 
about the unexpected discovery of the marriage 
contract, Lord Selkirk, the lineal descendant of 
Dunbar of Baldoon, stood in the drawing-room of 

ETolyrood Palace literally shoulder to shoulder 
with the Earl of Stair, the collateral descendant of 
Janet Dalrymple. GREYSTEIL. 

DORSETSHIRE TOAST (5 th S. x. 306, 375, 412.) 
The three lines here given as a "Dorsetshire 
oast " form part of a toast or song that is usually 
the first done justice to at a Dorsetshire harvest 
home that in honour of the " measter " and of 
which I have given the full version in " NJ & Q." 
(4 th S. xii. 361), as follows : 

" Here 's a health unto our master, 

The founder of the feast, 
And when that he is dead and gone, 

I hope his soul may rest. 
I wish all things may prosper, 
Whatever he takes in hand, 
For we are all his servants 
And serve at his command. 
So drink ! boys ! drink ! 
And see that you do not spill, 
For if you do 
You shall drink two, 
'Tis by your master's will." 

J. S. UDAL. 
Inner Temple. 

48.) May I timidly suggest that John Reid was 
smith of the parish or district for the space of 
forty-two years ? W. T. M. 


BALCONY OR BALCONY (3 rd S. ix. 303, 380, 519 ; 
5 th S.x. 299; xi. 39, 56.) 

"When dirty waters from balconies drop 
And dextrous damsels twirl the sprinkling mop." 
Gay's Trivia, bk. ii. 1. 421. 
J. P. 

TO IRELAND (5 th S. xi. 49.) When I transcribed 
the list alluded to by MR. H. ALLINGHAM, these 
maps, &c., were at the State Paper Office at 
Whitehall. They are now, together with all the 
contents of that department, transferred to the 
Public Record Office in Chancery Lane. 


WINE AND FIRE (5 th S. ix. 247.) Sir William 
Gull has supplied an answer to the query as to the 
source of the quotation in his evidence before the 
Committee on Intemperance. The line appears in 
his paper in the Contemporary Revieiu of December 
last, p. 132 : 

OiVos yap Trvpi ICTOV tTTiyjOovioicriv oVeiap. 


The author of it, Panyasis, was an epic poet who 
flourished 489-467 B.C., and was put to death 
457 B.C. He was a relation of Herodotus, and it 
has been supposed that he was most probably his 
uncle. His remains are in Gaisford's Poetce Minores 




S. XI. JAN. 25, 79.] 


SERVANTS' HALL FORFEITS (5 th S. ix. 188, 297 ; 
xi. 33.) The following is a copy of the set of 
rules in the servants' hall at Windsor Castle : 

" 12 Item, That meate be readie at 11, or before, at 
dinner, and 6, or before, at supper, on paine of 6d. 
11 All which sommes shall be duly paide each quarter- 
day out of their wages, and bestowed on the potire, or 
other godly use." Nugce Antiouce vol i p 106 edit 

Twelve An engraving StuJ ^ u ]eg 
A -R l ao preparations for King Char 
P th execution the First of 

found in the Charles L Blessed Memory. 

Family tradition tells me that a copy of the 
above " orders " was extant at Kelston House in 
the days of my great-grandfather, though not, of 


Prophane ") no f Divine Ordinan 
Touch > no -{ State Matters 
Urge J no (. Healths 
Pick ~) no ( Quarrels 
Maintain >- no - 111 Opinions 
Encourage J no (. Vice 
Repeat ) no f Grievances 
Reveal > no < Secrets 
Make J no (_ Comparisons 
Keep ~) no C Bad Company 
Make > no -C Long Meals 
Lay ) no (. Wagers. 

course, enforced at that time, and yet a due ob- 
servance of some of them would tend to improve 
the character of many a household. 
The Close, Exeter. 

AUTHORS OF BOOKS WANTED (5 th S. ix. 309 ; 
xi. 49.) 
"Familiar Quotations: "being an Attempt to Trace to 
their Source Passages and Phrases in Common Use. By 
John Bartlett." Such is the title-page of my edition, 
published by Routledge & Sons. My copy has neither- 
date nor dedication. Mr. Bartlett is an American, and 
his compilation first appeared about twenty years since. 

These Rules observ'd will obtain 
Thy Peace and everlasting Gain. 

About twenty-five years ago Mr. L. C. Gent published 
a volume of Familiar Quotations, which was almost 
immediately out of print, and of which, most probably, 

Beheaded Jan^ 30. 1649. 

Messrs. Whittaker were the publishers, as they are of 
Mr. Gent's recently published little handy-books of 
English, Latin, and French Familiar Quotations. Mr. 


Gent says in his preface that Mr. Bartlett's work 
was "the precursor of numerous books of a similar 

ZERO asks, " Can any of your readers refer me 
to another list of such (servants' hall) forfeits 1 " 
If he will refer to the Nugce Antiques, being " a 
collection of original papers, by Sir John Haring- 
ton (of Kelston) and others," he will find the fol- 
lowing : " Orders for Household Servants, first 
devised by John Harington, in the year 1566, and 
renewed by John Harington, son of the said John, 
in the year 1592, the said John, the son, being 
then High Shrieve of the County of Somerset," 
and residing at Kelston House, near Bath. The 
" orders " are twenty-one in number, and, of 
course, too numerous for the pages of " N. & Q." ; 
but I will extract one or two, to give an idea of 
their character and utility : 

" Imprimis. That no Servant bee absent from praier, 
at morning or evening, without a lawful excuse, to be 
alledged within one day after, upon paine to forfeit for 
every tyme 2d. 

" 2 Item, That none swear any othe, uppon paine for 
every othe Id. 

" 3 Item, That no man leave any doore open that he 
findeth shut, without theare bee cause, upon paine for 
every tyme Id. 

" 4 Item, That none of the men be in bed, from our 
Lady-day to Michaelmas, after 6 of the clock in the 
morning, nor out of his bed after 10 of the clock at 
night ; nor, from Michaelmas till our Lady-day, in bed 
after 7 in the morning, nor out after 9 at night, without 
reasonable cause, on paine of 2d. 

" 7 Item, That no man teach any of the children any 
unhonest speech, or improper word, or othe, on paine of 

"11 Item, The table must be covered halfe an hour 
before 11 at dinner, and 6 at supper, or before, on paine 



389, 419, 439, 527.) 

" Glissez, mortels/' &c. 
The name of the author of these lines is Roy, not Roz. 

(5th S . xi. 30.) 
"Who killed Kildare?" 

Dean Swift's punning epitaph on the Earl of Kildare 
of his time. J. F. P. 

(5> s. xi. 49.) 

"See how these Christians," &c. 

" Vide, inquiunt, ut invicem se diligant, ipsi enim 
invicem oderunt : et ut pro alterutro mori sint parati, 
ipsi enim ad occidendum alterutrum paratiores." 
Tertull., Apol. adv. Gent., c. xxix. ED. MARSHALL. 

" See how these Christians love one another !" is a say- 
ing ascribed to Julian the Apostate when he had gathered 
together some Christian teachers and, so to say, set them 
by the ears by raising discussions on points controverted 
among themselves. JAMES HOOPER. 

" Sculptors like Phidias," &c., 

occurs in Mr. Matthew Arnold's Bacchanalia; or, the- 
New Age : Poems, vol. ii., Macmillan, 1869. 


The Poets Laureate of England. By Walter Hamilton. 

(Elliot Stock.) 

IT is a misfortune in connexion with the subject chosen 
by Mr. Hamilton that the poets with whom he deals are 
either men of such position the world has already learned 
all about them there is to tell, or such nullities that no 
discovery concerning them has the slightest interest. 



[5th S . XL JAN. 25, 79. 

Hence it follows that his only chance of popularity de- 
pends upon the manner in which he links together by 
liis own reflections and comments on the laureateship so 
many separate biographies of no special value. At the 
cost of accuracy and other even more important qualities 
he has produced a readable book. Its errors, however, 
in matters of fact balance nicely its irielegancies of style. 
On the one side we have an author speaking of " the 
latter " of three, and giving us again such sentences as 
the following : " Living in the stormy days which pre- 
ceded and followed the Restoration, the revolution which 
Dryden effected in English literature and taste may," &c. 
When a revolution does live it may be expected in 
days as stormy as those indicated. As yet, however, 
the phenomenon- has not been witnessed. So juvenile 
throughout is the style there is scarcely a page without 
some inelegancy or inaccuracy corresponding to those 
quoted. In respect of correctness of information there 
is good cause for complaint. Phaeton is thus spelt 
Phoeton ; Thomas Hobbes is spoken of as " the great 
theologian," surely the funniest description of the author 
of Leviathan ever given ; Anne, first wife of Sir William 
Davenant, is said to have been "buried March, 1654-5," 
whatever that may mean. Of Nahum Tate we are told 
"he was the son of Dr. Faithful Teat." Pope never 
wrote a line so halting as the second of the following 
-distich, quoted on p. 126 : 

"And he who now to sense, now nonsense leaning, 

Means not, but blunders round a meaning." 
Nor did Dr. Johnson write : 

" Great George's acts let tuneful Gibber sing, 
For Nature formed the poet for that king." 

We should like Mr. Hamilton's authority for the state- 
ment that Dryden intended, if his wife had not survived 
Lim, to have placed on her tombstone an indifferent 
translation of Boileau's famous epigram : 

" Ci-git ma femme, ah qu'elle est bien 
Pour son repos et pour le mien " ! 

The notice of Wordsworth is ungenerous in the ex- 
treme. Not content with disparaging the works of one 
who, in spite of all Mr. Hamilton says, disputes with 
Byron and Shelley the sway over the present century, he 
charges Sir John Coleridge for holding different views 
with " bare assertion and most inconsequential reasoning"; 
he states that it is rare among ordinary readers of poetry 
to meet with one who has waded through the Excursion, 
an assertion only explicable on the ground that Mr. 
Hamilton, finding himself an ordinary reader of poetry, 
measures the corn of others out of his own bushel; and 
he even goes so far as to say that Wordsworth, in "imi- 
tation of his friend Southey," "judged it expedient " to 
change his early opinions or to smother them in his own 
breast, thus casting two grievous and gratuitous insults 
upon a man whose whole life gives the lie to such sup- 
positions. Of the present laureate he says that he eclipses 
.all previous wearers of the laurels. This is a matter of 
opinion, and Mr. Hamilton has a right to his own. He 
lias not a right, however, to revive verses which Mr. 
Tennyson has suppressed, and to dig out the ill-natured 
poem The New Timon and the Poets. We are sorry to 
speak severely, but censure is requisite. Mr. Hamilton 
*nay plead that some of the innumerable errors his book 
contains are due to the printers. An author, however, is 
bound to revise his proofs, and he must be content to 
tear the burden of all inaccuracy. 

Historical Memorials of Beauchief A bbey. By S . 0. Addy 

(J. Parker & Co.; Sheffield, Leader & Co.) 
THE records of the Praemonstratensian house at Beau- 
chief, near Chesterfield, founded in 1183, it is said, to 
expiate the murder of A'Becket, are unusually rich in 
details of monastic life. They consist of the obituary, or 

table of benefactors' and others' names who were to be 
prayed for in the church, and comprise a thirteenth cen- 
tury MS. continued to the Dissolution, 1536, a sort of diary 
of prayers due for nearly every day in the year, a 
sequence of commemorations, with notes of the claims 
for masses in each instance ; a very rich and curious 
record, not before printed and unknown to Pegge, who 
wrote about Beauchief. There are likewise a congeries of 
charters, c. 1300 and later; the visitation registers; a 
partial history of the house, with ample evidence of the 
disorders which occurred there ; accounts of the guild- 
brotherhood of Dronfield, a dependency of the abbey; 
the whole is full of useful materials for the history of 
subordinate members of religious establishments. The 
inventory of goods taken at the Dissolution adds to the 
value of an excellent and very useful work. All these 
documents have been carefully and copiously annotated 
by Mr. Addy, to whom antiquaries are much indebted 
for this very interesting volume, which, by the way, is 
furnished with copious indexes. 

AMONGST Mr. Murray's forthcoming works are The 
Cathedral : its Necessary Place in the Life and Work of 
the Church, by the Bishop of Truro ; Life, of St. Hugh of 
Avalon, Bishop of Lincoln, by Rev. Geo. G. Perry; 
vol. ii. of Dictionary of Christian Biography; and 
a fourth edition nf Handbook of Familiar Quotations 
from English Aiithors. 


We must call special attention to the following notice: 

ON all communications should be written the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

W. M. M. We never heard a whisper of such a sug- 
gestion. John L. Adolphus published the well-known 
Letters to Heber to prove Walter Scott was the author of 
Waverley long before the authorship was acknowledged. 

JOHN R. JACKSON. We scarcely think it necessary to 
give the details, the annual official description in the 
Court Circular is so well known. 

C. F. S. AV. would greatly aid us by writing his subjects 
on separate sheets of paper. At present it is extremely 
difficult to distinguish and separate them. 

C. A. W. See the Corpus Poelarum Lalinorum ; Ovid, 
Am. Rein., lib.'i. 91, 92. Sera must be a misprint in 
the Corpus. 

B. ("Baronets and Knighthood "). See "N. & Q.." 
3 rd S. i. 274, 420 ; ii. 219, 397 ; Hi. 37." Though the mills 
of God grind slowly," &c., will be found among Long- 
fellow's "Poetic Aphorisms," from the Sinngedichte of 
Friedrich Von Logau. 

A. C. DTTNLOP. Inquire of 3fr. Brothers, Publisher, 

R. C. POULTER (" Tarn Marte," &c.). See " N. & Q.," 
5* S. x. 269, 392. 

ANDREW D. BIRD should submit his picture to some 
competent critic. 

E. W. The four lines quoted in our review of 
Camoens's Lusiads, ante, p. 59, are by W. J. Mickle. 

A. L. M. In dse course. 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to " The 
Editor of ' Notes and Queries ' " Advertisements and 
Business Letters to "The Publisher "at the Office, 20, 
Wellington Street, Strand, London, W.C. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print ; and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 


S. XL FEB. 1, 79.] 





NOTES : Open Boat Adventures in 1590 and 1619, 81 Leigh 
Grammar School, Lancashire : Abp. Cranmer's Autograph, 
83 The King's and Queen's Companies in 1629 and 1630 
"Hart Hall, now Balliol College "Astrological Predictions 
Fulfilled, 85 The " Merrythought "Papal Dispensations: 
Ogilvy -Folk-lore William Wotton, 86 "-ess " Dickens' s 
Autographs Odd Names of Places, 87. 

QUERIES : The Pusey Horn An Irish Highwayman Gal- 
braith of Balgair Mining Token" Daughter " as a Femi- 
nine Surname Terminative, 87 Cucking or Ducking Stools 
Toothache The "Triumphal Car" Diary of a Yorkshire 
Clergyman, 1682 Parnassim : Escaba Count Street, Not- 
tingham " Phrase "An Old Game-" Juncare " " Thrym- 
belynge," 83 -Human Sacrifices in Barbary March 24, New 
Year's Day Lunatics in the Seventeenth Century" Gain- 
giving" "Bienvenu Auvergnat" Old Inscribed Chess- 
boards" The square man in the round hole " Authors 
Wanted, 89. 

REPLIES : Canons, Prebendaries, and Honorary Canons, 89 
Yateley, Hants, 91 Rushton Hall MSS., 92 "Hems" 
Booksellers in St. Paul's Churchyard, 93 Rubbing with 
a Dead Hand, 94 Rare Editions of Shakspeare Delaune's 
"Present State of London "Invitations written on Playing 
Cards, 95 W. C. Bryant " Ost-house," 96 "Ginnel" 
Miss Mitford Kow Histories of the Huguenots A Village 
Custom A Mystery Welsh Proverbs " Lay of the Last 
Minstrel" A Bellman's Proclamation Cakes Coloured with 
Saffron Lady Anne Hamilton and the " Secret History," 98 
The Stafford Knot -" Bindery "Ralph" Hue and Cry " 
Authors Wanted, 99. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : " William Harvey "" Quarter Sessions 
from Queen Elizabeth to Queen Anne " " Four Chapters of 
North's Plutarch" " The Law of Organs and Organists." 

ITotices to Correspondents, &c. 


In the light of the daring that will tempt men 
nowadays to cross the stormy Atlantic in an open 
boat, it is interesting to look back and see what in 
this way was considered wonderful by our fore- 

In 1590 Richard Ferris, accompanied by two 
friends, Andrew Hill and William Thomas, made 
a voyage in an open boat from London to Bristol. 
Indeed, so great was this undertaking then con- 
sidered, that on its completion " a full true and 
particular " account was published in a little tract, 
the original of which is now of the very greatest 
rarity, if not absolutely unique. Happily it has 
been included by Mr. Collier in his privately 
printed Illustrations of Early English Popular 
Literature (2 vols. 4to. : see " N. & Q.," 5 th S. ix. 
381), and it is from this reprint that the particulars 
given in this note have been taken. 

Before, however, quoting from this reprint, two 
entries in the Stationers' Registers seem to make it 
appear as if public expectation was to be gratified 
at the earliest opportunity, just as our newspapers 
now make arrangements to give with the least 
possible delay an account of some looked-for event. 
It should be noted that Ferris and his companions 

left London on Midsummer Day, 1590 ; they 
reached Bristol on the succeeding 3rd of August, 
and here we have entries of ballads by two different 
stationers as they were then called dated the 
7th and 10th of the latter month, chronicling the 
affair. That they were immediately thereafter 
published there need be no doubt. It may be 
further noted that Ferris himself did not return 
to London until Saturday, August 8, and the 
registering of the first-named ballad by Edward 
White, the publisher of the little tract now under 
consideration, would suggest the fact that a special 
messenger must have been sent to the metropolis 
immediately, carrying the news of the successful 
completion of the undertaking. Here are the 
entries (Mr. Arber's Transcript, vol. ii. pp. 557-8) : 

"7 August! [1590]. Edward white | Entred for his 
copie vmler master Hartwell and master Cawoodes 
handes, a ballad of Richard Fferrys cominge to Bristowe 
on the Third of Auguste 1590 vj d ." 

"10 Augusti [1590]. Henrye Carre. | Entred for his 
copie vnder th[e hjandes of master Judson and bothe the 
wardens a ballad of the ioyfull entertainement of the 
wherry and iij wherrymen viz. Richard Fferrys, Andrewe 
Hilles, and William Thomas, by the maiour aldermen and 
Citizens of Bristoll 4 to Augusti 1590 vj d ." 

Curiously enough I can find no entry in that year 
for the tract itself. The first- named ballad is 
perhaps the one by James Sargent, printed im- 
mediately after Ferris's prose narrative. 

Coming now to Ferris's production, the title-page 
is in itself a small treatise. It begins with these 
catching words, "The most dangerous and memor- 
able aduenture of Richard Ferris," &c., and con- 
cludes, "London: Printed by John Wolfe for 
Edward White, and are to be sold at his shop being 
at the little north doore of Pauls at the signe of 
the Gunne. 1590." 

Ferris was " one of the flue ordinarie Messen- 
gers of her Maiesties Chamber," and it is not sur- 
prising that his tract is dedicated to Sir Thomas 
Heneage, one of Queen Elizabeth's Privy Council 
and Vice-Chamberlain. 

As mentioned above, Ferris and his companions 
began their voyage on Midsummer Day, and 
taking into account the distance, it may seem 
strange that they did not reach Bristol until the 
3rd of August following. The reason of this will 
appear immediately. In the mean time, as to the 
character of the boat in which they sailed, Mr. 
Collier observes in his Introduction : 

" We are to recollect that 'wherries,' as they were then 
called, were of much larger dimensions, and stronger 
build, than such as are now used and pass under the same 
name. Indeed, of late years, boats of the kind have been 
constructed so frail and light, that they have been almost 
insufficient to carry the rower, while such ' wherries ' as 
we remember on the Thames forty or fifty years ago 
would convey from four to eight passengers each. Never- 
theless, at the period of which we here speak, the 
' Gravesend wherries,' as they were called, were generally 
safe and powerful boats, rigged with a foresail and main- 
sail, and they not unfrequently went out into rough 



[5th S . XI. FEB. 1, 79. 

vrater. It must have been such a boat as this that Ferris, 
Hill, and Thomas, employed on their voyage to Bristol ; 
which, perhaps, was hardly as dangerous as they have 
represented it." 

Here is Ferris's own description of his craft and 
setting out : 

"The boate wherein I determined to performe my 
promise was new built, which I procured to be painted 
with greene, and the oares and sayle of the same collour, 
with the red crosse for England and her Maiesties armes, 
with a vane standing fast to the sterne of the sayd boate ; 
which being in full readinesse, vpon Midsommer day last, 
my selfe with my companions, Andrew Hill, and William 
Thomas, with a great many of our friends and welwillers, 
accompanyed vs to the Tower wharfe of London ; there 
wee entred our boate, and so, with a great many of our 
friends in other like boates, rowed to the court at 
Greenewitch, where before the court gate we gaue a 
volley of shot: then we landed and went into the court, 
where we had great entertainment at euery office, and 
many of our friendes were full sorie for our departing." 
P. 3. 

The voyage was not without an element of 
danger ; but it may be stated that with cautious 
prudence Ferris and his companions were careful 
to reduce that danger to a very minimum. They 
generally spent their nights in safe anchorages, or 
in some harbour where they were hospitably enter- 
tained by some one or other of the townspeople. 
This will go a long way to account for the length 
of time taken to perform the journey. The fol- 
lowing extract contains an incident which evi- 
dently put our voyagers into a flutter : 

" The next morning, we set out to goe for the landes 
end, where setting from Pensans with our halfe tide, to 
recouer the first of the tide at the lands end, we being 
in our boate a great way from the shore, our maister 
descryed a Pyrate, hauing a vessel of foure tunne, who 
made towards vs amaine, meaning doubtles to haue 
robbed vs, but, doubting such a matter, we rowed so 
neare the shoare as wee might ; and by that time as he 
was almost come at vs, we were neare to a rocke standing 
in the sea, where this Pyrate thought to haue taken vs 
at an aduantage : for being come close to the out side of 
the saide rocke, called Raynalde stones, he was becalmed 
and could make no way, and so were we. But God, who 
neuer faileth those that put their trust in him, sent vs 
a comfort vnlooked for ; for as we rowed to come about 
by this rocke, suddenly we espyed a plaine and verie 
easie way for vs to passe on the inner side of the saide 
rocke, where we went through very pleasantly, and by 
reason thereof he could not follow vs : thus we escaped 
safely, but he was soone after taken and brought in at 
Bristow." Pp. 8-9. 

The reception accorded to Ferris and his com- 
panions on reaching Bristol was of a very en- 
thusiastic character, as will appear from this 
quotation : 

" But it was wonderfull to see and heare what reioycing 
there was on all sides at our coming : the Maior of 
Bristow, with his bretheren the Aldermen, came to the 
water side, and welcomed vs most louingly, arid the 
people came in great multitudes to see vs ; in so much 
as, by the consent of the Magistrates, they tooke our 
boate from vs, not suffering vs once to meddle with it, 
in respect that we were all extreame wearie, and carried 
our saide boate to the high crosse, in the citie : from 

thence it was conuaied to the towne house, there locked 
safe all night. And on the next morning, the people of 
the citie gathered them selues together, and had pre- 
pared trumpets, drummes, fyfes, and ensignes to go 
before the boate, which was carried vpon mens shoulders 
round about the citie, with the waites of the saide citie, 
playing orderly in honour of our rare and daungerous 
attempt atchiued. Afterwardes we were had to maister 
Maiors, to the Aldermen and Sheriffes houses, where we 
were feasted most royally, and spared for no cost all the 
time that we remained there. Thus hauing a while 
refreshed our selues after our so tedious labours, we 
came to London on Saterday, being the eight of August, 
1590 ; where, to epeake truth without dissembling, our 
entertainement at our coming was great and honourable, 
especially at the Court, and in the Cities of London and 
Westminster : and generally I found that the people 
greatly reioyced to see vs in all places." Pp. 11-12. 

Ferris tells us that he " was neuer trayned vp 
on the water," which cannot be said of John Tay- 
lor, the Water Poet. This worthy and a com- 
panion named Roger Bird undertook a voyage 
from London to Quinborough in Kent, in a boat 
made of brown paper borne up by air bladders. 
This foolhardy expedition is graphically described 
by Taylor himself in his Praise of Hempseed: 
with the Voyage of Mr. Roger Bird and the Writer 
hereof, in a Boat of browne-Paper, from London 
to Quinborough in Kent, 1620. This tract was 
afterwards included in the folio of Taylor's Works, 
1630, and the quotations below are taken from 
the Spenser Society's handsome republication of 
the latter. Taylor thus begins his narrative : 
" I therefore to conclude this much will note 

How I of Paper lately made a Boat, 
And how in forme of Paper I did ro 

From London vnto Quinborovgh lie show. 

I and a Vintner (Roger Bird by name) 

(A man whom Fortune neuer yet could tame) 

Tooke ship vpon the vigill of Saint lames 

And boldly ventur'd downe the Riuer Thames, 

Lauing and cutting through each raging billow, 

(In such a Boat which neuer had a fellow) 

Hauing no kinde of mettall or no wood 

To helpe vs eyther in our Ebbe or Flood : 

For as our boat was paper, so our Oares 

Where Stock-fish, caught neere to the Island shores.' 7 

P. 557. 

Here we are told the journey was begun on St. 
James's vigil, which, as I take it, occurs on the 
24th of July. The Praise of Hempseed appeared 
in 1620 ; but as it was licensed in Stationers' 
Hall on the 22nd of May of that year, Taylor's trip 
must have been made not later than July, 1619. 
Here is the entry in Mr. Arber's Transcript of the 
Stationers' Registers (vol. iii. p. 674) : 

"22 Maij 1620. Henry Gosson Entred for h 
copie vnder the handes of master Doctor Goad 
Master Jaggard warden, A booke Called The praise 
Hempseed by John Taylor vj d ." 

The frail material of which this singular 
was built soon gave way : 
" The water to the Paper being got, 
In one halfe houre our boat began to rot : 
The Thames (most lib'rall) fild her to the halues, 
Whilst Hodge and I sate liquor'd to the calues. 

5th g . XI. FEB. 1, 79.] 



In which extremity I thought it fit 

To put in vse a stratagem of wit, 

Which was, eitcht Bullocks bladders we had bought 

Putt stifly full with wind, bound fast and tought, 

Which on our B<>at within the Tide we ty'de, 

Of each side foore, vpon the outward side. 

The water still rose higher by degrees. 

In three miles going, almost to our knees, 

Our rotten bottome all to tatters fell, 

And left our boat as bottomlesse as Hell. 

And had not bladders borne vs stifly vp, 

We there had tasted of deaths fa tall cup." P. 557. 

There was yet a farther progress in their dan- 
gerous condition : 

" Yet such we fear'd the graues our end would be 
Before we could the Towne of Grauesend see : 
Our boat drunke deepely with her dropsie thirst, 
And quaft as if she would her bladders burst, 
Whilst we within sixe inches of the brim 
(Full of salt water) downe (halfe sunck) did swim. 
Thousands of people all the shores did hide, 
And thousands more did meet vs in the tide 
With Scullers, Oares, with ship-boats, & with Barges 
To gaze on vs. they put themselues to charges." 

Pp. 557-8. 

The next quotation will show their behaviour 
on landing, and the reception they received from 
the Quinborough people : 

" Thus we from Saturday at euening Tide, 
Till Monday morne, did on the water bide, 
In rotten paper and in boysterous weather, 
Darke nights, through wet, and toyled altogether. 
But being come to Quinborough and aland, 
I tooke my fellow Roger by the hand, 
And both of vs ere we two steps did goe 
Gaue thankes to God that had preseru'd vs so : 
Confessing that his mercy vs protected 
When as we least deseru'd, and lesse expected. 
The Maior of Quinborough in loue affords 
To entertaine vs, as we had beene Lords; 
It is a yearely feast kept by the Maior, 
And thousand people thither doth repaire, 
From Townes and Villages that 's neere about, 
And 'twas our lucke to come in all this rout. 
I' th' street, Bread, Beere, and Oysters is their meat, 
Which freely, friendly, shot-free all doe eat. 
But Hodge and I were men of ranck and note, 
We to the Maior gaue our aduenturous boat ; 
The which (to glorifie that Towne of Kent) 
He meant to hang vp for a monument. 
He to his house inuited vs to dine, 
Where we had cheare on cheare, and wine on wine, 
And drinke, and fill, and drinke, and drinke and fill, 
With welcome vpon welcome, welcome still." P. 558. 

In July, 1622, Taylor made a voyage in his 
wherry by sea from London to York. In the 
same month and year following, " A Discovery by 
Sea from London to Salisbvry" was undertaken in 

" our Wherry, and five men within her." 
Of these two expeditions Taylor has written at 
length, and not without spirit and interest. 

That keen observer of men and manners, Samuel 
Rowlands, addresses the following lines to the 
Water Poet, in which he also' refers to Ferris's 
voyage (Spenser Society's reprint of John Taylor's 
Works, 1630, p. 499) : " 

" To my louing Friend lohn Taylor. 
Ferris gaue cause of vulgar wonderment, 
When vnto Bristow in a boat he went ; 
Another with his Sculler ventured more, 
That row'd to Flushing from our English shoare. 
Another did deuise a woodden Whale, 
Which vnto Callice did from Douer s*ile, 
Another with his Oares and slender Wherry, 
From London vnto A ntiverpe o're did Ferry. 
Another maugre fickle fortunes teeth, 
Rowed hence to Scotland and arriu'd at Leeth. 
But thou hast made all these but triuiall things, 
That from the Tower thy watry Sculler brings 
To Hellicon : most sacred in account, 
And so arriued at Pernassus Mount : 
And backe return'd Laden with Poets wit, 
With all the Muses hands to witnesse it ; 
Who on their Sculler doth this praise bestow, 
Not such another on the Thames doth row. 

Thy louing Friend, Sam : Rowlands." 


While lately taking notes for an Account and 
Catalogue of the small collection of old books in 
the library of the above school, the remnant of 
a bequest (about the year 1710) by Ralph Pilling, 
one of the head masters of the school, to his suc- 
cessors, I discovered an autograph of the eminent 
Archbishop Cranmer, which is noteworthy on 
many grounds. The fac-similes of the archbishop's 
signature, found in various books, display a pretty 
wide diversity both as regards the style of writing 
and the abbreviation or fulness of the two words 
composing it ; and yet it is seen, on a close study, 
that a family likeness runs through all. Some are 
in the cramped German text or engrossing hand, 
as in the examples in Gorham's Gleanings (p. 12) 
and Nichols's Autogratihs, 1829 (plate 11), which 
at a first glance have no apparent affinity with the 
Leigh autograph. But another class of Cranmer's 
autographs are in a running hand, and it is one of 
these (more cursive than that in Sims's Autographs, 
1842) that occurs in the Leigh library. It is thus 
written : " Thomas Cantuarieii"; and it is found on 
the top of a title-page of an 8vo. copy of a transla- 
tion of the Book of Proverbs, with a comment, by 
"that great clerk" Philip Melancthon. The 
volume is dated 1525, and is thus entitled : " Solo- 
| monis Sen \ tentiae, ver \ see ad Hebraicam 
Veri | tatem a \ Phil. Melan. \ Haganose, per 
lohan. | Secerium." There is a new title-page to 
the Annotations : " Hotpot | /ii'ai, sive pro \ verbia 
Solomo | nis filii Davidis, \ Cum Adnotationibus 
| Philippi Melan- \ cthonis. \ Haganose, per lohan 
| nem Secerium. | Cum Indice." Hagenoa, or' 
Haguenau, now in France in the Department of 
Bas-Rhin, produced several books in the fifteenth 
century. John Secer de Lancha, the printer of 
Melancthon's book, was one of the successors 
there of the printer Anselme (Deschamps's Diet., 



[5th s. XL FEB. 1, 79. 

After considerable search I was enabled to 
identify the autograph with one fac-similed in the 
Catalogue of the Colfe Grammar School library at 
Lewisharn, Kent, edited by W. H. Black, 1831. 
In this collection, it seems, there are two books 
with Cranmer's episcopal autograph on the title- 
pages, one of which books (CataL, p. 20) is 
Erasmus's AnnotaL on the New Test., fol., Basle, 
1527, and the other (p. 24) is Bucer On the Epistle 
to the Romans, fol., Strasburg, 1536, with a dedica- 
tion to Cranmer himself, dated 8 Kal. April, 1536. 
It is the autograph in the latter folio which Mr. 
Black has fac-similed in his Catalogue, and it is 
the very same type of writing as that in the Leigh 
copy of Melancthon, the latter being propor- 
tionately smaller, and written, there is little doubt, 
about the same time, viz., about three years after 
Cranmer's accession to the see of Canterbury. 

I am not yet sure whether certain marks in the 
Melancthon are not those of the archbishop, who 
we know was in the habit of marking his books 
when reading them, for he seldom read without 
a pen in his hand. In what way the book got 
into this obscure corner of England can never 
perhaps be ascertained. It seems clear that 
a partial dispersion of the prelate's books took 
place. Todd (Life of Cranmer, ii. 525) says that 
a great part of Cranmer's MSS., as well as his 
collection of printed books, were either embezzled 
during his imprisonment, or fell into the hands of 
his enemies and were dispersed ; and that Archbp. 
Parker recovered several of the former. Mr. Black 
could not explain how the two Colfe volumes 
escaped from Cranmer's library, which after his 
martyrdom, March 21, 1555-6, was forfeited to 
the Crown, then passed into the possession of 
Henry, Earl of Arundel, steward of Queen Mary's 
household, who bequeathed them, in 1579, to Lord 
Lumley's library, on whose death, in 1609, they 
were purchased by Henry, Prince of Wales. On 
the death of the latter, in 1612, many of his 
books were sold (Mr. E. E. Chester Waters's 
Genealogical Memoirs of Chester of Chicheley, ii. 
385); but the bulk went into the royal library, 
and so came to the British Museum, the books 
being marked with the archbishop's initials at 
the foot of the binding. The pedigree of the 
Leigh volume may in part be traced by other 
autographs in it. Shortly after the death of 
Cranmer the book appears to have come to the 
hands of one " F. Smallwood " ; next, a friend of 
Pilling's, " Johannes Birchenhead me jure possidet 
anno Dom'i 1677. pret 3s."; still later, "Sum 
e Libris Radulphi Pilling Scholae Mancuniensis 
alumni, A.D. 1699. Ex Donis Johannis Birchen- 
head." In a later hand is the autograph " Thomas 
Burson" (?), perhaps a scholar in Leigh School. 
In the ill-usage of several generations of schoolboys 
the preservation of this volume is due to its ex- 
cellent binding of beech boards, formerly secured 

by clasps. A fac-simile of Cranmer's autograph" 
has been kindly made by Mr. J. P. Kylands,. 
F.S.A., which is to be engraved for my Account 
of the library. 

The book itself is pregnant with associations of 
its first possessor, who acquired it, we may sup- 
pose, out of admiration of Melancthqn's modera- 
tion and learning. The autograph recalls the 
hand the calm hand which left its mark on the 
English Liturgy, as also the hand which recanted 
" this unworthy hand ! " And the volume directs 
the attention to the noble library of which it once 
formed part, that collection which was always 
freely open to men of letters, to which Latimer 
resorted, and where Ascham met with authors 
which the two universities could not furnish. 
Strype relates (Memorials, Eccles. Hist. Soc., 
vol. iii. 376-7) that the library of the reverend and 
learned prelate, who himself spent about three parts 
of the day in study, included the ecclesiastical 
writers of all ages, and he particularly refers to one 
of the archbishop's books, containing probably 
the very same form of autograph as that now 
described : 

" Another of his books I will mention, because it is now 

a 694] in possession of a reverend friend of mine near 
nterbury : in which book the archbishop's name is yet 
to be seen, written thus with his own hand, Thomas 
Cantuariensis : and a remarkable book it is, which we 
may conclude the archbishop often perused, viz., 
Epistolce et Historia Joannis Hits. Printed at Wittemberg. 

Stretford, near Manchester. 

AND 1630. As the following lists of the actors of 
the King's company in 1629, and the Queen's in 
1630, playing three of Massinger's plays, differ in 
some names from those of the published lists as 
reported in a late Shakespeare Manual, I hope you 
will think them worth printing. None of the lists 
is in Moxon's or Chatto & Windus's edition of 

1. The Roman Actor, 1629. 

The Persons presented. The principall Actors. 
Domitianus Caesar. John Lowin. 

Paris the Trapasdian. Joseph Taylor. 

Parthenius, a Freeman of Caesars. Kichard Sharpe. 
.tElius, Lamia, and Stephanos. Thomas Pollard. 
Junius Rusticus. Robert Benfield. 

Aretinus Clemens, Caesars spie. Eyllardt Swanstone. 
JSsopus, a player. Richard Robinson. 

Philargus, a rich Miser. Anthony Smith. 

Palphurius Sura, a Senator. William Pattricke. 

Latinus, a Player. Curtise Grevill. 

3 Tribunes. 
2Lictors. f George Vernon. 

(James Home. 

Domi tia, the wife of ^lius Lamia. John Tompson. 
Domitilla, cousin germane to 

Caesar. John Hunnieman. 

Julia Titus, Daughter. William Trigge. 

Caenis Vespasians Concubine. Alexander Gough. 

5'h s. XI. FEB. 1, 79.] 



2. The Picture, a Trage Comedie, 1629. 
Dramatis Persons. The Actors Names. 

Ladislaus, King of Hungarie. Robert Benfield. 

Eubulus, an old Counsaylor. John Lewin. 

Ferdinand, Generall of the army. Richard Sharpe. 
Mathias, a Knight of Bohemia. Joseph Taylor. 
Vbaldo, ) 9 ., . A . . J Thomas Pollard. 

Ricardo, | 2 Wlld courfcier3 - \ Eylardt Swanstone. 

Hilario, servant to Sophia. John Shanucke. 

Julio Baptista, a great scholler. William Pen. 
Honoria the Queene. John Tomson. 

Acanthe, a maid of honor. Alexander Goffe. 

Sophia, wife to Mathias. John Hunnieman. 

Corisca Sophias, woman. William Trigge. 

6 Masquers. 

6 Servants to the Queene. 


3. The Renegado, a Tragce Comedie, 1630. 
Dramatis Personas. The Actors Names. 

Asambeg, Viceroy of Tunis. John Blanye. 

Mustapha, Basha of Aleppo. John Sumner. 

Vitelli, a gentelman of Venice 

disguis'd. Michael Bowier. 

Francisco, a Jesuite. William Reignalds. 

Anthonio Grimaldi,the Rene- 
gado. William Allen. 

Carazie, an Eunuch. William Robins. 

Gazet, servant to Vitelli. Edward Shakerley. 







3 Turkes. 

Donusa, neece to Amurath. Edward Rogers. 

Paulina, sister to Vitelli. Theo. Bourne. 

Manto, servant to Donusa. 

It is evident that the players in The Roman 
Actor and The Picture belong to the same theatres. 
My dates are 1629 and 1630. These would be 
" Black-Friers " and the Globe, as we know from 
the names of Lowin, Taylor, Swanstone, &c. And 
on the title-page of The Roman Actor I find, "As 
it hath divers times beene with good allowance 
Acted, at the private Play-house in the Black- 
Friers, by the Kings Majesties Servants," and on 
the title-page of The Picture : " As it was often 
presented with good allowance at the Globe and 
Blacke-Friers Play-houses by the Kings Maiesties 
Servants." On the title-page of The Renegado 
(1630) : " As it hath beene often acted by the 
Queenes Maiesties Servants, at the private Play- 
house in Drurye-Lane." THOS. WARD. 

the Saturday Review of January 18, at p. 80, is 
a notice of the antiquary " William Wyrcestre," 
and in it this statement : " He remained four years 
a student at Hart Hall, now Balliol College." 
This is the second time within a few months that 
this astonishing statement as to Hart Hall and 
Balliol has appeared in print. I did not make 
a memorandum of the first place, thinking the 
absurdity too great to have life. But we little 

know. The writer of the Saturday Review article, 
who can tell a great deal about Bristol, but pro- 
bably as little about Oxford, may have seen the 
first announcement of the new fact and copied it 
without examination ; and it is announced in 
a manner of so much decision and authority that 
persons who do not know Oxford may reasonably 
acquiesce, and may assist in propagating the belief 
in "Hart Hall, now Balliol College." But the 
history of England, already amply comic, need not 
have another element of debate. It will be 
desirable to attempt to stop the occasion of new 
strife, anger, and laughter. For the sake of those 
who do not know, and are not bound to know, the 
facts, I beg to be allowed to record them. 

Balliol College never was Hart Hall. Hart, 
or Hert, Hall " Aula Cervina" became an 
academical hall early in the reign of Edward I. 
It took its name from the abbreviation of the name 
of the original owners, the De Hertford family. 
Hert was treated as Hart. In 1740, Dr. Ingram 
tells us, Dr. Newton, " who had been already prin- 
cipal ten years," obtained a charter by which Harfc 
Hall was made Hertford College. This existed till 
1805, when it expired. No one could be found to 
succeed the last principal, who died that year. 

In 1820 Magdalene Hall was burned down. 
The opportunity was taken to remove that society 
to the buildings of (Hart Hall) Hertford College. 
New buildings were immediately added, and 
Magdalene Hall went on till 1874, when it was 
suppressed by Act of Parliament, and Hertford 
College, on the old site of Hart Hall, was called 
into existence again. In the last century the 
armorial ensigns of Hertford College were a " hart 
at a ford, with the following appropriate motto or 
legend, Sicut cervus anhelat ad fontes." But I 
observed on the funeral achievement which was 
hung outside the lodgings of the principal at the 
death of the worthy Dr. Michell, that the revived 
college had taken what I believe was the original 
bearing of Hart Hall, the arms of Elias de Hert- 
ford : Gules, a hart's head caboched, aifrontee 
argent, attired or ; between the attires a cross 
pate"e fichee or. Dr. Ingram mentions both coats, 
but without tinctures. Among the " Scriptores " 
Antony a Wood mentions Gulielmus Wircester. 

D. P. 

Stuarts Lodge, Malvern Wells. 

instances of the above recently inserted in 
" N. & Q." (see 5 th S. x. 513) I may now add 
the following. In ZadUel's Almanac for this year, 
under the month of January, it is said, " About 
the llth of this month, accidents will occur in 
mines." On the 13th happened the terrible 
explosion in the Dinas Colliery, in the Ehondda 
Valley, whereby so many lives have been 
sacrificed. Mercurius predicted disputes between 



[5 th S. XI. FEB. 1, ; ?9. 

masters and men for January, verified by the 
strike of the Midland guards. Of course al] 
the above events are likely enough, if only a 
sufficient range of time is given for their occur- 
rence. There may be an average of two or three 
strikes per annum, but the chances are still largely 
against the prophet who fixes on a particular month. 
So of colliery accidents ; but in this case the 
event is fixed to happen near a given day, and the 
improbability of the coincidence, as such merely, 
is greatly augmented. As a matter of fact, how- 
ever, although professional astrologers are popularly 
regarded as charlatans and impostors, there is little 
or no guess-work in their procedure. The grounds 
of their predictions may all be found, by any one 
who will take the trouble to examine, in the many 
treatises on the subject, from the time of Ptolemy 
downwards. When it is remembered that the 
practice of astrology for reward is still a criminal 
offence by our law, and that not, 'as formerly, upon 
any religious scruples, but because the asserted 
science is regarded as a delusion and its prac- 
titioners as swindlers (which they might well not 
be if even the former proposition were true), the 
justice of publishing evidence to the contrary will 
be admitted. As Mr. Lecky points out, so-called 
superstitions have seldom been exploded by any 
process of reason or demonstration directly aimed 
at them, but have simply dropped into disrepute in 
educated minds from their non-accordance with the 
general tendencies of modern thought. And herein 
may lurk a two-fold fallacy ; for the intellectual 
tendency may not be really progressive, or the 
inconsistency of the beliefs in question therewith 
may be only apparent. C. C. M. 

THE " MERRYTHOUGHT." Dr. Johnson says : 

"Merrythought (merry and thought), a forked bone 
on the body of fowls ; so called because boys and girls 
pull in play at the two sides, the longest part broken off 
betokening priority of marriage. 

' Let him not be breaking merrythoughts 
Under the table with my cousin.' Echard." 

Now is the etymology after all such plain sailing ? 
One cannot help suspecting some corruption. The 
explanation is after all only faintly appropriate. 
In Berkshire children call this the " wish-bone," 
and then the one who breaks off the longer half 
gains what he or she wished for. At any rate, the 
bone has been called the " merrythought " in Eng- 
land since 1611, arid probably long before. The 
French children seem to have associated quite 
another idea with this, as see Cotgrave : " Lunette, 
the merriethought ; the forked craw-bone of a 
bird, which we use in sport to put on our noses. 
Lunettes, spectacles." In Holland the merry- 
thought seems also to have been used to play at 
spectacles with. " Bril, a pair of spectacles. De 
bril van een vogel, the merrythought of a fowl " 
(Holtrop, 1801). ZERO. 

is an exact copy of a dispensation on a parchment 
with a well-preserved specimen of the leaden 
bulla attached, which a friend has kindly lent to 
me : 

" Paulus eps. eeruus seruor. del Dilecto filio Official! 
Aberdonen. Salt, et aplicam. ben. Ex parte dilector. 
filior. Walter! Ogilwy et Alexandri etiam Ogilwy scola- 
rium Aberdonen. dioc. nobis fuit humiliter supplicatum 
vt cum eis qui sicut asserunt ascribi desiderant militie 
clicali. super defectu natalium quern patiuntur de Milite 
soluto vel coniugato et mulieribus solutifs] respectiue 
geniti qd. hmoi. non obstante defectu poss[entj ad <>mnes 
etiam sacros et pbratus. ordines promoueri et benencium. 
ecclias[ticum]. etiam si curam habeat animar. etiam 
respectiue obtinere dispensare inisericorditer dignaremur 
Nos igitur hmoi. supplicationibws incli[ ] discretion! tue 
per aplica. scripta mandamus quats. consideratis dili- 
genter circumstaiitijs vniuersis que circa idoneitate 
pers[ ] fuerint attendende si paterne non sint incon- 
tinentie imitatores sed bone conuersationis et vite super 
quibus tuain intendimus conscientiam onerare aliaqwe 
sibi merita suffragentur ad dispensationis hmoi. gratiam 
obtinendum cum ipis. super premissis aucte. nra. dis- 
penses prout secundum deum animar. suar. saluti videria 
expedire Ita tamen qd. ijdem Walterus et Alexander 
scolares prout requiret onus beneficij quod eos post dis- 
pensatione hmoi. similiter respectiue obtinere contigerit 
ad ordines se faciant statutis anire temporibus promoueri 
et personaliter res-ideant in eodem alioquin hmoi. gratia 
quoad benencium ipm. nullius penitus sit momenti Dat. 
Borne apud Sanctumpetrum Anno Incarnationis Do- 
minice Millesimoquingentesimo quadragesimo M. Aprilis 
Pontificatus nri. Anno Sexto. 

" Do. de Viterbo. JA. COKBELLAS. 

" Jo. Mileti." 

I would gladly know to what family these 
Ogilvies belonged. W. F. (2). 

FOLK-LORE. The following paragraph, which I 
cut from the Times of the 23rd ultimo, will show 
that superstition is not extinct in Shropshire : 

" An inquest has been held at Priors Lee, Salop, before 
Mr. Hartly, the deputy coroner, on the body of Ann 
Woolly. The husband, George Woolly, stated that o 
Friday night his wife went to fetch some rum from a 
public-house a quarter of a mile away from home. She 
did not return, arid on searching for her he found her 
lying dead in a pool of water. Woolly informed the 
coroner that during the day his wife had been baking, 
and after she had gone out he went to take the bread out 
of the oven. There he found ' one of the loaves cracked 
right across,' and he immediately knew that something 
had happened to his wife. That sign 'caused him to go 
out and look for her.' The jury returned a verdict of 
' Accidental death.' " 

Hampstead, N.W. 


Perhaps you will not object to make a permanent 
note of a rather singular contemporary testimony 
to the precocious talent of this well-known scholar. 
On the title-page of a copy of the treatise of 
Budjeus, De contemptu rerum fortuitorum, there 
appears a memorandum, written by John More, 
the Rector of Ellough, in Suffolk, to the effect 

5'" S. XI. FEB. 1, 79.] 



t hat this volume is presented by him, " in testi- 
3 ionium prsesentis indolis," to William Wotton, 
1 ?ho, although only of the age of " quinquennium 
<:t quod excurrit," is "in Greecis, Hebraicis, et 
."liatinis eruditus." Wotton's father was the Rector 
of Wrenthaui, a parish contiguous to Ellough. 


" -ESS." It may have been observed that re- 
cently some contributors to the press, not satisfied 
with the indications of sex conveyed by Christian 
names and pronouns, have taken to adding the 
syllable "-ess" to the trades or occupations fol- 
lowed by women, as, for instance, " Mary Jones, 
butcheress," " Susan Gale, tailoress," " Sally Lunn, 
bakeress," and so on ; but I was startled the other 
day at meeting with an example of this barbarism 
in the diary of a scholar Evelyn. Under the 
date of May 19, 1672, is the following entry : 
"Went to Margate, and the following day was 
carried to see a gallant widow, brought up a 
farinoresse." C. Eoss. 

DICKENS'S AUTOGRAPHS. Those who are pos- 
sessed of any autographs of Charles Dickens may 
be pleased to know that a common cloth edition of 
the American Notes brought five guineas on the 
22nd ultimo, at Christie's sale of Dr. Quin's books, 
simply because it contained an inscription and 
signature by the author. F. D. F. 

Reform Club. 

ODD NAMES OF PLACES. There is a portion 
of the town of Chorley, in Lancashire, a mile or 
so from the centre of the town, called Botany Bay. 




[We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct.] 

THE PUSEY HORN. The real inscription on the 
celebrated Pusey horn, which is always given 
wrongly in books, is this, " I Kyng Knoude geve 
Wyllyam Pecote thys home to holde by thy 
londe." I know of no earlier mention of this horn 
than that by Camden, c. 1600, but the inscription 
is apparently fifteenth century work. The Pusey 
or Pesi family are not mentioned by name in 
Domesday, and there is no trace of any Pecote. 
How, then, came the Puseys to have a horn given 
to a Pecote ? Has the horn really any connexion 
Avith Becket or Becote, the present seat of Lord 
Barrington, not far from Pusey, which belonged, 
as we read in Domesday, to the Earl of Evreux, 
who gave it to the priory of Norion? It was 
seized by King John in 1204, and afterwards 
given to the family of Becote, who held it by tenure 

of meeting the king when he visited Shrivenhairt 
with two white capons, and asking him whether 
he would have them now or wait till he got 
them. See Murray's Handbook (Berks), p. 53. 
In Pusey Churchyard is a brass with a quaint 
inscription in memory of "William Pusey alias 
Pesey-Pecote," dated 1655. The name Pusey was 
commonly pronounced in the district, and is 
generally written in old registers, as " Pizzey." 
Can any one clear up the difficulty ? 

Denchworth, Wantage. 

AN IRISH HIGHWAYMAN. Can any Irish or 
other reader of " N. & Q." favour me with in- 
formation that will enable me to identify the hero 
of an Irish ballad, who tells us, 

" In Newry town I was bred and born ; 
In Stephen's Green now I die in scorn; 
My father reared me to the saddling trade," &cJ 
From other portions of the same ditty it would 
seeni that he " robbed Lord Mansfield," " and 
Lady Weldon in Golden Square " ; and that he 
was taken by "Fielding's gang." Is it known 
when these robberies took place ? I have con- 
sulted the Lives and Actions of the most notorious 
Irish Highwaymen, Tories, and Happarees, from 
Redmond O'Hanlon to Cahier na Gappul, by 
J. Cosgrave (Dublin, s.a.). D. F. 


GALBRAITH OF BALGAIR. Who now represents 
this branch of the Scottish family of Galbraith ? 
I found in the will, recorded in Dublin, of Robert 
Galbraith, of Cloncorick, co. Leitrim, Esq., made 
May 15, 1708, and proved Jan. 8, 1712, this 
allusion to Balgair : the testator leaves his eldest 
son, James, his lands, and also describes him as 
heir of the " estate, &c., of James Galbraith, of 
Balgair, late writer in Edinburgh, deceased," to 
which estate James would succeed " as my eldest 
sone and heire." C. S. K. 

MINING TOKEN. I have a mining token, copper, 
size of a halfpenny. Obv., a rocky burning 
mountain, on summit the Egyptian emblem of 
life, in base 1762. Rev., STORE . KOPPARBERGSL . 
POLLET x , two arrows crossing a square like an 
Oxford picture frame. If any of your readers 
would kindly localize this coin and let me know 
they would much oblige. 

B. W. ADAMS, D.D. 

Santry, Ireland. 

MINATIVE. When did this term cease to be 
employed as a feminine surname terrninative ? 
Canon Bardsley, in his English Surnames, seems to 
be of opinion that its use was but very occasionally 
attempted, and was restricted to an early period in 
the history of our nomenclature. The Leigh parish 
church register now in course of publication 



[5* S. XI. FEB. 1, 79. 

contains several instances of the use of the term as 
late as the second half of the sixteenth century ; 
names such as "Elizabeth Richard-daughter," 
" Joane William-daughter," " Margrett James- 
daughter," "Letts Thomas-daughter," not infre- 
quently appearing in. the record of baptisms. Is 
this an unusual occurrence at so late a date ? 

W. D. PINK. 
Leigh, Lancashire. 

these instruments of punishment now actually in 
existence ? In the Globe of Jan. 16 there is an 
interesting paper on the subject, entitled " A 
Terror for Scolds," and the author mentions the 
following places as having once had such stools : 
Cambridge, Lichfield, Shrewsbury, Kingston-on- 
Thames, Ratcliff Highway, Ipswich, Broadwater, 
near Leominster, Herefordshire, and (I suppose) 
Edinburgh. E. WALFORD, M.A. 

Hampstead, KW. 

TOOTHACHE. Shakspere says 

" There was never yet philosopher 
That could endure the toothache patiently." 

Much Ado, Act v. sc. 1. 

The following parallel seems worthy of notice. 
St. Augustine : 

" Dolore dentium tune excruciabas me : et cum in 
tantum ingravesceret, ut non valorem loqui, adscendit in 
cor meum, admonere omnes meos, qui aderant, ut depre- 
carentur Te pro me, Deum salutis omnimodae. Et 
scripsi hoc in cera, et dedi eis, ut legeretur. Mox, ut 
genua supplici aflfectu fiximus, fugit dolor ille. Sed quis 
dolor ]...nihil enim tale ab ineunte setate expertus 
fueram." Conf. lib. ix. cap. iv. 8. 

John Wesley, "when his own teeth ached, he 
prayed, and the pain left him " (Southey's Life of 
Wesley, 1858, i. 277). Erasmus, in his Praise of 
Folly, laughs at those who address a particular 
saint "for the toothache" (1870, p. 85). Which 
saint was it ? W. C. B. 


SIGN. Larwood says, in his admirable History of 
Signboards, that near Hyde Park Corner, at the 
end of the last century, there was a low public- 
house called the "Triumphal Car." I want to 
know how that came about long before any trium- 
phal car had been dreamed of for the arch then 
unerected. Again, was it " Triumphal Car " 1 
There is now in Pembroke Mews, running south- 
wards out of Halkin Street, a "Triumphal 
Chariot." Is not this a lineal descendant of the 
low public-house 1 C. A. WARD. 


In the Archceologia, vol. xx. p. 471, a diary is 
mentioned which I am anxious to trace. If it has 
been printed I should be glad to know where. If 

it be still in manuscript I shall be obliged to any 
one who will tell me where it may be seen. The 
passage where it is referred to runs thus : 

" From the diary of a Yorkshire clergyman, which the 
Rev. Mr. Hunter kindly transmitted, I gather that in 
the winter of 1682, a journey from Nottingham to London, 
in a stage coach, occupied four whole days. One of this 
gentleman's fellow travellers was Sir Ralph Knight of 
Langold iu Yorkshire, an officer in Monk's army." 


PARNASSIM : ESCABA. In an account of the 
funeral of Dr. Artom, which appeared in the Daily 
News of Jan. 10, it is said that the body was 
carried to the hearse by the "Parnassim," and 
that a prayer for the dead was said, called the 
" Escaba." Are these two words correctly given ? 
If so, query their etymology ? 



recent History of Nottingham that Count Street 
in that town was named after Count Palavicini. 
Did he reside in that street, and what brought him 
to England? QUEST. 

" PHRASE." Why do so many people misuse 
the word " phrase " when they mean " term " 1 
Chambers's Dictionary defines " phrase" as " some- 
thing spoken ; a short pithy expression ; a form of 
speech." Webster says a phrase is "a brief expres- 
sion, or part of a sentence ; two or more words 
forming an expression by themselves, or being a 
portion of a sentence" ; also that it is " a short pithy 
expression ; especially one which is often employed ; 
a peculiar, or idiomatic turn of speech." Perhaps 
this brief notice may serve somewhat to correct 
this abuse of the term (no pun). J. W. J. 

AN OLD GAME. What kind of game was 
"board end" or "board's end," mentioned in 
Smith's Obituary (Camden Soc., xliv. p. 92), how 
played, and with what apparatus 1 J. S. 

" JUNCARE." Rudder, in his History of Glou- 
cestershire (1779), p. 328, in his account of the 
parish of South Cerney, writes as follows : 

" Here was a custom, which prevailed till lately, of 
strewing coarse hay and rushes over the floor of the 
church, which is called juncare ; and the lands which 
were subject to provide those materials now pay a cer- 
tain sum of money annually in lieu thereof." 

What may be the meaning of the term? I 
shall be glad also to learn a few particulars of the 
custom, and whether it is or was observed else- 
where. ABHBA. 

" THRYMBELYNGE." In a will of the date of 
1523 I meet with the following expression : " That 
my wife shall have all the thryinbelynge tre, and 
all the freute that come y r of." What was a 
thrymbelynge tree ? G. A. C. 

gth s. XI. FEB. 1, '79.] 



IKS book on Western Barbary, p. 123, says : 
''During one of the late rebellions, a beautiful 
young girl was offered up as a propitiatory saeri- 
f ce, her throat being cut before the tent of the 
Sultan and in his presence." Mr. James Richard- 
son calls this " an unmitigated libel on the 
shereefian prince ruling Morocco," and adds that 
it is the antagonism to this practice " which makes 
the sacrifice of the Saviour such an obnoxious 
doctrine to Mussulmans" (Travels in Morocco, 
1860, vol. ii. p. 31). Which is right ? 


MARCH 24, NEW YEAR'S DAT. Swift writes 
from London to Stella, who was in Ireland, under 
date March 24, 1710-11, "I wish you a merry 
new year; this is the first day of the year, you 
know, with us, and 't is Lady Day," &c. Is there 
any reason for believing that the English and the 
Irish nations, in Swift's time, differed at all as to 
New Year's Day 1 It would seem from the words 
in italics that there may have been some dis- 
crepancy. (The italics are mine). 

Hampstead, N.W. 
[The JSew Style was adopted in Great Britain in 1751.] 

Is there any history of lunatic asylums extant ? 
If there is I shall be glad to know publisher's 
name, &c., and in any case ask where it is probable 
that lunatics would be sent for safe custody in 
the seventeenth century, particularly those from 
the north of England and of the middle or upper 
classes of society 1 H. FISHWICK, F.S.A. 

" GAINGIVING." In what writings contempo- 
raneous with Shakespere, or before his time, is the 
word gaingiving employed in the same sense as in 
Hamlet, Act v. sc. 21 J. P. 


Tomance of Philip Augustus mention is made of 
a patriotic air or point of war called " Bienvenu 
Auvergnat." Does anything of the kind exist in 
Auvergne at the present day ? B. 

ihese still in existence ? Richard Symonds, in his 
Diary (Camden Society), under date May 17, 1644, 
tells us that he saw King Charles's chess-board, 
which had round it this verse : " Subditus et 
princeps istis sine sanguine certent, 1643." 


Burton, in his History of Scotland (vol. iv. p. 392), 
-quotes an expression used by Bothwell in speaking 
to Sir James Melvill, that " he would find a pin 
for every bore," meaning that he would find a man 

fit for every place to be filled. " This," says the 
historian, " was in reference to an old allegory 
about nature having made so many circular holes 
and so many angular, with a set of pins made to 
fit each ; but mismanagement so confused the 
whole that the angular pins were forced into the 
circular holes, and the circular into the angular." 
Where is this allegory to be found 1 

G. F. S. E. 

AUTHORS WANTED. Who is the translator of 
Faust, part ii., published by Pickering in 1842 ? 

Who was Cheviot Ticheburn, who wrote the 
Maid's Revenge and A Summer's Evening Tale, 
with other poems, dedicated to Charles Lamb 
(Whitaker, 1823). 

Who wrote Delmour ; or, the Tale of a Sylphyd, 
and other poems, dedicated to Lord Holland (Car- 
penter & Son, 1823). H. A. B. 


(5 th S. xi. 69.) 

The questions asked by ABHBA open up a some- 
what wide field for comment. First, What is the 
exact difference between prebendaries and canons ? 
This perhaps is not very easy to answer. If you 
look in ecclesiastical law books you will find (as 
is usual in law books) much confused, or obsolete, 
or irrelevant information, out of which bottle of 
hay you extract your needle as you best can. You 
will find, for instance, that Lord Coke says a pre- 
bendary is a prebendary because he supports the 
Church ; and then again you will find, without 
much surprise, that that impudent judicial mur- 
derer was as wrong in his derivations as he was 
in other things, and that a prebendary is a pre- 
bendary because the Church* supports him. But 
I should much like to know (and perhaps some 
learned person can tell us) where you will find the 
precise differentia of a canon and a prebendary 
clearly and fully explained. 

Of course, a canon, canonicus, is a spiritual 
person who is joined with others in observing (or 
not observing) a certain KCH/COV, or rule of life and 
worship, in a cathedral or collegiate church. And 
a prebendary, prcebendarius, is a spiritual person 
who enjoys a prcebendum, or endowment, given^to 
a cathedral or conventual church " for the main- 
tenance of a secular priest or regular canon." But 
the prcebendum or prebend is " the maintenance or 
stipend both of the one and the other" i.e. both of 
the prebendary and of the canon (see Sir R. Philli- 
more's Eccl Laiv, p. 167); so that the canon 
would seem to be a prebendary in virtue of his 
prabendum, and the prebendary a canon in virtue 
of his office. I do not know whether any one but 
the Rev. Prebendary Mackenzie Walcott can 



[5* S. XI. FEB. 1, 79. 

wholly explain this mystery. It is possible, in- 
deed, that Mr. Walcott has explained it already in 
his Sacred Archeology, a book to which unfor- 
tunately I have not access. 

Cathedral authorities themselves seem to con- 
found the terms dnon- and prebendary. Take, for 
instance, the returns from the various Chapters, 
given in the Appendix to the First Report of the 
Cathedral Commissioners of 1852. The Dean and 
Chapter of St. Paul's, which is a cathedral of the 
Old Foundation, say (p. 33) that " the thirty 
canons of the church of St. Paul's, with their 
head, the bishop, constitute the body and the 
chapter." And immediately afterwards they say 
that "every prebendary" had in old time his 
vicar, " so that there were originally thirty vicars 
choral besides thirty prebendaries." So that they 
use the words canon and prebendary as if they 
were synonymous. Thus, too, the Dean and 
Chapter of Durham, which is a cathedral of the 
New Foundation, say (p. 45) that " the Chapter 
of Durham was founded " " for a dean, twelve 
prebendaries, and," &c. And then again they say 
that the Chapter of Durham consists " of a dean 
and nine canons (three canonries being under sus- 
pension)." Thus the 9 + 3 canons evidently = the 
12 prebendaries. 

Most readers of " N. & Q." are doubtless aware 
that the English cathedrals are of four classes. 
First, those of the Old Foundation, which are 
York, St. Paul's, Chichester, Exeter, Hereford, 
Lichfield, Lincoln, Sarum, and Wells ; nine in all 
In each of these the bishop had his dean and 
canons (or prebendaries) from the beginning of the 
see. Secondly, those of the New Foundation, 
which are Canterbury, Durham, Carlisle, Ely 
Norwich, Rochester, Winchester, and Worcester 
eight in all. From the twelfth to the sixteenth 
century all these eight cathedrals were conventual 
and had a prior and monks instead of a dean anc 
canons, which prior and monks formed the bishop's 
chapter. But on the abolition of the Roman 
jurisdiction all the eight recovered their anciem 
secular character ; in other words, not only inferio 
sees, but the primatiai cathedral of Canterbury 
the old regal seat of Winchester, the palatin 
throne of Durham, became what York had alway 
been independent of any monastic order. Thirdly 
the five new cathedrals of the sixteenth century 
Bristol, Chester, Gloucester, Oxford, and Peter 
borough, all of which had till then been conventua 
churches only, and were made the cathedrals o 
five new sees. Fourthly* the four new cathedral 
of the nineteenth century : Ripon (1836), Man 
Chester (1847), Truro (1876), and St. Alban 
(1877). Of these, Ripon and Manchester posses 
"*" 1 Truro is in a fair way t 

a dean and canons 

* It is very possible that this fourth class may soo 
be enlarged under the Bishoprics Act of 1878. 

ossess them, having obtained a special Act for 
ic purpose ; St. Albans alone remains unpro- 

Now, on looking through the personnel of the 
jveral cathedral bodies, I find that all the Old 
'oundation or secular cathedrals (including also 
aose of St. Davids and Llandaff, which, like the 
wo other Welsh sees, are of the Old Foundation) 
ave a long list of prebendaries in addition to the 
anons residentiary, who are governed by recent 
egislation except Salisbury, which (like St. Asaph 
nd Bangor) has canons non-residentiary where 
ne would expect to see prebendaries. And I find 
hat all the New Foundation or conventual 
athedrals, and all the sixteenth century cathedrals, 
,nd all the nineteenth century cathedrals which as 
fet are completely organized, have no prebendaries, 
ind have canons (residentiary) and honorary 
;anons only. This difference is intelligible and 
ignificant, if we consider that separate prebends 
are inapplicable to the case of a convent, and that 
uch prebends could not well be created in a 
cathedral whose revenues represent those of a 
dissolved monastic house. Such, at any rate, is 
my conjecture ; but I should be glad to know 
what Mr. Walcott has to say of the matter. 

ABHBA'S other questions are easily answered. 
Honorary canons are a recent and statutory 
creation. The Act 3 & 4 Viet. c. 113, s. 23, recites 
that it is expedient that all bishops should be 
empowered to confer distinctions of honour upon 
deserving clergymen, and thereupon enacts that 
"honorary canonries shall be hereby founded in 
every cathedral church in England, in which 
there are not already founded any non-residentiary 
prebends, dignities, or offices" which last words 
account for the absence of honorary canons from 
the Old Foundation cathedrals and goes on to 
provide that the holders of these honorary canonries 
" shall be styled honorary canons," and shall be 
entitled to stalls and to take rank in the cathedral 
church next after the canons, and shall be twenty- 
four in number in each cathedral, with other 
points of detail. The title of honorary canon 
adheres (to speak in legal language) to the person, 
and not to the place, like the title of colonel of 
such a regiment, or fellow of such a college ; so 
that ABHBA'S notion of a man losing his honorary 
canonry, as he might lose his hat, in removing, 
from one diocese to another, or from Ireland to 
England, is, to an Englishman, peculiarly comical. 
I wonder, by the way, how Irish honorary canons 
came into existence. 

As to what an honorary canon should be styled, 
that is a question which would seem to have been 
settled by the words of the Act. as given above. 
But the honorary canons themselves have settled 
it otherwise, by rushing in where angels fear to 
tread, namely, into the very sanctuary and (if I 
may so say) gynaeceum of the Chapter itself. For 

5* S. XI. FEB. 1, 79.] 



<'oes not every honorary canon call himself, or 
;tllow himself to be called, "the Rev. Canon" 
oo-and-so ? and then what becomes of the dis- 
tinction between him and the canons residentiary 1 
Nay, for the matter of that, do not even minor 
oanons contribute to this imbroglio by occasionally 
illowing people to transpose them from a minor 
into a major 1 " Oculos suffusws nitentes " the 
minor canon, too, hears himself addressed as canon 
by his friends, and reproveth them not. Let us 
remember that even the great canon of all, Sydney 
Smith, was not called " the Rev. Canon Smith" : 
these titles of social life, like the Panhypersebastos 
and the rest of them in the Byzantine empire, have 
come up (or down) since his days. Apropos : 
there is, I believe, a custom at St. Paul's that a 
new prebendary, after installation, is presented by 
the canon in residence who admits him with a loaf 
of bread. And Sydney Smith, admitting such an 
one to a prebend which had lost its estates, said, 
"Allow me, sir, to present you with the usual 
loaf ; I only regret that it is no longer buttered." 

A. J. M. 

P.S. Since I wrote the above, a ghastly or 
ludicrous light has been thrown upon this question 
of canons and prebendaries. Fire, long smoulder- 
ing, has broken out into vivid flame, which reveals 
to us the Premier, the Primate of England, and 
the Dean and Chapter of York, careering wildly 
in a circle around the " corpses" of the Prebendary 
of Holme and the Rev. Canon Fleming. Your 
readers may be referred to an article on the subject 
in the Times of this day, January 27, 1879, which 
article reminds me that I ought to have mentioned, 
as bearing on the matter of canons and pre- 
bendaries, the first and twenty-second sections of 
the Act 3 & 4 Viet. c. 113. 

Canon and prebendary are two different names 
for the same man looked at in two different 
characters. He is a canon as being bound to keep 
a certain rule of life (/cavwv) ; he is also a pre- 
bendary as holding or of later years not holding 
a certain prebend, prcebenda, or separate estate 
attached to his stall. Honorary canons are, pro- 
perly speaking, canons exempted from observing 
the hours, such as sovereign princes and nobles 
holding stalls. Queen Victoria, for instance, is an 
honorary canoness of St. Davids. 

In cathedrals of the New Foundation " honorary 
canons " may be appointed by the bishop. These 
have no votes in Chapter, nor have they any 
" rule " or prcebenda ; in fact, the office is merely 
a compliment paid by a bishop, giving a man a 
sort of claim to the style and title of " Canon 
So-and-so." In some cathedrals they have 
preaching turns," whether as a right or by grace 
of Chapter I do not know. Here in Durham they 
rather remind one of Orlando Gibbons's "silver 
swan " : when they " read themselves in " they 

" sing their first and last, and sing no more." See 
the whole matter well and clearly put in Free- 
man's Cathedral Church of Wells, from which 
some of the above remarks are taken. J. T. F. 
Bp. Hatfield's Hall, Durham. 

YATELEY, HANTS (5 th S. x.307, 475 ; xi. 31.) 
MR. WEDGWOOD has rendered such good service 
in the department of etymology that it is with 
some hesitation one ventures to differ from him. 
On the present occasion, however, it appears to 
me that his conclusions cannot be sustained. 

He says that I have fallen into the mistake, 
made by himself in the first edition of his Dic- 
tionary, of confounding gate, a way or street, from 
root ga, with gate or yate, an entrance or door, 
which he derives from A.-S. geotan. to pour. 

I am only in possession of the first edition of 
MR. WEDGWOOD'S work, but, like the friar men- 
tioned by Erasmus, I prefer his old " mumpsimus " 
to his modern " sumpsimus." 

Let us consider each of the points thus raised. 
First, as to the identity or otherwise of gate, a way 
or street, with gate or yate, an entrance or door- 
way. The mere interchange of g and y is of no 
importance in relation to the origin of the word, 
since it equally applies, whatever be its derivation. 
A hint or two, however, may be thrown out in 
passing. MR. WEDGWOOD says that gate, a street, 
is never written with a y. This, no doubt, in 
modern times is correct, but it does not prove 
much. A.-S. ga, geat, and their corresponding 
words in the kindred languages all originally began 
with g, and so continued until after the Conquest, 
when the Norman influence began to soften the 
ruggedness of the native speech. Words from 
a common source, when they branch off into 
separate meanings, frequently change their pro- 
nunciation as a matter of convenience, e.g. satyr 
satire, human humane, &c. The letter y as 
a vowel existed in our mother tongue, but I am 
not aware that our modern consonantal y is to be 
found in the language. If we refer to Domesday 
Book we find scarcely any place names with the 
initial y. There are many compounded with gate : 
Gatehurst, Gatesthorpe, Gatesdene, Gatelme, &c. 
I cannot find Gateley in the Hampshire record, but 
there is Gatelea in Norfolk, and Gatecombe both 
in Hants and Devon. Many of the g's have in 
modern times been softened into y, but this proves 
nothing as to their original application. The 
transition is very curious. The A.-S. g was in 
many cases superseded in favour of the equivocal 
letter 3 or 3, which appears to have been originally 
the aspirated g or gh, but gradually changed its 
character, and finally settled into the consonantal y. 
In Wicklifte's New Testament this letter stands 
for a variety of sounds. Nigh is spelled ny$ ; 
sight, si^te; gate, $ate; again, a$en; gave, lave, &c. 



[5* S. XI. FEB. 1, '79. 

In the modern editions of our old writers, 
Chaucer, Piers Plowman, and others, the initial y 
will usually be found represented in the MSS. by 
this puzzling letter, the true pronunciation of which 
is very doubtful.* 

This change of g to y is not a northern pecu- 
liarity, as supposed by MR. WEDGWOOD. It will 
be found that the majority of place names begin- 
ning with the consonantal y are south of the Trent 
and Mersey. So much for the form of the word, 
which presents no difficulty in identifying the 
modern Yateley with A.-S. Gatelea. 

I will add a few words as to the connexion or 
otherwise of gate, a road or street, with gate, an 
entrance. In the latter sense the word is peculiar 
to the Low German and the Old Norse : A.-S. 
geat, Old Low Ger. gat, Old Norse gatt, Dutch gat, 
&c. The High Germans imported the Latin porta 
under the form ofpforte. 

Gate, a roadway, is, as every one knows, derived 
from the idea of going, the original root being the 
Aryan radical gd, gan. Hence Gothic gaggs, Ger. 
and A.-S. gang, Old Ger. xugang, aditus, ingang, 
an entrance, &c. Gat, a gate, and gata, a road, 
in Icelandic, are by Cleasby and Vigfusson con- 
nected together. The sense of going applies 
equally to the opening through which we pass and 
the road leading thereto. The inconvenience of 
one word in a double signification early led to 
a separation. In the North, as at York and 
Beverley, the streets are called gates and the gate- 
ways bars : Micklegate Bar, Bootham Bar, &c. 
South of the Trent and Mersey the entrances are 
called gates and the roads streets. In some cases 
in the South the old term gate still clings to the 
streets, as in Aldgate, London. This explanation, 
I think, is simple and natural. 

The derivation of gate from A.-S. geotan, Goth. 
giutan, Norse giuta, to pour, seems to me quite 
untenable. A gate is a barrier, an obstruction, 
intended to let people pass, but certainly not to 
pour, which is more likely to take place in the un- 
obstructed streets. I fail to see any evidence in 
favour of this etymology. The derivatives of 
geotan, giuta goit, gowt, a watercourse ; Goit, the 
name of a river ; gouts, drops all preserve the 
close o or u sound, whilst gate maintains the open 
a sound of ga. In some towns the two forms go 
together, and the entrance is styled the bar-gate, 
certainly conveying anything but the idea of pour- 
ing. Temple Bar, which was to all intents and 
purposes a gate, was removed because of its pre- 
venting the pouring of the multitude. 

The word for gates in most languages conveys 
the idea of protection, exclusion. Compare Lat 
porta in the proverb, " Porta itineri longissima ' 
(" The first step is the hardest ") ; Greek TrvXr/ 
applied not only to city gates, but to mountain 

* See the grammars of Bosworth and Rask. 

asses frequently closed by barriers ; Hebrew ti^ 1 , 
ia(y)ar, which signified both a city gate and a 
ivision, a breaking through an obstacle rather 
iian a facility for pouring out. I submit these 
emarks to the candid consideration of MR. 


Sandyknowe, Wavertree. 


5 th S. x. 267, 375.) The account of finding the 
.1SS. at Rushton Hall pertaining to the Tresham 
imily was first published by Mr. Thomas Bell of 
)undle in his Ruins of Liveden. The particulars 
rere furnished by Sir Arthur de Capel Brooke of 
Oakley Hall. At the meeting of the Northamp- 
onshire Architectural Society at Rushton in 1867 
i paper on " The Triangular Lodge " was read by 
he Rev. H. Ward of Aldwinckle, in which men- 
ion was made of the papers. In 1870 Clarke 
Chornhill, Esq., of Rushton Hall, kindly gave me 
)ermission to refer to the papers and books, and 
lie result of my investigation was published by 
Mr. J. R. Smith, of Soho Square, London. The 
etters and papers, numbering about two hundred, 
had suffered so much from damp that I was only 
,ble to take a copy of the list kept in the chest, 
which was made at the time of the discovery. 
There was no handsomely bound book of devotion ; 
he bindings were mostly vellum, and of a date 
earlier than the Gunpowder Plot. The list 
ppended includes the whole of the books which 
were with the papers in 1870 : 

The order of arrayning of Robert Earle of Essex and 
Henry Earle of Southampton at Westminster the 19 th 
day of february 1600 And Tho. Lord Burkhurst Lord 
Highe Treasurer of England by her Maties Comission 
'or y l day. [Also] The Names of all the Earles Lords 
Knightes & Gentlemen who did acompany the Earle 
of Essex into the citty of London upon the 8 th day of 
"ebruary Anno 1600 & was taken the same night for 
Traytour at Essex house in the Strand. 11 leaves MS., 
1 blank. 

A Declaration of the causes that have mooued the 
Cardinal of Bourbon, the Princes, Peeres, Gentlemen, 
Townes, and Comminalties Catholike of this Realme of 
Fraunce, to oppose themselues to those which by all 
meanes do seeke to subuert the Catholike Religion and 
the Estate. At end : " Giuen at Shalous the of 
March, 1585. Signed, ' Charles, Cardinal of Bourbon.' " 
12mo., 12 pages. No title. 

A Declaration set forth by the Frenche kinge, shew- 
ing his pleasure concerning the new troubles in his 
Realme. London, lohn Wolfe, 1585. 

The Spiritval Conflict. Writen in Italian by a 
deuout Seruant of God : and lately translated into 
English out of the same language. Printed at Antwerp 
1598. Signed, " Your seruant in Christ, Hierome Counte 
of Portia, the elder." 12mo., vellum. 

A Petition Apologeticall, presented to the Kinges 
most excellent Maiesty, by the Lay Catholikes of Eng- 
land, in luly last. Printed at Doway by lohn Mogar, at 
the signe of the Compas, 1604. [Also] The Coppie of the 
Banished Priestes letter, to the Lordes of his maiesties 
most Honovrable priuy Councell. Dated, " From the 
Sea side this 24. of September. 1604." 4to., 40 pages. 

gth s. XI. FEB. 1, 79.] 



A Directorie Teaching the way to the Trvth i 
a Briefe and Plaine Discovrse against the heresies of tin 
time. Wherevnto is added, A Short Treatise Agains 
Adiaphorists, Nevters, and such as say they may b 
saued in any Sect or Religion, and would make of man 
diuers sects one Church. Printed with licence. 1605. 

A Provfe of Certeyne Articles in Religion, Denye( 
by M. I veil. That Christes Chvrch here in Earth, mus 
of necessitie have one chief head, and Govemer vnde 
Christ, to rule the same. 4to., no title, and imperfect. 

A Svrvey of the New Religion, Detecting man 
Grosse Absvrdities which it implieth. Set forth h 
Matthevv Kellison. Printed at Doway by Lavrenc 
Kellam, at the signe of the holie Lambe, M.DC.T. 4to 



"HEMS" (5* S. x. 447, 477.) While agreeinj 

ith your correspondent H. that this word is '. 
mistake for Hams, I would point out what is, '. 
think, an error in the meaning he assigns to it 
He says it is " an old word in common use for j 
field, dwelling-place, &c." He evidently refers i 
to two words which, though they may be radicall; 
connected, are given as distinct by Stratmann 
Diet, of 0. E. Lang. : 

(1.) "Ham, L. Germ, harnm, praturn sepe cir 

(2.) "Ha"m, 0. H. G. heim, 0. L. G. he'm 
domus, vicus." 

A ham however certainly in Somerset is " 
low-lying meadow near a stream," a meaning which 
does not suit either of the derivations above 
given. I am tempted to consider it as a form o 
the A.-S. holm. See Prompt. Parv., s.v. "holm 
place be-sydone a watur," and Way's note thereon 
where he gives as an instance, " Evesholm, cor- 
ruptly Evesham." 

I speak diffidently, and should be very glad to 
be corrected in the matter. Mr. Parish I see, in 
his Diet, of Sussex Dialect, agrees with your 
correspondent H. as to the derivation, but gives 
the meaning as " a level pasture field : a plot of 
ground near a river." W. F. B. 

Worle Vicarage. 

There is no difficulty in the explanation of this 
word. Hem is an old Friesic form of the A.-S. 
ham, Germ. heim. It is still the Swedish form, 
and^was formerly used in Denmark. It has been 
retained also in some of the German dialects. It 
is not surprising that this form should be found in 
our southern counties, for many of the Teutonic 
invaders who took possession of this part of the 
country came from the old Friesic land. Maer- 
lant, in his Rhyme, Chronicle, tells us that Hengist 
and Horsa were of a Friesic race. The word 
meant primarily a fence or boundary, then an 
enclosed place, and lastly a house with its enclosed 
ground. We have this form in common use, but 
limited to its primary meaning. To hem is to 
place a border on a garment. It has been retained 

in our place names, as in Hemley and Hemel 
Hempstead. The form of diminution, hemel, is 
also Friesic. A related form, hymel, though not 
found in our A.-S. dictionaries, appears in one of 
Kemble's charters (Cod. DipL, iii. 77). J. D. 
Belsize Square. 

Hems is no misprint for Hams. As in common 
parlance we say the hem of a garment to designate 
its border, so in Devonshire speech the border or 
skirting of a field or plot of ground is called the 
hem. In the poorer lands such waste borders 
round the cultivated portion of a field are very 
common, and these are not always mere strips. 
Probably the fields advertised under the name of 
the Hems were such waste portions which had 
been enclosed. The root of the word is evidently 
the Teutonic hem, v.a., to oppose a barrier to, to 
enclose. We at the present day say " to hem in." 

In Devonshire the open land on the bank of a 
stream, is called a ham. This may be cognate 
with the Scandinavian holm, which is used in the 
same sense. Perhaps places so named had for- 
merly a subsidiary water-course, and were con- 
sidered as islands. In names of places it is 
doubtful to what origin to refer the ham, usually 
found in composition. One form is manifestly 
from the A.-S. ham, E. home, but in other cases 
the ham, often hamp, evidently meant a field or 
enclosure Northampton, Southampton. The 
here bears a resemblance to the Latin 


I should suppose the South Hams is more 
likely to relate to the South Fields, or enclosed 
lands, than to the meadows by river banks, al- 
though there is no lack of such localities in the 
south of Devon. C. 0. B. 

( The ovens wherein the Lapis calaminaris or calamine 
is baked have a hearth made on one side of the oven, 
divided from the oven itself by a partition open at the 
iop, by which the flame passes over, and so heats and 
mkes the calamine. This partition is called the hem in 
Somersetshire." Cowel, Interpreter. 

Junior Garrick. 

5 th S. viii. 461, 489 ; ix. 9, 97.) The valuable 
ist by which MR. EDWARD SOLLY supplemented 

my previous communications on this subject, and 
he notes by which other correspondents have 
.dded to what had been already printed, induce 

me to trouble you with what I hope may be my 

"nal list. The materials for it have reached me 
rom various sources ; the greater number were 
ollected by the Ostiarius of Sion College and by 
im obligingly forwarded to me. If the name of 
publisher or the sign of a shop be repeated, 
tiere will generally be some obvious reason for the 




[5t S. XI. FEB. 1, 79. 

Date. Sign or Locality. Boole. Publisher. 

been very prevalent in this country, and instances 

1548. Grene Hyll. A New Dialogue. AV. Hill & AV. 

of it even nowadays occasionally occur. Mr. 

1563. Hedge Hog, at Bp. Pilkington, AV. Seres. 
the AV. end The Burnynge of 
of P. Paule's Church. 

Henderson, in his Folk-Lore, of the Northern 
Counties (1866, p. 122), mentions a case that 
happened about the year 1853. The wife of a 

1568. The Key. Polybius, Eng. H. Bynneman 

pitman at Castle Eden Colliery, suffering from a 

Transl. for Tho. . 

wen in the neck, according to advice given her by 

1605. AttheAV.dore Lownes. 
of Paules. 

a " wise woman," went alone, and lay all night in 
the outhouse, with the hand of a corpse on her 

1623. At the Great AVill. Bladen. 

wen. She had been assured that the hand of a 

North doore. 

suicide was an infallible cure. The shock, how- 

1626. S. Auatines Butter. 

ever, to the nervous system from that terrible 

Gate in P. C. 

night was so great that she did not rally for some 

1635. Tyger's head. Prideaux. E. P. for Hen. 

months, and eventually she died from the wen. 


He records also a case of a woman who for many 

1637. Holy Lambe. AV. AVatts, Ser- I. L. for Colin 

years had been afflicted with goitre. On being 

mon. Cowper. 

asked whether she had taken any measures for 

1651. At Southe Field. 

curing it, she replied, " No, I have not, though I 


have been a sufferer for eleven years. But a very 

1657. 3 Gilt cups, Sheppard, Eng- H. Fletcher. 

respectable man told me to-day that it would pass 

near AV. end. land's Balme. 

away if I rubbed a dead child's hand nine times 

1659. Brasen ser- Englefield. 

across the lump. I 've not much faith in it myself, 

1660. Fountain. Arderne. J. H. for Mat- 

but I 've just tried it." 

thew Keinton. 

Many of your correspondents are no doubt 

1661. Ad signum Bagshaw. A. M. pro Si- 

acquainted with the famous " dead man's 

Stellae. inone Millero. 
1661. Golden Acorn. Miller. 
1663. Ad insigne S. Sion College. John AVilliams. 

hand," which was formerly kept at Bryn Hall, 
in Lancashire. It is said to have been 
the hand of 'Father Arrowsmith, a priest who, 

1670. Black Bear. Death - bed Re- AV. Grantham. 

according to some accounts, was put to death for 


his religion in the time of William III. Preserved 

1673. Greyhound. H. Bagshaw, Ser. Joseph Nevil. 
1677. Angei. Dr. Hickes, Ser. Moses Pitt. 
1677. Bear, near the Blagrave. 
Little North 

with great care in a white silken bag, this hand 
was resorted to by many diseased persons, and 
wonderful cures are said to have been wrought by 


this saintly relic (Harland Wilkinson's Lanca- 

1680. Insignia Re- S. Ignatius. Joh. Gellibrand 

shire Folk-Lore, 1867, p. 158). Mr. Koby relates 

giaetBiblia. & R. Sollers. 
1683. 3 Golden R. Baxter. B. Simmons. 
Cocks at the 

how a female, sick of the small-pox, had this dead 
hand in bed with her every night for six weeks, 

AV. end of P. 

and also how a poor lad, afflicted with scrofulous 

1685. Unicorn. AV. Sherlock. Abel Swalle. 

sores, was rubbed with it. For further informa- 

1686. Turk's Head. Shortgrave. 
1687. Angel & S. Clementis Epis- Jas. Adamson. 

tion on this subject Baines's History of Lancashire 
(iii. 638-9), Mannes's History and Topography of 

Crown. tolce. 
1688. Peacock & Barker. Ben. Cravle. 
Bible, W. 

Lancashire, and Koby's Traditions of Lancashire 
should be consulted. "Straiking with a dead 

end of S. P. 

man's hand " is a cure for warts in Galloway. At 

1696. Lunafalcata. Thucydides. T. Bennet. 
1697. Red Lion. Bonwicke. 
1703. AVhite Hart. Child. 
1705. Ship. Taylor. 

no distant period an instance of this superstition, 
we are informed, occurred at Storrington, in Sussex. 
A young woman who had suffered for some time 

1717. Princeps. Hippocrates. AV. Innys. 

from goitre, and had tried various remedies for its 

-i 'TOO A 1 C vinuic&t. or Gro-"} o A t 

cure, but to no purpose, was at last taken to the 

17 qo' T? _ < vernment of Ch. > m * Ai S i en ' 
J./OO. -tvosG. J F i? i ! Ashley. 

side of an open coffin, in order that the hand of 

the corpse might touch it twice. Formerly on 

The fact that I have not seen all the books here 

execution days at Northampton numbers of per- 

enumerated will account for the occasional omission 

sons used to congregate round the gallows to 

of the author's name ; the insertion of this name 

receive the "dead stroke," as it was termed. 

is not, however, material to the main object of my 

Indeed, I might quote further cases, but space 


will not permit. I would just add that MR. 

PEACOCK himself has recently made mention (in- 


addition to the case already cited by him, 

(5 th S. xi. 43.) The superstition alluded to by 

ante, p. 43) of an example of this super- 

MR. PEACOCK seems, in days gone by, to have 

stitious practice which happened at Lincoln in 

S. XL FEB. 1, 79.] 



i.830. At the assizes that year, when Mr. John 
on, of Wytham-on-the-Hill, was high sherifl 
-here were three criminals hanged. After th 
;xecution two women came, bringing a child wit! 
.hem. All three suffered from wens, and th 
dead men's hands were rubbed on the part 
affected, in the full belief that the ceremony woul< 
produce a cure. In North Germany they say tha 
: svarts disappear if touched by the hands of a 
corpse. T. F. THISELTON DYER. 

I share DR. INGLEBY'S belief that there are many 
undescribed editions of Shakespere in private 
hands that may be pronounced unique : separate 
plays perhaps (should the inquiry be followec 
closely up) will prove more fertile in point o 
numbers than the collected works. I have before 
ine a 12mo. volume of plays, some published 
Tonson, Feales, and others, containing an unnoticec 
edition of Hamlet, as far as I have been able to 
ascertain. I find no mention of it in Mr. Mul 
lins's excellent list of known editions, or in 
Baker, Wilson, Lowndes, and Thimm. That ripe 
Shakesperian scholar Mr. Halliwell makes no 
mention of it in his dictionary of old plays or in 
any of the numerous vols. of his Shakesperiana, the 
vol. issued in 1841, or his more extended and 
scarce vol. of 1862, or in any of his more recent 
books. Neither does Mr. Furness give the date 
When I secured this volume I hoped to gratify that 
gentleman in his desire to acquire a scarce copy of 
Hamlet, hoping it would prove to be the accurate 
William Hughes edition. It would be interesting to 
know who was the editor. Opposite the title-page 
is an ugly woodcut ; the former reads : 

" Hamlet, | Prince of Denmark. | A | Tragedy. | As it 
is now Acted by his | Majesties Servants. | Written by | 
William Shakespeare. | London, | Printed by J. Darby 
for M. Wellington | at the Kings Head over against St. 
Cle- | merits Church in the Strand, 1718. | Price one 

_ Contained in 108 pp. On the last leaf is a long 
list of plays supplied by M. Wellington. 


S. xi. 47.) The name of Thomas Delaune certainly 
deserves a place amongst " neglected biographies," 
for there is very little recorded of him, and what 
there is is not easy to find. The note on him in 
Phillips's Dictionary of Biographical Reference, 
1871, is, " English Nonconformist divine, died 
1785 ('?)." Thomas Delaune was a native of Ire- 
land, having been born near Eigsdaie. His 
parents were Papists and very poor. He received 
his education at a friary at Kilcrash, near Cork. 
At the age of sixteen he removed to Kinsale, and 
became clerk to Mr. Bampfield, the owner of a 
pilchard fishery. After some years persecution 
and troubles led him to leave Ireland and to come 

to England, where he married a Miss Hutchinson, 
and set up a school in London. At this time he 
became intimately acquainted with Benjamin 
Keach, the well-known Calvinistic Baptist preacher 
of Goat's Yard Passage, Horseydown, and assisted 
him in the publication of his Key to Open Scrip- 
ture Metaphors. In 1681 Mr. Delaune published 
his Present State of London, of which Bishop 
Nicolson's remark that it is not much more than 
a compilation from Stow is pretty true. In 1683 
Delaune printed his celebrated work entitled 
A Plea for the Nonconformists, intended as a 
reply to Benjamin Calamy's sermon A Scrupulous 
Conscience. Delaune's book was declared seditious 
and scandalous. He was committed to Newgate, 
tried on December 17, 1683, and sentenced to pay 
one hundred marks, to be imprisoned till it was 
paid, and the book to be burnt. Delaune was not 
able to pay the fine ; one trouble followed on 
another ; his wife and two children died, and at 
the end of fifteen months he also died, in Newgate. 
Delaune was to have been pilloried, but in con- 
sideration of his scholarship that part of his 
sentence was forgiven. There were seven editions 
ofthePZm/or the Nonconformists between 1683 
and 1706, when Defoe printed it with a preface of 
his own. 

The first edition of Delaune's London is rare. 
Five years after his death it was reprinted, in 1690. 
I do not think this second edition can be called 
" very rare " (see a note by DR. RIMBAULT, 5 th S. 
iv. 106). It is a very frequent error to say that 
he was pilloried for writing the book on London, 
and that he was a minister. In his Narrative of 
Sufferings, 1684, he says he never was in orders 
and never preached, but kept a grammar school 
till he was sent to prison in 1683. 


S. ix. 168, 214, 239, 276, 352 ; xi. 57.) I have in 
ny autograph collection a score or two of these 
invitations written on the backs of playing cards, 
and all addressed, mostly by titled personages, to 
Greorge Selwyn in Chesterfield Street. Some are 
mere cards, like those which persons leave on each 
other, but nearly all autograph. Among them are 
;hose of Lord and Lady Hertford, Lord March 
,'afterwards Duke of Queensberry), the Countess of 
Northumberland, the Duke of Ancaster, Mr. Fox 
and Lady Holland, Lord and Lady Coventry, &c. 
Some of them have small fly-leaves attached. 

suppose that such curiosities are rare now, though 
nee as common as gooseberries. 


Hampstead, N.W. 

Some of these which were used in the last 
entury were curious. Mrs. Inchbald received an 
nvitation on a little card, 2 in. wide by 1J long, 
rom Mr. C. Moore of 11, Harcourt Buildings, 



[5'h S. XL FEB. 1, 

Temple, "To tea, walk, and talk, at half-past 
seven o'clock." I have a card of Mr. Kemble, 89, 
Great Kussell Street, 2 in. wide only, by U in. 
long. The Marquiss (sic) of Abercorn's is still 
smaller, and that of Dr. Gisborne of Clyford Street 
is the size of my thumb, yet printed in large letters, 
covering the whole of the card. Mr. Bubb's card 
of Queen Square Place, Queen Square, St. James's 
Park, has a beautifully engraved border worthy of 
Stothard. Mr. Kemble I suppose the illustrious 
John Philip has his name simply embossed, 
a stamp being pressed on the back of the card 
which forces the cardboard out, with the words 
" Mr. Kemble." In some of the old cards I have 
the spelling is peculiar" Lester Square," for 
instance. In another card, "Mr. Boddington 
presents compts. to Mrs. Inchbald, and, presuming 
on the introduction of his obliging friend Mrs. 
Opie, begs leave to request the honour of her 
company to a small party on Wednesday evening, 
April 1. Park Lane." Lastly, not to weary you 
with too many instances, Horace Walpole uses the 
five of spades to record a list of visitors, probably 
to Strawberry Hill in Nov., 1742. YELTNEB. 

WILLIAM CULLED BRYANT (5 th S. x. 248.) 
Bryant's hygienic and literary regulations which he 
observed through his long life are duly set forth in 
an admirable sketch of his life contributed to 
Scribner's Monthly Magazine for August of last 
year by Horatio N. Power. He rose at five ; 
retired to rest at nine ; did his intellectual work 
in the morning and never at night ; used the 
dumb-bells and club ; loved his bath ; eat sparingly 
of flesh and fish, largely of oatmeal, hominy, milk, 
and fruits ; eschewed tea, coffee, and tobacco, and 
took his wine in the uncrushed grape. I shall be 
pleased to lend M. N. G. my copy of Scribner if he 
will give me his address. I). M. STEVENS. 


Probably to be found in The Hygiene of th 
Brain and Nerves and the Cure of Nervousness, by 
M. L. Holbrook, M.D., Boston (?) 1878, which con- 
tains, among other things, " twenty-eight letters 
from eminent brain-workers descriptive of their 
daily physical and intellectual habits." These are 
said to be very interesting. 

" Among those who contribute their experiences are 
Professors Carpenter and Tyndall, Dr. Brown-Se'quard 
Rev. O. B. Frothingham, Professor F. W. Newman o 
England, Dr. Hopkins of Williams College, Bryant 
William Howitt, the philosopher Alcott, Dr. John Todd 
Elizabeth Oakes Smith, Horace Mann, Sarah J. Hale 
Gerrit Smith, William E. Dodge, and others. There i 
considerable difference of opinion among these autho 
rities. Some are strict vegetarians, and others discan 
tea, coffee, and all other drinks of the kind as deleterious 
On the other hand, there are those who recommen 
animal diet and indulge in stimulants." 


Camden, New Jersey. 

The following was clipped from the Echo a few 
ays after Bryant's death : 

" The late William Cullen Bryant attributed his mar- 
ellous health and agility to his prudent mode of living. 
le rose about five o'clock in the morning, and worked 
ith dumb-bells, a horizontal bar, and a pole for a full 
our, occasionally diversifying his exercises by swinging 
light chair round his head. He then bathed, and had 

light breakfast of oatmeal cakes, milk, and fruit. 
fter breakfast he occupied himself for a while with his 
;udies, and then walked to his newspaper office, a dis- 
ance of three miles, transacted his business, and walked 
ack again, whatever the weather might be. He worked 
pon his farm or in his garden in the afternoon, dined 
arly, eating meat only once a day, and living principally 
pon fruit and vegetables. He seldom drank any wine, 
ever smoked tobacco, avoided in the evening every kind 
f literary occupation which tasked his faculties, such as 
omposition, even to the writing of letters, and retired 
,o rest at ten o'clock or sometimes earlier." 


Lowndes, Bibl. Man., has at the close of the 
st of his works, " An Apology addressed to John 
Richardson. Not published. See Monthly Re- 
jister, Ixiii. 108." It is possible that some infor- 
mation respecting the query of M. N. G. may be 
earnt from this reference. Jacob Bryant died 
sTov. 14, 1804, and other periodicals of the time 
may contain some further information. 


" OST-HOTJSE " (5 th S. x. 227, 392, 476.) Ost, 
lie Scandinavian word for cheese, is well known 
n a kindred sense in the rural northern counties, 
,hough not found in glossaries, save in HalliwelFs, 
is (l oast, Northumberland," and correctly explained 
as " curd for cheese." It is sometimes called 
cheese-ost or wost, I suppose to distinguish it from 
:he fleeting curd of the whey of new milk (after 
the cheese-curd), which is the basis of that old 
country dainty, curds and cream, known in various 
authors. Anderson, in his ballad Sally Gray, says : 
" I caw't to sup cruds wi' Dick Miller, 

To hear aw' his cracks an' his jwokes." 
The word may have had a wider significance of which 
we have no record, but so far as I know it was never, 
as jour correspondent C. suggests, associated with 
house in this country. As Waniba remarked of the 
calf and some other animals, while they required 
tendance their name was Saxon, but when they 
became matter of enjoyment another name was 
given them by the dominant people ; so curd is 
known by its Danish name in its immaturity and 
sponginess, and a bowl or cullender for drainage is 
all the accommodation it needs ; but when pressed , 
and shaped it acquires its English name cheese. On ; 
the window-stone of an upper back-room in many an , 
old northern farmhouse used to be painted "Cheese- 1 
room," and on that below "Dairy," their proper plea! 
for exemption from window-duty during that im-j 

Halliwell has also ostery, an inn, and mentions 
it as occurring in old MSS. and in Palgrave,j 

5 th S. XI. FEB. 1, 79.] 



and that ost-house in Yorkshire is of the same 
meaning. M. P. 


"GINNEL" (5 th S. x. 388.) Ginnel, jennel 
fennel, finJcel, finkle, and finJchill are considerec 
variant forms of the same word. It is always 
found applied as a street name or a localism tc 
some narrow street or lane in the east coast anc 
old midland towns. Some think it derived fron 
the Latin vicinia, so common in France in th( 
street notices, "Route Vicinale," where "vise 
vicinales " branch off from the imperial main 
trunks. In the fourteenth century the legal term 
for a narrow street was " a venella," which we may 
take to mean a vein from an artery. In Frost's 
Early Notices of Hull, under date 1341, we find 
the following recorded : " The whole of the tene- 
ments on the south side of the venella callec 
Bishop Lane." It need not be said that such 
a term would anglicize to Fennella, and become 
the parent of the large family of words which 
pertain to narrow streets in the old Norman 
portions of our towns. W. STEVENSON. 


Halli well's Archaic Dictionary gives this word 
as common in the North. It occurs in Tim 
Bobbin's View of the Lancashire Dialect, and is an 
every-day word here at the present time. In some 
parts of Yorkshire it is pronounced gunnel, which 
suggests the idea that it may be derived from the 
gunwale, of a ship, which is always called the 
gunnel. H. FISHWICK, F.S.A. 


In Yorkshire I have heard both 
and gunnel. It probably comes from gynian, to 
yawn, from which the words gun, gunwale, &c., 
are supposed to be derived. In Gascoyne's 
Memories, under the head "Magnum vectigal 
parcimonia," Works, vol. i. p. 66, edit. Hazlitt, 
occurs the curious phrase " goonhole grotes." 

J. K 

Ginnel, I presume, can only derive from A.-S. 
gman (hiare), to be open ; cf. German gaehnen (to 
moan). Besides, there is an adjective gin, open, 
wide. Ginnel, therefore, would signify an opening, 
an open space, and it may be compared with 
channel (canalis), from Latin canna, a reed. Halli- 
well says, " Ginnel, a narrow entrance. North." 


Miss MITFORD (5 th S. xi. 68.) I believe Mary 
Russell Mitford left no " heirs." The pictures I 
have seen of her correspond to MR. WALFORD'S 
description of the lace cap and shawl worn by the 

Mary Mitford " of his miniature. Her cottage 
near Reading is in the parish of Shinfield. Three 
Mile Cross, three miles from Reading, on the road 

to Basingstoke, is " Our Village." The house her 
father built, and in which she "spent eighteen 
happy years " (v. The First Primrose}, is Grazeley 
Court, one mile from Three Mile Cross, and now 
in my possession. The Mitfords tried to rechristen 
it "Bertram House," but the old name stuck. 
They are remembered still. My gardener knew 
her. I have a " Jack Rapley " in my employ, and 
"Joel Brent," her "especial friend," has made 
gates for me. WALTER WREN. 

Kow OR KOWE (5 th S. xi. 48.) The following 
passage, contained in a deed dated 1523, and 
printed at p. 130 of my Historical Memorials of 
Beauchief Abbey, will do something towards 
answering BOILEAU'S query : 

" And yf it happen y* any of the seid Tcye to (sic) dye, 
or yt y e seid vicar or hys successors do feede or selle any 
of y e foresed Icye, y* then y e said vie' and hys successors 
shall by anod r kow or kye" &c. 

S. O. ADDY. 


EXILE will find the fullest information published 
as yet on the subject of his inquiry in the Rev. 
David Agnew's French Protestant Exiles (Reeves 
& Turner, London, 1871) ; and in the preface to 
this work a list of its predecessors. If in London, 
he should visit the library of the French Hospital, 
which borders on Victoria Park. H. W. 

In reply to EXILE'S query, there is A History of 
the Huguenots by W. S. Browning (an uncle of 
the poet's), circa 1830. CH. EL. MA. 

A VILLAGE CUSTOM (5 th S. x. 447.) The first 
of the verses given by INQUISITIVE appears to be 
the ordinary " shroving " verse used in this locality. 
In " N. & Q.," 1 st S. xii. 100, AVON LEA gives the 
verse as used at Basingstoke and in some other 
'.ocalities in Hants, which, however, varies from 
ihe following as I have heard it : 
" Knick-a- knock upon the block, 
Lard and flour is very dear ; 
My pan 's cold and your pan 's hot, 
So we come a-shroving here." 

3r, sometimes, " Please to give poor shrovers sotne- 
,hing here." ' H. G. 0. 


A MYSTERY (5 th S. xi. 67.) That learned critic 
Smelfungus informs me that he has no doubt those 
wo classical hexameter lines from the " fragment 
f Lampadius De Illuminatione" may be almost 
iterally translated into English hexameters thus : 
' E'en as a latnp-paraffine by an accident awfully Austin 

Throws a fierce ominous glare aa the oil irrepressibly 

My friend says he prefers keeping the original 
ustin, of the Doric dialect, to bursting, of the 
Lttic, as more racy and characteristic of the author, 



XI. FEB. 1, 79. 

who must have been, he thinks, the ancestor of 
the great reformer ^Ecolarnpadius (Hausschein), 
and that to the same family belonged another, 
named in an ancient poem, The Rejected Addresses, 
wherein it is said " the long wax candles," 
" Touched by the lamplighter's Promethean art, 
Start into light and make the lighter start." 

He thinks, however, that in the last word of the 
second line a letter, A, has been omitted, but 
perhaps the MSS. vary. E. A. D. 

jSAi/SAa&s, not fiifiXaifo ? W. G. P. 

WELSH PROVERBS (5 th S. xi. 8.) The proverb 
"The nearer the church the further from heaven" 
is certainly very far older than Twni o'r Nant, and 
the Powysland Club must find a bard of more 
venerable antiquity if Wales is to claim the origi- 
nating of this caustic saying, e.g., in Spenser's 
seventh aeglogue of the Shepheard's Calendar we 
have : 

" To kerke the narre, from God more farre, 

Has bene an old-sayd sawe, 
And he that strives to touch a starre 

Oft stombles at a strawe." 

Some readers of " N. & Q." learned in proverb- 
lore can doubtless furnish earlier examples ; but 
the old saw " Procul a Jove procul a fulmine " has 
a sinister kinship with that given above. 

Denmark Hill, Camberwell. 

The saying quoted is certainly older than the 
time of Thomas Edwards, 1738-1810. Howell, in 
his Proverbs, 1659, gives, under " British or Old 
Cambrian Proverbs," p. 40, "Po nessa at yt 
eglwys pella oddiwrth Brodwys," i.e., "The 
nearer the church the further from Christ." 
Hazlitt, English Proverbs, 1869, gives 1548 as its 
earliest appearance in print. Kay says it is a 
French proverb, " Pres de 1'eglise loin de Dieu." 

" LAY OF THE LAST MINSTREL " (5 th S. xi. 28, 
-53, 77.) I submit that no fault can justly be 
found with Sir Walter Scott because he has chosen 
to vary the metre in the last stanza, or burden, of 
his ballad. The change is evidently not a lapsus 
but by design. WM. CHAPPELL. 

M. M. D. will be interested to hear that at the 
old town of Knutsford, in Cheshire (Mrs. Gaskell's 

Cranford"), the bellman is still an important 
personage, and that he still concludes his procla- 
mation with the time-honoured "God save the 
queen and the lord of this manor." 

Norton Hill, Runcorn. 

In my younger days the town crier or bellman 
ot this borough concluded his notices of sales by 
auction, children lost, and other announcements 

with calling out "God save the king and the 
mayor of this borough." PRESTONIENSIS. 


493.) Cakes made with saffron are eaten in 
Lowestoft, and very probably in other parts of 
Suffolk, on Good Friday. H. C. DELEVINGNE. 

Woodbridge Grammar School. 

At Devizes, Wilts, cakes are made coloured 
with saffron, called simnel cakes, every year on 
Good Friday and at Easter, perhaps in all Lent. . 



Saffron is very much used in buns and cakes in 
Dublin, and in some shops this kind of confec- 
tionery alone is sold. 


HISTORY " (5 th S. ^jii. 58, 99, 227, 277 ; x. 347 ; 
xi. 4, 50.) In his interesting notes on the Secret 
History (ante, p. 50) MR. THOMS mentions the 
Authentic Records, but a different edition of it, I 
presume, from the volume before me, which is as 
follows : 

" The Authentic Records of the Court of England for 
the last Seventy Years. [Quotation from Shakspeare, 
four lines.] London : J. Phillips, 334, Strand, 1832." 
8vo., pp. yii and 395, with a coloured heraldic frontis- 
piece bearing the motto, '" Magna est veritas." 

The edition mentioned by MR. THOMS " was 
published at the office of the Satirist." Will MR. 
THOMS kindly describe it more fully? In the 
volume before rne is inserted a cutting from a 
bookseller's catalogue, in which it is said to be 
" Written by Mrs. Wood. Every copy that could 
be procured was bought up and destroyed." Is 
this so ? You have already afforded space in your 
columns (5 th S. ii. 208, 277, 318) for some notes 
upon another work, ejusdem farina, " The Private 
History of the Court of England. In two volumes. 
London : B. Crosby & Co., 1808." May I repeat | 
the request I then made (p. 277) that some of your j 
correspondents should be good enough to furnish 
us with a key to that work ? H. S. A. 

446 ; xi. 58.) The answer to this question will be 
found in a new work on sheriff law published by , 
Stevens & Sons, called Churchill's Sheriff Law. l 
The question is more fully gone into in the first j 
chapter of that work than is necessary for the , 
answer of your correspondent's question here. The j 
entering upon the office takes place as soon as the | 
oath of office has been taken, and the oath is taken , 
as soon after the receipt of the warrant of appoint- j 
ment as possible, but it would appear that the date j 
is not more closely defined than this. The statute 
controlling the question is the 3 & 4 Will. IV. 
c. 99, s. 3. BEDFORD PIM. 

5 th S. XI. FEB. 1, 79.] 



THE STAFFORD KNOT (5 th S. x. 229, 395, 413.) 
- -Allow me to say, in answer to C. G. H., that 
y mr correspondent P. P. is quite correct in assert- 
i ig that the Stafford knot was the badge of the 
unfortunate family of Stafford, Barons and Earls 
of Stafford, Dukes of Buckingham of Plantagenet 
times. The Stafford badge appears in the stained 
glass windows of Nettlested Church, Kent, a por- 
tion of which manor was anciently in the hands of 
that family, and in which church Lady Dorothy 
Stafford, granddaughter of the last Duke of 
Buckingham of the Stafford line, is buried, her 
monument existing to this day. I fear the Mar- 
chioness of Stafford can only be entitled by assump- 
tion to the ancient Stafford badge. 


" BINDERY " (5 th S. x. 447 ; xi. 76), for a place 
where books are bound, may not be a pretty word, 
but may pass in default of a better ; but ropery, 
for a place where ropes are made, and tannery, 
a place for tanning, are neither pretty nor needful. 
Rope-walk and lanyard are both well-established 
words, and I do not think either ropery or tannery 
has ever been in common use. 


EALPH (5 th S. x. 147, 194, 416.) In a sphere of 
clerical work I once had in West Kent several 
of my parishioners bore the surname Ralph. 
Although not a few old residents pronounced it 
Edlf, yet the labouring classes, as a rule, and 
particularly the persons themselves who had that 
surname, called it Rayfe. I often inquired the 
reason of the variation in pronunciation, but was 
generally told, " Some call us by the one name, 
some by the other." For my own part, I always 
considered the two forms to be only different 
renderings of one and the same word, but I noted 
that those forms were used rather as two names in 
that particular locality. In the Record Office 
Close Rolls (say A.D. 1600-1700) one usually finds, 
I think, the word spelt Raife and Rafe. 

G. F. B. 


" HUE AND CRT " (1 st S. xi. 185 ; 3 rd S. viii. 
352 ; ix. 40, 83 ; xii. 169, 256 ; 4 th S. viii. 21, 
94, 209, 309 ; 5 th S. ix. 508 ; x. 14, 178.) -In 
several numbers of your invaluable publication 
various suggestions have been made as to the 
origin of the phrase "hue and cry." Most of them 
come to one of these two conclusions, that hue is 
derived either from Haro (a corruption of Raoul, 
the name of a duke of Normandy) or from the 
French word huer, to shout after. The first appears 
to me to be rather far-fetched, and the latter cer- 
tainly, at first sight, very natural ; but, when the 
matter is more closely looked into, it seems to me 
not quite so clear, as it would make the two words 
merely a repetition the one of the other, although 

Lord Coke says, or rather takes for granted, on 
* authority of previous writers, that they are 

Now, what would be the natural process of 
;hose who raise this cry 1 The complainant would 
not stand up in any public place and call out, and 
call out again even with a huntsman's horn 
'hucliet], as some say is the origin of the term ; 
3ut he would go and lay an information or com- 
plaint before the proper authority that the man 
lad fled, whereupon a cry would be raised for his 
pursuit and apprehension. Now we all know that 
oy a process common in Spanish, though I admit 
rare in French, the Latin / is transformed into 
he French h (e.g., foris, out of doors, hors) ; and, 
therefore, there seems to me nothing very im- 
probable in this phrase being neither more nor less 
than a modernization of the French "Fuite et cri" 
the flight of the criminal and the cry of the 
pursuers. A. BISSET THOM. 

AUTHORS OF BOOKS WANTED (5 th S. ix. 309 ; 
xi. 49, 79.) 

I find I was in error as regards the first appearance of 
Mr. Bartlett's compilation with the title of Familiar 
Quotations. For "about twenty years" I should have 
said " about fifteen years." And Mr. Gent, in his preface, 
was speaking of his own more comprehensive edition of 
bis first compilation in saying that it was " the pre- 
ursor," &c. FREDK. RULE. 

xi. 69.) 

" Then silent, but with blinding tears," &c., 
forms part of a song called Looking Back, by Louisa Gray, 
set to music by A. S. Sullivan. F. A. BLAYDES. 

(5th s. xi. 49, 79.) 

" See how these Christians love one another." 
The saying as above has its place in Bingbam (Antig. t 
bk. xv. cap. 7, 10). See " N. & Q.," 4* S. xii. 420. 

W. T. M. 


William Harvey : a History of the Discovery of the Cir- 
culation of the Blood. By R. Willis, M.D., Author of 
"The Life and Letters of Spinoza," "Servetus and 
Calvin," &c. (C. Kegan Paul & Co.) 
THIS work has a melancholy interest to all who remember 
its venerable and amiable author. Dr. Willis, as he him- 
self states in the preface, edited an English translation of 
the works of Harvey more than thirty years ago, adding 
a notice of the original author's life. Henceforward it 
was ever his desire to write, in a separate work, a fuller 
history of the great discoverer of the circulation of the 
blood But professional practice impeded him in his 
efforts, till stung by the attempts of the Italians to 
attribute the discovery to Caesalpinus, he set to work in 
earnest to finish the present work, which was completed 
just before its author's decease. Dr. Willis commences 
with short notices of the ancient and mediaeval anato- 
mists, particularly in reference to their opinions on the 
blood ; but not deeming it necessary to lavish the usual 
praises on Hippocrates, he dwells for many pages on 



[5 th S. XI. FEB. I, '79. 

Galen, "the ruler of all men's minds on all matters con- 
nected with medical science for thirteen centuries and 
more." Dr. Willis appears to have thoroughly compre- 
hended Galen's writings, and thus differs from Dr. Gee, 
an erudite living physician, who but a, year ago confessed 
before a medical society that he could never read that 
ancient author, whom he styled a metaphysician rather 
than a physician. As for that portion of the work de- 
voted to the life and the private as well as public deeds of 
Harvey, it is most complete, and is thoroughly exhaustive 
as to the arguments supporting the originality of Harvey's 
discovery. In the concluding pages a summary will be 
found of the real extent of Caesalpinus's researches, show- 
ing that that anatomist never abandoned the Galenical 
theory that there were two distinct kinds of blood in the 
system, not mere altered conditions of the same fluid. Nor 
did the Italian anatomist recognize the true significance 
of the valves of the veins, which constituted the most 
important factor in the line of reasoning adopted by our 
great philosopher, the real discoverer of the circulation 
of the blood, as Dr. Willis proves him to have been. 

Quarter Sessions from Queen Elizabeth to Queen Anne. 

By A. H. A. Hamilton. (Sampson Low & Co.) 
To delve among the records of the past is an occupation 
congenial to the soul of many a reader of " N. & Q." 
But not every searcher for ore in such quarters contrives 
to make the result of his investigations so widely interest- 
ing as has been the case with the author of Quarter 
Sessions from Elizabeth to Anne. Taking us back to days 
when the jurisdiction of the county justices extended 
itself over a large area now reserved for the Judges of 
Assize, and when " Popish recusants," " Irish vagrants," 
and " such persons as travel under the notion or name of 
Quakers," were alike obnoxious to established authority, 
this pleasant volume ought to commend itself to all who 
have enjoyed Westward Ho I and who would fain add to 
their acquaintance with the worthies of Devon in the 
olden time. In a future edition we think Mr. Hamilton 
Tvould do well to make some slight verbal alterations in 
those passages where he has .retained wording suited to 
the oral delivery of a paper, but which interrupts the flow 
of a printed narrative aiming at historic sequence. We 
observe that at p. 234 Mr. Hamilton uses phraseology 
implying that the Scotch were held to be foreigners in 
England temp. Jac. II. Of the popular mind this may 
no doubt have been true, as it probably would be to a 
great extent even at this day. But Calvin's case, 7 Jac. I. 
(1608), should have led our author to choose his language 
with greater caution on a point involving constitutional 
law. For his work as a whole, however, we gladly oflfer 
Mr. Hamilton our very hearty commendation. 

Four Chapters of North's Plutarch. Photo-lithographed 
in the Size of the Original Edition of 1595. Edited 
by F. A. Leo, Ph.D. (London, Trubner & Co.: 
Strasburg, Karl Trubner.) 

A GREAT and solid benefit has been conferred upon 
Shakspearian students by the publication by Dr. Leo, of 
Berlin, of the lives of Coriolanus, Julius Caesar, Mark 
Antony, and Brutus, reprinted by photo-lithography from 
Sir Thomas North's translation of Plutarch; In a 
valuable preface Dr. Leo shows the reason why he chose 
for his reprint the edition of 1595 in place of that of 
1612, which has been recommended by English scholars. 
These reasons, so far as they extend, are convincing. 
The task has been admirably accomplished in all respects. 
Notes and reference tables showing the extent of Shak- 
speare's obligation are affixed, and the entire work is 
equally scholarly and artistic. It is doubtful whether 
many books issued from any press can compare with the 
present volume in beauty of type, and it is certain that 
no German work upon an English subject approaches it 

in this respect. Dr. Leo has rendered a service to Shak- 
spearian literature which it is a pleasure to acknowledge. 

The Law of Organs and Organists. By W. C. A. 

Blew, M.A. (Reeves.) 

" N. & Q." is a messenger of peace ; therefore we note 
with approval, as tending to promote peace among cer- 
tain genera irritabilia, this handy book, which effects its 
object dispassionately by setting out the law, and citing 
numerous cases to meet each point as ' it arises. Pax 
vobiscum might well be the motto of Mr. Blew's useful 
little work. 

WE have received the following works : From Messrs. 
Longmans, part vii. of Bishop Colenso's The Pentateuch 
and Book of Joshua Critically Examined; Messrs. 
Pickering & Co., Churton's Early English Church, a new 
edition, and Tennysoniana, second edition, revised and 
enlarged; Messrs. Smith, Elder & Co., vol. xiv. of St. 
Bartholomeiv's Hospital Reports, edited by W. S. Church, 
M.D., and Alfred Willett, F.R.C.S. ; Messrs. Rivingtons, 
For Days and Years, containing a text, short reading, 
and hymn for every day in the Church's year, selected 
by H. L. Sidney Lear, arid the Life of the Duke of Wel- 
lington, by Rosamond Waite ; and from Messrs. Hamil- 
ton, Adams & Co., Studies on the Text of Shakespeare, by 
John Bulloch. 

ut(crd to Carregpontteut*. 

We must call special attention to ihe following notice: 
ON all communications should be written the name and 

address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 

as a guarantee of good faith. 

NAHUM TATE (5> S. xi. 20). In answer to the query 
as to his burial-place, the following is from the register of 
St. George's, South wark : " Aug. 1, 1715. Nahum Tata 
next to Prince Eugene the Mint. 5 ' 

W. T. M. Dr. Farrar was mistaken, for the Princess 
Irene Marie Louisa Anna (born July 11, 1866) is still 
alive. It was the Princess Marie Victoria Feodore 
Leopoldine (born May 24, 1874) who unhappily died. 

FENTONEA. We are told that the lady of whom you 
speak was related to neither of the men indicated. She 
is believed to be still alive, or at least she was heard of 
at no very distant interval. 

KENT. The late Bishop Turton, of Ely, made it a 
rule, we believe, not to ordain non-university men. 

PARSONIA. Were the phrase used innocently, it would 
not be fair to impute the charge. 

A. D. (" I live for those who love me "). From Mr. G. 
Linneus Banks's poem What I Live For. 

R. G. Are you not thinking of the Law as designated 
by Mr. Bumble? 

A. C. S. ("As mad as a hatter"). See "N. & Q.," 4 I 
S. viii. 395, 489, and 2 nd and 3 rd S. passim. 

H. H. G. We have your MS. It will appear. 

ERKATA. P. 64, 1. 3 of note* for "Jones," read ' 
Ouseley; 1. 2 of note , for "Sir William Jones," read I 
Henry Vansittart, Esq. The name of Prof. Tambroni j 
(ante, p. 75, art. " Laura Bassi ") was Clotilda, not i 
" Matilda." 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to " The 
Editor of ' Notes and Queries ' "Advertisements and 
Business Letters to The Publisher "at the Office, 20, 
Wellington Street, Strand, London, W.C. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print ; and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 

i S. XI. FEB. 8, 79.] 





N 3TES : Tennyson and Elaine ("Idylls of the King"), 101 
Homer: The Wrath of Achilles, 102 " Practical Philoso- 
phy," by a Septuagenarian, 103" Ultramarine "Pedantry, 
104 Lines written in 1833-The Pope as a Poet Clan 
Matheson, 105 Bad Grammar Banyan's Bible, 106. 

Q (JEEIES : Cyprus : Hogarth's Frolic Churchwardens' 
Accounts-" Candidacy," 106 "Free to confess "" The 
fine Roman hand "Marshal Tallard Sixpenny Handley 
"Press Orders," by Albert Smith Camoens's Statue at 
Lisbon Lord E. Fitzgerald and Newgate, Dublin A Grace 

"The Strangers' Assistant and Guide to Bath" Dr. 

Trotter, 107 Curious Epitaph "Izaak Walton Angling" 
Mayfair 35, Park Lane Authors Wanted, 108. 

REPLIES: Canons, Prebendaries, and Honorary Canons, 
108 Sacramental Wine, 109 Benjamin K. Haydon, 111 
Yateley, Hants, 113 Eare Editions of Shakspeare The 
Harrisons of Norfolk, 114 Mint Pasty : Primrose Pasty, 115 
Devon Provincialisms Names of Places in Shrewsbury 
Draperies Sold at Norwich, temp. Elizabeth-Grist Mills 
"Pool" A Survival, 116 B. Disraeli, 1788 Root=" Cat" 
St. Bernard's Dying Song Lysiensis " Smothered in the 
lode," &c. "Huguenot" " Saunterer '' Jack Mitford, 117 
" Sanitarium " " Hems " "Ditty " Duke of Schomberg 
First carrying a Child upstairs, 118 Do Vipers swallow 
their Young ? Prayer Books with the Eoyal Arms Drowned 
Bodies Recovered, 119. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Max Milller's " Lectures on the Origin 
and Growth of Religion," &c. "The Bibliography of 
Buskin " " The Genealogist," Vol. II. 

Notices to Correspondents, &c. 


Probably all the readers of " N. & Q." have 
admired the picture of Elaine, fresh in death, 
floating down the river with a letter in her hand, 
and steered by a dumb old servitor, but some are 
not aware perhaps of the original version from 
which the poet has borrowed the whole picture 
and much of the verbiage. As in the " Death of 
Arthur" (5 th S. x. 21) I placed paragraph by para- 
graph en suite, so that Tennyson's version might 
be readily compared with the original, I will 
follow the same plan now, and will, from time 
to time, trace out the other idylls. The book I 
am now going to quote from is Sir T. Malory's 
compilation called The History of Prince Arthur 
(1470). The actors in the sketch are "the fair 
Elaine," Sir Launcelot, Sir Bernard the old baron 
(father of Elaine), and her two brothers, Sir Tirre 
and Sir Lavaine ; the scene is laid at Astolat 
(pt. iii. ch. 122-4). The names in the idyll are " the 
fair Elaine," "the lily maid of Astolat," Sir Lancelot, 
the lord of Astolat, with two strong sons, Sir 
'Torre and Sir Lavaine. Here it will be seen that 
'Tennyson has changed Sir Tirre into Sir Torre. 

fancy this is a clerical error, as Sir Torre was quite 
another person. 

The History." My lord, Sir Launcelot " [said Elaine], 
' now I see that you will depart. Fair and courteous 
might, have mercy upon me, and suffer me not to die 
for love of you." "What would ye that I did?" said 
Sir Launcelot. " I would have you unto my husband," 
said the maid Elaine. " Fair damsel, I thank you," said 
Sir Launcelot, "but certainly I cast me never to be 

The Idyll. Then out she brake : 

" Going ? and we shall never see you more ! 

And I must die for want of one bold word... 

I have gone mad. I love you... 

Your love," she said, " your love, to be your wife." 

And Lancelot answered, " Had I chosen to wed, 

I had been wedded earlier, sweet Elaine ; 

But now there never will be wife of mine.' 

The History." Then, fair knight," said she, " will ye be 
my paramour ?" " Mercy defend me ! " said Sir Launce- 
lot, "then should I reward your father and your brother 
full evil for their great goodness." " Alas ! " said she, 
then I must die..." " Ye shall not so," said Sir Launce- 
lot, "for wit ye well, fair damsel, that... wheresoever you 
set your heart upon good knight, I will wed you [to 
him], and will give you together a thousand pounds 
yearly. . .and always while I live will lie your knight." " Of 
all this will I none," said the damsel,.'.. and fell down to 
the ground in a swoon,... and [they] bare her into her 

The Idyll." No, no ! " she cried, " I care not to be 

But to be with you still."... 

And Lancelot answered: "Nay,... 

Full ill then should I quit your brother's love 

And your good father's kindness." And she said,... 

"Alas ! for me then, my good days are done." 

" Nay, noble maid,... [but] 

Hereafter when you yield your flower of life 

To one more fitly yours,. ..then will I... 

Endow you with broad lands and territory,... 

And furthermore, ev'n unto death... 

In all your quarrels will I le your knight."... 

" Of all this will I nothing " ; and she fell, 

And thus they bore her swooning to the to\ver. 

Then in both stories the maid rapidly declines, 
sends for her father confessor, and receives from 
him the sacrament. The history uses the phrase 
" she shrove her dean" and said that she should 
die ; Tennyson in verbal imitation makes the 
maid tell her father to " call the ghostly man, and 
let me shrive me dean and die." 

The History. Then she called her father... and her 
brother... and heartily prayed her father that her brother 
might write a letter like as she would endite it. And 
so her father granted her. And when the letter was 
written word for word, like as she had devised, she prayed 
her father that she might be watched until she were 
dead : " While my body is whole let this letter be put 
into my right hand, and my hand bound fast with the 
letter in it till I be cold ; and let me be put in a fair bed 
with all the richest clothes that I have about me, and so 
let my bed and all my rich clothes be laid with me in a 
chariot to the next place whereas the Thames is, and 
there let me be put in a barge, and but one man with 
me, such as ye trust, to steer me thither, and that my 
barge be covered with black samite over and over. 
Thus, father, I beseech you let me be done." So her 


NOTES AND QUERIES. p>. s. XL FEB. s, 79. 

father granted... that all this. ..should be done like as she 

had devised. 

The Idyll. So when the ghostly man had. ..gone, 


Besought Lavaine to write as she desired 
A letter word for word. ..Then he wrote 
The letter she devised ; which being writ 
And folded : " O sweet father, . . .lay the letter in my hand 
A little ere I die, and close the hand 
Upon it,. ..and when the heat is gone from out my heart 
Then take the little bed on which I died 
For Lancelot's love, and deck it like the queen's 
For richness, and me also like the queen 
In all I have of rich, and lay me on it, 
And let there be prepared a chariot-b\er 
To take me to the river, clothed in black... 
And. ..let our dumb old man alone 
Go with me, he can steer... and he 
Will guide me to the palace." 
She ceased. Her father promised. 

The History. Then, her father and her brother made 
great dole, for when this was done, anon she died. And 
so, when she was dead, the corpse and the bed and all 
was [sic] led the next way unto the Thames, and there a 
man and the corpse and all were put in a barge on the 
Thames, and so the man steered the barge to West- 

The Idyll. Ten slow mornings past, and on the 

Her father laid the letter in her hand, 

And closed the hand upon it, and she died, 

So that day there was dole in Astolat. 
But when the next sun brake... 

...the sad chariot-b'\er...p&st like a shadow that stream whereon the barge, 

Palled all its length in blackest samite, lay. 

There sat. ..the dumb old servitor on deck... 

So... [they] laid her in her bed... 

Then rose the dumb old servitor, and the dead, 

Oared by the dumb, went upward with the flood. 

^ The history and the idyll then recount how the 
king, queen, and three or four knights, seeing the 
barge, entered it, and the king took the letter from 
the maiden's hand. 

The History. And this was the letter: "Most noble 
knight, my lord Sir Launcelot du Luke,... I was your lover, 
that men called the fair maid of Astolat... Therefore unto 
all ladies 1 make my moan ; yet for my soul that ye pray, 
and bury me at the least... Pray for my soul, Sir Launce- 
lot, as thou art a knight peerless" 

The Idyll." Most noble lord, Sir Lancelot of the 

I, sometime called the maid of Astolat, 

Come... to take my last farewell of you. 

I loved you, and my love. ..hath been my death. 

Therefore... to all ladies I make moan. 

Pray for my soul, and yield me burial. 

Pray for my soul thou too, Sir Lancelot, 

As thou art a knight peerless. 1 ' 

The History. When Sir Launcelot had heard the letter, 
he said : " My lord, king Arthur, wit ye well 1 am right 
heavy of the death of this fair damsel... Iwill not say nay 
but that she was both fair and good, but she loved me out 
of measure." " Ye might have shown her," said the queen 
"some grace and gentleness, that ye might have preserved 
her life. 

The Idyll- Then freely spoke Sir Lancelot :... 
"jMy lord liege Arthur,... 
Know that for this most gentle maiden's death 

Eight heavy am 1 ; for good she was and true, 
But loved me with a love beyond all love..." 

Then said the queen :... 

" Ye might at least have done her so much grace, 
Fair lord, as would have helped her from her death." 

The History. " Madam," said Sir Launcelot, " she 
would none other way be answered, but that she would 
be my wife or else my paramour, and of these two I would 
not grant her ; but I proffered her, for hef good love which 
she showed me, a thousand pounds yearly, and to wed [her 
to] any manner of knight that she could find best to love 
in her heart ; for, madam, I love not to be constrained in 
love, for love must arise of the heart, and not by con- 
straint."... Then said the king unto Sir Launcelot, "It 
will be your worship that ye oversee that she be buried 

The Idyll. " Queen " [said Sir Lancelot], " she would 
not be content 

Save that I wedded her, which could not be. 

Then might she follow me thro' the world, she asked ; 

It could not be. I told her that her love... 

[Would] rise hereafter in a stiller flame 

Toward one more worthy of her, then would I... 

Estate them with large land and territory... 

To keep them in all joyance ; more than this 

I could not ; this she would not and she died." 
He pausing, Arthur answered : " O my knight, 

It will be to thy worship as my knight .. 

To see that she be luried worshipfully." 

Then was Elaine buried in splendour, and 
Arthur with his knights honoured the funeral 

The prose version makes Sir Tirre write the 
letter, because Lavaine accompanied Sir Launcelot ; 
but Tennyson makes Lavaine write the letter and 
Sir Lancelot depart alone. This is an error, as 
Lavaine was Sir Launcelot's squire, and the knight 
would not leave his squire behind. 




" The plot of the Iliad is one of the capital subjects, 
not yet thoroughly explored, to which the attention of 
every student should be directed. Much criticism aimed 
at it has really been founded on the title rather than on 
the poem. It is hardly fortunate ; for it draws off 
attention from the real subject, which is the wrath of 
Achilles. With the beginning of this wrath it begins, 
and with the cessation it ends." Primer of Homer, p. 17. 

If the story is interesting and the poetry good, 
I care not much for unity of action ; but those who 
do must substitute wraths for wrath, to make any 
approach to it. Homer I use the name con- 
ventionally, without belief in his individuality- 
begins with a strict limitation of what he intends 
to do : 

"Sing, Goddess, the destructive anger of Achilles, 
which inflicted many woes on the Greeks, and sent , 
many valiant souls of heroes to Hades and made their 
aodiea a prey to the dogs and all the great birds." 
This was the first wrath ; the second did none of 
these things, but was highly favourable to the 
reeks and destructive to the Trojans. It was 
caused by the killing of Patroclus, and though it 

." S. XI. FEB. 8, 79.] 



is said in Juventus Mundi, p. 494, " The remainder 
of the fiery current, thus diverted from the Greeks, 
h( turns upon the Trojans," a reference to his 
re 3onciliation speech will show that the wrath was 
not diverted, nor even merged, but absolutely 
extinguished : 

JiV eyw 

. II., xix. 67. 

That the reconciliation was sincere on the part of 
Achilles is shown by his gentlemanly delicacy to 
Agamemnon in the funeral games. His depre- 
ciation of Briseis in the nineteenth book is a dis- 
agreeable superfluity, and not likely to have been 
composed by the poet who makes him speak so 
tenderly of her in the ninth : 

'ArpeiSou ; ITTCI, OOTIS avrjpa yaOos KOL e)(e( 
Irjv avTOv <tAeet KOL K^Serat* a>s Kat eyw TTJV 
} Ei< OV/JLOV </>t'Aeov, 8ovpiKTr)T r nv ?rep eovcrav. 

11, ix. 340-4. 
Contrast this with 

ore vwi irep, a\vvfiV(a Krjp, 
Qv/jioftopw eptSi /zevoyVa/Aev, etVe/ca Kovprjs. 
Twv 6'</>eA' kv K^eircri KaraKra/zev "Apre//,ts to), 
"Hyuari TO), K.T.A. xix. 57. 

The heartlessness of this is exaggerated into 
brutality by Chapman : 

" Atrides had not this 

Conferred much profit to us both, when both our enmities 
Consumed us so that for a wench, whom when I chose 

for prise, 

In laying Lyrness' ruined walls among our victories, 
I would to heaven when first she set her dainty foot 

Diana's hand had tumbled off and with a javelin gored." 

Perhaps the beautiful-cheeked Diomede (ix. 660) 
had consoled Achilles for the loss of Briseis, whom 
he loved " as good men should love their wives " ; 
but she, who also was KaAAtTrap^os, resumed her 
place after her return (xxiv. 676). 1 " 

I may here be allowed to notice the liking for 
gifts, which Achilles does not show in the first 
wrath. To the handsome offer of Agamemnon he 
replies : 


J 'Hr' exepiei', Trapa o-ot. xix. 147. 
This, in Pope's elegant falsification, is rendered : 
" To keep or send the presents be thy care ; 
To me 'tis equal." 

Simcox is fair : 

*' Either the presents to send, which yet 1 deem were more 

Or to withhold is thine." 

When Achilles had received the ransom, 

'E/crope^s Ke(>a\rj<s aTrepecoY oVotva, 
he thinks some apology due to Patroclus for not 
performing his promise to give the body to the 
dogs and the birds, and says to him (in Hades) : 

2ot 8' av eyw Kat rwvS' a7roSacro~o/Aai, 6Vo~' 

cTreotKef. xxiv. 595. 
Again Pope is false : 
" The gifts the father gave be ever thine, 
To grace thy manes and adorn thy shrine." 

And again Simcox is true : 
" And of it will I give such part to thee as beseemeth." 
No doubt the "part" was liberal. Achilles, 
though he received greedily, gave nobly. 

The separation of the wraths was noticed by 
Terrasson, t. i. p. 47, who suggested that the title 
of the poem should have been " The Death of 
Hector," and Cesarotti called his queer version La 
Morte d'Ettore, which as a translation is rivalled 
only by that which Puck performed on Bottom. 

Few persons whom I meet care for Homeric 
criticism ; and I have found very sound scholars 
who treated Wolf with contempt without having 
read his Prolegomena. Its length is only 280 
pages, and my opinion valeat quantum is that 
a more interesting and convincing piece of criticism 
does not exist. It was duly appreciated in Ger- 
many, but in England the Wolfians were in a very 
small minority, unhelped by the learned and 
pounded by the eloquence of Mr. Gladstone, like 
the Greeks at their ships trembling at Hector ; 
but we now hail the arrival of Mr. Paley as the 
Greeks did that of Achilles. 

Those who cannot or will not read Wolf's Pro- 
legomena may get a notion of it from a fair and 
learned article, " Homer," by Dr. Ihne, in Smith's 
Classical Dictionary. H. B. C. 

U. U. Club. 


Some years since I became possessed of a manu- 
script entitled " Practical Philosophy of Genius, 
Mind, and Action in the Association and Pur- 
suits of Life, forming a Handbook to Intellectual 
Knowledge, by a Septuagenarian." The hand- 
writing is clear, but in many places bears evidence 
of the age of the writer. I can find nothing to 
indicate the exact date of the work, but it is 
evidently of the early part of the present century, 
as an allusion is made to Lord Beaconsfield, then 
Mr. Disraeli, in the following words : "Ben 
D'Israeli has cashiered his radical curls, and 
Count d'Orsay is left alone in his glory." 

The work is composed of slips of paper, many 
full of erasures. These have been mounted on 
separate sheets, and in that condition came into 
my possession. Quotations and extracts appear 
generally to be marked. Our Septuagenarian was 
evidently a wide and diligent reader, priding him- 
self upon his self-culture, and holding the creed 
that the proper study of mankind is man. As I 
am anxious to know if this manuscript has ever 
been printed, perhaps you will allow rne to occupy 



[5"" S. XL FEB. 8, 79. 

your valuable space with a few extracts ; an* 
should the work have been printed, no doubt it i 
known to some of your wide circle of readers 
Here is the preface (the capitals are in the 
original) : 

" Go, little Book, to the world; I cast you forth upon 
the stream of public opinion, Even as your author com 
menced his career without Friend or Patron. If yoi 
should find favour with some who can Sympathize with 
the Early inflictions of a lonely heart, and appreciate 
the difficulties and vicissitudes of a Life of struggling 
Industry, it will afford a cheering ray of consolation to 
an Old Man who is not yet so estranged from social en 
joyment as to be insensible of Friendship and generous 

Then follows the introduction : 

" Notes from branch banks of issue and deposit, 

The student's treasury of mind and knowledge ; 

Investments, loans, and speculative products, 

Derived from books and commerce with the world, 

Conceptions of causation and effect ; 

Imagination, memory, and perception, 

The mental combinations, and their power 

Of thinking, reasoning, and reflecting ; 

Grains of Philosophy from Nature's storehouse, 

Choice moral facts instructive and amusing, 

Waiting but genial culture to produce 

Rich crops of truthfulness and sound belief." 

This Handbook to Intellectual Knowledge is 

systematically arranged under various heads, such 

as "Cheerfulness in Age," "The Great First 

Cause," " Betrospection," " The Man of Worth," 

"Mastery of Mind," &c. Our Septuagenarian 

was a Paul's boy evidently : 

" Youthful Days. 

'Tis true for me the golden age is o'er, 
Elastic youth and hope inspire no more, 
Yet still the mind is active as when young 
I join'd, St. Paul's, thy merry groups among, 
The foremost ever in a sportive range 
In Colet'a hall and playground of Old Change. 
Then all around look'd cheerful and serene, 
Imagination brightened every scene ; 
Reason's monition ne'er disturbed the brain, 
Youth in its folly never dreamed of pain, 
The bloom of health and joyous exercise 
Usurps the mind too buoyant to be wise." 
To facilitate search I append 

" The Man of Worm. 

The vile expedient to gain wealth by fraud 
Of veiled hypocrisy may serve a lord, 
Advance a courtier, or a man of state. 
Though scorn'd, contemn'd by all the great, 
Stranger to courts, to luxury and ease, 
To pride, ambition, and the art to please 
By sacrifice of judgment or of thought ; 
Too poor to bribe, too honest to be bought ; 
Wayward, erratic in his onward flight, 
Sometimes in error with intention right, 
Bold independence marks the man of worth 
Through every phase of fortune or of birth. 
In heart content he feels no vain desires : 
In faith he lives, in future hope expires." 

F. W. C. 

Queen's Gate, S.W. 

am not aware that it has been hitherto noted that 
ultramarine, a colour term so common in the 
modern paint-box, is merely an abbreviated trans- 
lation of the French phrase asur d'outremer* for 
I find in Cotgrave, edit. 1611 : " Terre d' ombre, 
beyond-sea azur ; an earth found in silver mines, 
and used by Painters for shadowings " ; " Asur t 
azure, skie-colour. Asur d'outre mer. Beyond- 
sea azure ; the best kind of azure, made of Lapis 
Lazuli, or the Lazuli stone. Pierre d'asur. Lapis 
Lazuli or the Lazuli stone. Asur de Levant as 
Asur d'outre mer." "Lazur, the Lazuli or azure- 
stone " ; "The lazule-stone " (Torriano, 1659). 

Now Cotgrave's quaint expression " beyond-sea 
azur " has become at the present day ultramarine^ 
which Phillips, 1720, thus explains : " Lapis 
Lazuli, a kind of azure or sky-coloured stone, of 
which the blue colour calTd ultramarine is made. 
One sort of it is brought from the Eastern Countries, 
the other from Germany, and both much used in 
Physick." But azure is the colour of the sky and 
not the colour of the sea, and ultramarine means, 
not a colour beyond the blueness of the sea, but 
a colour made from a stone which comes from 
beyond the sea.t As regards azure, Mr. Wedg- 
wood derives it from " Pers. lazur, whence lapis 
lazuli, the sapphire of the ancients." In the Ortus 
Vocabulorum occurs : " Lazirium, i. e. incaustum, 
or asur colour " ; and directions are given (Sloane- 
MS. 73, f. 215 b) "for to make fin azure of lapis 
lazuli," that stone being there distinguished from 
'' lapis almaine, of which men maken a blue bis 

As regards ultramarine, in its colour sense, I 
bave as yet found no earlier English authority than 
Bullokar, 1671. Doubtless earlier mention will 
be forthcoming, although Blount in his Glosso- 
jraphia, 1670, only translates the word as " coming 
irom beyond sea." ZERO. 

PEDANTRY. I see it is the fashion in learned and 
listorical works nowadays to talk of the conquest of 
Southern Britain or England by the English, as if 
;he English people came over ready made from. 
Grermany. It would be quite as reasonable to 
alk of the conquest of America by the Americans 
>r of Gaul by the French. The Angles were no 
more English (Engldnder) than the Franks were 

* More probably, since we have preserved the second 
lement of the phrase in a Latinized form, both French 

d^ English have translated some such Low Latin 
>riginal as asnra ultramarina, for Junius (edit. Lye, 
743) gives as Italian azuro ollramarino. 

f See Richardson : " Ultra-marine. Ullra-mannus. 
beyond the sea. Applied to colour, exceeding marine ; 
a brilliant marine." 

J I take both quotations from Way's edition of the 
^romptorium. Bis is another blue colour of probably 
arker shade of "fin azure." Cotgrave also mentions' 
he German azure stone. 


5t>> s. XI. FEB. 8, 79.] 



Frenchmen (Franzoseri). We shall see the folly 
of this nomenclature if we use the German lan- 
guage, which in this respect is more precise. 
Englishmen, in the sense of Englcinder, are a 
mixed race, in which probably the Celto-Latin 
element dominates. Englishmen (or rather Anglian 
men), in the sense of Anglische manner, were pure 
Low Germans. It would therefore be more correct 
to talk of the conquest of Southern Britain by the 

There is also a new fashion of writing of 
Chaucer's language as "old English" and of 
Bede's language as " Old English," with a capital. 
But speech is given for speaking, not for writing, 
and how are we to distinguish them orally? 
Moreover, if (as I believe) Chaucer's English is the 
old form of the tongue we now speak, and Bede's 
English (or Anglian, for English=Anglian) a 
tongue as different as Italian from Latin, or more 
so, to call them by the same name is confusing, 
misleading, and blundering. Vide the German 
periodical Anglia. AN INQUIRER. 

LINES WRITTEN IN 1833, on seeing a plain white 
marble tomb in the Cemetery of Pere Lachaise, 
with simply the name, " Nina," inscribed upon it : 

Nina ! without the place, or age, or date, 

To tell a stranger what has been thy fate. 

Among the crowded tombs fair works of art 

None speaks like thine unto the soften'd heart. 

Nina ! surely beloved but by whom ] 

Was it a lover rais'd thee such a tomb, 

Or a fond parent, whose o'erwhelming grief 

Found in thy name alone a slight relief ? 

I knew thee not, yet on that marble gaze 

"With the dim eye that man's regret betrays. 

On such a tomb who could not write a name 

Dear to his heart although unknown to fame ? 

Unlike to those by gay survivors built, 

Who deck with lying praise the grave of guilt, 

" Nina" that little word acts like a spell 

Upon the mind ; though why it cannot tell. 

Sleep ! sleep in peace ! the sunbeams from the west 

Throw their last light upon thy place of rest ; 

The jasmine fair and roses that surround 

Cast their sweet blossoms on that sacred ground. 

Sleep ! sleep in peace ! love made thy simple tomb a 

More beautiful than wealth can buy or art design. 

Ashford, Kent. 

THE POPE AS A POET. This cutting, from the 
Times of 25th ultimo, is worthy of a corner in 
"N. &Q.": 

" It was well known, both in Rome and in England, 
when Cardinal Pecci ascended the Papal throne as 
Leo XIII., that he enjoyed a reputation for sound and 
elegant scholarship, but it was not then known that he 
was a poet. The Pope, however, has lately been giving 
a proof at once of his scholarly attainments and of his 
poetical powers. The occasion has been a recent visit of 
a certain well-known photographer to Rome, in order to 
take new and authentic portraits of the Pope and other 
members of the Roman Curia. The object of this visit 

having been attained and some excellent negatives having 
been taken, the Pope wrote the following lines, which 
are at once thoroughly classical in expression and also 
ecclesiastical in their form, being a close imitation of the 
rhythm and metre of the hymns of the Western Church: 
' Ars Photographica. 

Expressa soils spiculo 

Nitens imago, quam bene 

Frontis decus, vim luminum 

Refert et oris gratiam. 

mira virtus ingent ! 

Novumque monstrum imaginem 

Naturae Apelles aemulus 

Non pulchriorem pingeret.' 

These verses bear the signature ' Leo PP. XIII.,' and the 
photographs may be seen at the show rooms of Messrs. 
Burns & Oates, in Portman Street, Portman Square." 

W. S. S. 

CLAN MATHESON. The Times early last month, 
whilst reviewing the life of the late Sir James 
Matheson, stated (I write from memory) that he 
belonged to the Clan Matheson, and that, owing to 
his dying without issue, the title became extinct. I 
append copies of two letters which subsequently ap- 
peared in the columns of your contemporary, hoping 
you can find room to insert the same, as some of 
your readers, like myself, may be glad of further 
information relating to the Clan Matheson, which 
I feel sure many of your correspondents can supply : 

" Sir, In a recent obituary notice which appeared in 
the Times, mention is made of a Clan Matheson as at 
present existing; this would appear to be somewhat 
erroneous. There, no doubt, once was a Clan Matheson, 
or Mathieson, or Mathison, respecting which the History 
of the Scottish Highlands gives slight information, from 
which I quote the following : 

" ' The name Mathieson, or Clan Mhathain, is said to 
come from the Gaelic mathaineach, heroes, or rather, 
from mathan, pronounced mahan, a bear. The Mac- 
Mathans were settled in Lochalsh, a district of Wester 
Ross, from an early period. They are derived by ancient 
genealogies from the same stock as the Earls of Ross, and 
are represented by the MS. of 1450 as a branch of the 

Mackenzies The possessions of the Mathiesons, at 

one time very extensive, were greatly reduced in the 
course of the sixteenth century by feuds with their tur- 
bulent neighbours, the Macdonalds of Glengarry.' 

"Mr. Skene, a great authority, says : 

" 'Of the history of this clan we know nothing what- 
ever. Although they are now extinct, they must at one 
time have been one of the most powerful clans in the 
North, for among the Highland chiefs seized by James I. 
at the Parliament held at Inverness in 1427, Bower 
mentions Macmaken, leader of 2,000 men.' 

" Mr. Skene concludes,' The once powerful clan of 
the Mathisons has disappeared, and their name become 
nearly forgotten.' 

"No specimen plate of a Mathieson tartan is given in 
the above-mentioned history, while upwards of thirty 
other clan tartans appear. 

" It would thus seem that no less than three hundred 
years ago the clan in question was entirely swallowed up 
by its rivals and neighbours, and that after such a col- 
lapse any one could now show, by authentic documents, 
a descent from the chiefs of the Clan Mhathain must be 
surely difficult to prove. AN OBSERVEE." 

" Sir, In reply to 'An Observer' in the Times of to- 



[5 :h S. XL FEB. 8, '79. 

day, allow me to correct him so far as regards his state- 
ment that there is no tartan known as the Mathieson's. 

" This is an error. The tartan is well known in the 
North, and I have in my possession an authentic pattern 
of it. A SCOT." 

F. S. A. 

BAD GRAMMAR. In perusing CJiilde Harold 
the other day I was startled at finding Lord Byron 
guilty ' of a piece of bad grammar and vulgarity 
scarcely credible in a writer usually so correct in 
style. I allude to a line in canto iv. stanza 180 : 

" And dashed him to earth ; there let him lay." 
I fear that as " lay " forms a rhyme to " bay " the 
blunder is incurable. E. WALFORD, M.A. 

[This subject has been exhaustively argued in " N. & Q." 
See " Poets the Masters of Language," 4 th S. xi. 110; S 11 ' 
S. iv. 431, 491 j v. 14, 37, 52, 72, 136.] 

BUNTAN'S BIBLE. Amongst the many valuable 
books in the Harvard College Library there is, in 
the Sumner collection, a relic of the great English 
dreamer. This is a Bible printed at Cambridge 
in 1637, and having on the title-page of the New 
Testament the autograph of John Bunyan. 


[We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct] 

CYPRUS : HOGARTH'S FROLIC. I have now be- 
fore me a reprint, in professed fac-simile, of " The 
Five Days' Peregrination around the Isle of 
Sheppey of William Hogarth and his Fellow 
Pilgrims, Scott, Tothall, Thornhill, and Forest, 
with sketches in sepia from the original drawings 
illustrating the tour, by W. Hogarth and Sam 
Scott." This brochure was originally published in 
1732. The frontispiece bears the inviting motto 
from the arms of Dulwich College, " Abi tu et fac 
similiter." The reprint now before me is published 
(there is no date, but quite recently I should say) 
by John Camden Hotten. It has an introduction 
illustrated by some modern wood engravings, and, 
indeed, throughout the book small blocks are intro- 
duced illustrative of Hogarth's life and works, in 
addition to the fac-simile reproductions. But 
the last plate, xiii., possesses a peculiar interest 
just now. I do not know whether it is in the 
original edition of the tour. I should say not, for 
Hogarth was in 1732 but thirty-five years of age, 
and, if I remember rightly, had not then set up 
his carriage. This tinted drawing is entitled 
" Hogarth's crest sketched by himself and painted 
on his carriage by Mr. Catton." It p.ossesses no 
artistic merit, being simply a scroll-like design, 
floreated, beneath a meaningless spiral cone, from 

which droops a kind of fringed drapery, arranged 

bannerwise and bearing the mysterious inscription 



Beneath on a ribbon appears the word "Variety." 
Now what can be the meaning of the letters 
CYPRUS 1 Are they intended to form one word or 
two ? Do they allude to our recent national acqui- 
sition? Mr. G. A. Sala, in his admirable work 
on Hogarth, alludes simply to his setting up his 
carriage, and in a note repeats a facetious tra- 
ditional anecdote thereanent, illustrative of the 
painter's absence of mind on one occasion, but 
there is no word as to the crest or the occult 
inscription. Can any of your readers enlighten 
puzzled inquirers ? Even speculations would be 
useful and interesting, if not in every instance 
directly affording aid in elucidating the assumed 
mystery. S. P. 

of the words and phrases enclosed in inverted 
commas is sought. 

1514. Itm to Redwood for "settyng of iij bees" at 
Sabrychesworth, ij d . 

1520. Itm pd for makyng of the.tymber werke of the 
" grate," ij s . 

1520. Itm for making of the "pett at the same grate," 
iiij d . 

1521. Itm pd for scoryng of the bason and standards 
and rubbyng of " the George " ayenst Ester, viij' 1 . 

1525. Itm pd for medyg of the cherche " bare," viij rl , 

1538. Itm pd to Roberd Water for helping to gather 
" the grene wex " and for the makyng of this account, 
ij 5 viij". 

1553. Itm pd to the Vicar for half a pound of "betyng 
candell," v d . 

1587. Pd for the table " that the wayght be p'scribed 
by p'clamation." 

1602. Pd " for a bill in man' of a p'clamation to be 
published in the churche for waights," iiij d . 

1603. Pd for copierig out the busshoppes Letter for 
the " collection for the citie Geneva," viij d . 

1614. Pd to Bowyere for a plank to lay over " the 
skull hole," viij d . 

1622. Pd for the < ' directions for ministers " and for 
mending of our bill, ij* x d . 

1642. Pd for " the acte to gather the money for Ire- 
land," 4 a . 


Bishop Stortford. 

" CANDIDACY." Is this an English word ? I do 
not remember to have seen it till quite lately, 
when it has become of frequent use in our news- 
papers. " Candidature," with the same meaning, 
has established its place in the language, though 
not found in Johnson or Webster, and seems to 
supply our wants sufficiently. G. F. S. E. 

" NAPPY." I read the other day, in a curious 
old memorandum book, " 1757, Sep. 25, Mr. L. 
and Mr. S. came about 6 in the Evening, and 
drank a glass of my Nappy." And I remember 
that there occurs in an old ballad, called The Vicar 

S. XI. FEB. 8, 79.] 



id Moses, this couplet, which I never could 
n iderstand : 

" O'er a joram of nappy, 

Quite pleasant and happy." 

"\ /hat is or was " nappy," and where can a copy of 
The Vicar and Moses be found? T. W. R. 

"FREE TO CONFESS." May I repeat, on my 
cwn account, a question asked by Lord Byron in 
Don Juan, canto xvi. 1 
" He was free to confess.' Whence comes this phrase ? 

Is 't English ] No ; 't is only Parliamentary." 
Lord Byron had no " N. & Q." to refer to. 


Hampstead, X.W. 

" THE FINE ROMAN HAND." "When a writer's 
identity is betrayed by his style, it is sometimes 
said that one can recognize the fine Roman hand. 
"With whom, and on what occasion, did this 
saying originate 1 JAYDEE. 

MARSHAL TALLARD. This French commander 
was a prisoner of war, and was sent to reside in 
Nottingham. There is a story that, walking 
through the meadows between the village of 
Lenton and the river Trent, he saw celery growing 
wild. He directed the attention of gardeners to 
it, and this first led to the cultivation of celery in 
England. I have been shown the ditch where it 
is said he saw it. Is there any truth in this 
story ? ELLCEE. 


SIXPENNY HANDLEY. What is the meaning or 
the history of this singular prefix? Sixpenny 
Handley is the name of a hundred in the county 
of Dorset ; and the village and parish of Handley 
St. Mary, within the same hundred, are also known 
as Sixpenny Handley. Bacon's Liber Regis, 
p. 118, describes Handley Church as " Handley, 
alias Hanley, V. (St. Mary): Chapel to Ivern 
Minster, in Decan. Shafton." ; but does not men- 
tion the "Sixpenny" prefix. A. J. M. 

admirable article, by Mr. Button Cook, in Bel- 
gravia, upon the abuses of free admissions to the 
theatres granted by the newspapers, he states 
that in 1852 the late Mr. Albert Smith wrote 
rather forcibly upon the point ; and as other 
managers joined in the protest, the different com- 
munications on the subject were recorded in a 
volume entitled Press Orders, edited and pub- 
lished by him. Not having ever heard of this 
volume before, and wishing to possess a copy, 

1 should feel much obliged by any reader of 
" N. & Q." letting me know whether it was pub- 
lished for private circulation only, and how I can 
obta in it. EDWARD C. DAVIES. 

Junior Garrick Club. 

" One of the things we saw during our stroll was the 
fine statue of Luiz de Camoens, specially interesting to 
us as we had so recently seen the place where he passed 
many of the weary years of his exile." Mrs. Brassey's 
Voyage in the S^^nbeam, p. 483. 

This is the only allusion to this statue that I 
have happened to see in any book of modern 
travel. I should be glad to have some further 
description of it and to know the name of the 
sculptor and the date of its erection. I see it is 
stated in the Athenceum that the Portuguese 
intend holding a festival in honour of their great 
national poet in 1880. E. H. A. 

many years an old tradition existed that when, in 
1798, Lord Edward Fitzgerald lay dying in 
Newgate, one of the warders received a large 
amount of gold and silver plate to facilitate his 
escape, which, it was said, he buried somewhere 
in the prison, but owing to Lord Edward's death 
he never fulfilled his promise. As this old 
prison has been since razed to the ground, 
during its demolition has any deposit of treasure 
been found which might have given rise to the 
tradition in question ? 

Perhaps some curious Dublin antiquary might 
reply to this, as certainly poor Lord Edward did 
not leave much bullion of any kind, gold or silver, 
behind him for the benefit of his family. 


Lavender Hill. 


" God bless us all both dead and quick, 
The Protestant and Catholick." 

I find this couplet in an old commonplace book, 
written about the middle of the seventeenth cen- 
tury, as by " lo. Legh." Who was he ? 


BATH," 1773. I have in my possession a small 
book thus entitled, and containing on the title- 
page the autograph of one " Wm. Nash." Is this 
likely to be a relative of the celebrated Beau 
Nash, who died in 1760 ? 

1659. Where can I find some information 
respecting him. ? He is mentioned ante. p. 22. 

B. H. B. 

WHO WAS DR. TROTTER ? In the lively preface 
to Grimstone's comedy ^ The Lawyer's Fortune, 
1705, the author speaks of " Dr. Trotter, who for a 
shilling answers all impertinent questions." He 
may have been an astrologer. A general inquiry 
office was started in London about the year 1846 
by a Mr. Stocqueler, and the project is not quite 
threadbare yet. Perhaps the famous volume 



[5> S. XL FEE, 8, 79. 

Enquire within on Everything may have super- 
seded the living oracles, though I have reason to 
prefer these from having received a very good 
answer from Mr. Stocqueler's office and a very bad 
answer from the book. Finding that nearly all my 
clerical friends were ripening into small dignitaries, 
and that Roman Catholic divines were beginning 
to be met with in society, I consulted the book on 
the proper way of Jcotou. The book astonished me 
with the information that a Dean was in future to 
be called "My Lord," and the Very was to be 
dropped from his Reverend; that Archdeacons 
were no longer to be Venerable, but that they and 
Chancellors were now to be addressed " May it 
please your Lordship " ! On turning to plain lay 
people and their compliments, one finds the in- 
structions to be a mass of errors. GWAVAS. 

CURIOUS EPITAPH. I believe the following 
epitaph to be of Devonshire origin. Will any 
reader of " N. & Q." kindly inform me in what 
churchyard it is to be found ? 

" Here lies, in Horizontal position, the outside Case of 
George Routleigh, Watchmaker, whose abilities in that 
line were an honour to the profession ; Integrity was the 
Main Spring, and Prudence the Regulator of all the 
Actions of his life : Humane, Generous, and Liberal, his 
Hand never stopped till he had relieved Distress so 
nicely regulated were all his Movements that he never 
went wrong except when set a-going by People who did 
not know his Key, even then he was easily set right 
again. He had the Art of disposing his Time so well 
that his Hours glided away in one continual Round of 
Pleasure and Delight, till an unlucky Moment put a 
Period to his existence. He departed this life Novem- 
ber 14th, 1802, aged 57, Wound up in hopes of being 
taken in Hand by his Maker, and of being thoroughly 
Cleaned, Repaired, and Set a-going in the World to 

E. T. 

" IZAAK WALTON ANGLING." Has the late Mr. 
E. M. Ward's picture, " Izaak Walton Angling," 
ever been engraved ? If so, by whom, and where 
is a copy to be had 1 It was painted in 1850. 

CH. EL. MA. 

7, Hamilton Road, N. 

MAYFAIR. What are the boundaries of the 
modern London district of May fair 1 B. 

35, PARK LANE. What is the meaning of a 
pillar of broken masonry, six courses high, standing 
in a railed enclosure opposite 35, Park Lane ? 

M. E. C. W. 


" Time o'er wreck'd worlds sleeps motionless." 
Quoted (in a French translation) by Madame de Stae'l 
as a " famous line." H. N. C. 


(5* S. xi. 69, 89.) 

A. J. M. very properly condemns the modern 
form (" military affectation," like the canons' dress 
in the fourteenth century) of writing Canon A. B., 
but he inadvertently calls me " Prebendary Mac- 
kenzie Walcott." I am for the time being the 
Prsecentor of Chichester (a prebend of Oving 
happens to be attached to the dignity) ; the proper 
and simple way is to describe me by name, as 
other clergy are addressed, or by my more formal 
designation. This by the way. Let me answer the 
other points chronologically. 

I. The cathedrals were of two classes before the 
Reformation : (1) Salisbury, Chichester, Exeter, 
WeUs, St. Paul's, Hereford, Lichfield, Lincoln, 
York : these were secular. (2) Canterbury, Win- 
chester, Ely, Rochester, Bath, Coventry, Norwich, 
Worcester, Durham (Benedictine), and Carlisle 
(Austin Canons) : these were conventual. After the 
Reformation the former became known as of the 
Old Foundation, their constitution remaining un- 
changed ; the latter became of the New Founda- 
tion because their previous constitution was made 
secular. Bath and Coventry were expunged. 

What was and is the constitution of the cathe- 
drals of the Old Foundation 1 It was settled 
definitely on the plan of Rouen by the Norman 
bishops. There was a chapter or corporation with 
a president ; the former were "canons" as obeying 
a canonical rule embodied in the statutes and 
customs ; the latter was " dean." In a short 
time it was found convenient to allot certain 
duties to members selected out of the canons, who 
were distinguished as " dignitaries." These were 
(1) the prascentor, who presided over the ritual 
and choir ; (2) the chancellor, who had charge of 
the library, school, readers, and chapter business ; 
and (3) the treasurer, in whose care were the orna- 
ments of divine service and the fabric. (Arch- 
deacons were forensic dignitaries.) Naturally 
they received a special place of honour in choir, 
and an additional share in the common fund. 
The consequence was that the other canons came 
to partition the outlying lands or revenues, and 
allot them for the endowment of distinct stalls. 
These were called prebends (provender). The 
bishop nominated or collated ; the dean and chapter 
admitted by the act of installation. The canon in 
virtue of his canoury had a stall assigned to him 
in choir, and a place and voice in chapter. Being 
a canon he received a prebend, and therefore was 
canon and prebendary. In some cases, however, 
the dignitaries had no prebends, but they were 
canons of course. In one instance at Exeter there 
were some endowed canons without titular pre- 
bends. All canons are nominees of the bishop, and 


g. XI. FEB. 8, 79.] 



dt in the great or collective chapter. At first al 
he canons resided ; then they attended in courses 
it length they volunteered residence. Thus there 
?rew up three classes of canons (1) dignitaries, 
2) canons residentiary, and (3) canons non-resi- 
lent ; the number of the residents depended mainly 
on the expansiveness of the common fund. The 
tenure of a canonry or prebend was an indispens- 
able qualification for a residentiaryship, which 
gave a seat in the small or administrative chapter. 
II. When the conventual cathedrals were dis- 
solved, Norwich was reconstituted exactly on the 
lines of the secular cathedrals, with four digni- 
taries, two prebended canons, and the rest simple 
canons. Hence it does not appear in the first 
scheme of the new cathedrals. What was and is 
their constitution ? They were reformed under a 
dean and a chapter of residentiaries, called pre- 
bendaries, their prebend being a share in the 
common fund. The dignitaries disappeared 
virtually in the office of the dean ; the precentor 
was chosen by the chapter from the minor canons 
(also a new institution), who did not form a 
college, like their namesakes of St. Paul's or the 
vicars of other secular cathedrals ; the sacristan, 
also a minor canon, in an equally shadowy manner 
represented the substantial treasurer. Three 
officers, annually elected out of the residentiaries, 
were called the subdean, treasurer, and receiver or 
steward. There was no qualification for residence, 
there was no body of non-residents, and there was 
no great chapter. Some of the prebendaries were 
appointed by the bishop, some by the Crown or a 
minister of State. 

In addition to the converted cathedrals hitherto 
conventual, six Tudor sees were added: Peter- 
borough, Chester, Westminster, Gloucester (Bene- 
dictine), Bristol, and Oxford or Oseney (Austin 
Canons). They were reconstituted precisely on the 
same lines. Westminster is now merely a " col- 
legiate church," as Southwell and Brecon were. 

The Act of 1840 introduced confusion or ambi- 
guity in its new application of former terms. It 
speaks, indeed, of "non-resident prebends," a 
mere^irony, for they were then disendowed, and 
remain merely as names until they may be again 
endowed ; but it changed the "prebendaries " of 
the New Foundations into "canons" without the 
addition of the important word " residentiary," 
and. in the Old Foundations read "canons" to 
designate canons residentiary, although every 
member of the great chapter is a canon ; at 
Sarurn, York, and Lincoln they have abandoned 
the name of prebendary. 

I hope that this will suffice to clear away the 
difficulties. Before and after the Act of 1840 
there were and are canons and prebendaries in the 
Old Foundations ; from 1540 to 1840 in the New 
Foundations there were prebendaries only, who since 
the latter year are called canons (residentiary). 

The "honorary canons " appointed by the bishop 
are a mere titular creation of the Act of 1840. 
Hitherto the sovereign had been, by a custom 
borrowed from the Continent, the only honorary 
canon at St. David's. Irish cathedrals have canons 
and prebendaries, and therefore no honorary 
canonries ; and Truro cannot have prebendaries 
until the canons have the new prebends en- 

The serious question, when viewed by canon xlii. 
of 1604, is whether the Act of 1840 was designed 
to assimilate the two systems, so as to require no 
preliminary qualification for a residentiaryship in 
a nominee of the diocesan or the Crown. A similar 
proceeding was quashed by the abolition of the 
misused option of former days. 

In the Old Foundations the tradition of a book 
for spirituals and a loaf for temporals was the 
practice at an installation. I received a loaf and 
a small rod as seisin of investiture. 

The appropriation of three residentiaryships at 
St. Paul's to the absolute patronage of the Crown 
in 1840 is a chapter in the secret history of the 
period which I prefer to pass by in silence. 


The notion of a canon losing his canonry, as he 
might lose his hat, in moving from one diocese to 
another may be, as A. J. M. says, " truly comical," 
but it happens to be the present rule in the diocese 
of Sarum. A prebendary, or, as it is now the 
inconvenient fashion to call him, canon non- 
residentiary, if he leaves the diocese has to resign 
his stall in the cathedral, or possibly it becomes 
ipso facto vacant. When this rule was introduced 
I am not aware, but it is of quite recent date, for 
bhere are, I believe, still one or two prebendaries 
Living who were appointed before it was in 
existence. Perhaps one of your correspondents in 
Salisbury would kindly furnish information on the 
subject. R. 

[A. J. M.'s words were "losing his honorary canonry."] 

Every man, even if he be a correspondent of 
" N. & Q.," must dree his own weird, and therefore 
[ cannot complain if some one shall point out that, 
jnder the above heading, I have by implication 
stated that the inflated titles of the Lower Empire 
came into existence since the days of Sydney 
Smith ! I humbly plead, in mitigation of judg- 
ment, that this absurd error of expression revealed 
tself to rne, when too late, without the aid of any 
candid friend. A. J. M. 

SACRAMENTAL WINE (5 th S. x. 328.) I cannot 
>ay what is done anywhere in the present day, but 
'. have never, in the course of my reading, found 
my thing to show that the "earlier Christians were 
n the habit of using a white wine for sacramental 
purposes." They seem to have used the ordinary 



[5<h S. XI. FEB. 8, 79. 

wine of the country,* always mixed with water, 
and from a passage in one of St. Cyprian's letters 
(Ep. Ixii. Ad Ccecilium) one is led to infer that 
it was a coloured wine. Speaking in condemnation 
of some who substituted water for wine, which 
latter, he urges, was symbolical of Christ's blood, 
he says : " Quando autem sanguis uvse dicitur, 
quid aliud quam vinum dominici sanguinis 
ostenditur?"f In support of which he quotes 
Isaiah Ixiii. 2, " Wherefore art thou red in thine 
apparel, and thy garments like him that treadeth 
in the winefat 1 " and asks, " Nunquid rubicunda 
vestimenta aqua facere potest ? aut in torculari aqua 
est, quse pedibus calcatur, et prelo exprimitur ? "J 
clearly intimating, I take it, that in his day the 
eucharistic wine was not white, but red. And no 
one will doubt that Cyprian must be ranked among 
the " earlier Christians," for he lived in the com- 
mencement of the third century, having suffered 
martyrdom A.D. 258. 

Moreover Tertullian, who preceded him by many 
years, commenting on the same passage, writes 
(Adv. Marcion, lib. iv. 41) : 

"Spiritus enim propheticus velut contemplabundus 
Dominem ad passionem venientem, carne scilicet vestitum, 
ut in ea passum, cruentum habitum carnis in vestimen- 
torum rubore designat, conculcatae et expressse vi 
passionis tanquam de foro torcularis ; quia exinde quasi 
cruentati homines de vini rubore descendant." 

Here the rubore, which is also used by Cyprian, 
removes all doubt as to the colour of the wine of 
which they are speaking, and as both Fathers 
apply it to the sacramental wine, it follows as a 
consequence that it was red as used in their 

It has been seen already that water || was by 
some substituted for wine. Others also, we are 
told, used milk, others honey mixed with water, 
others the expressed juice of grapes. I have men- 

* " Videmus in aqua populum intelligi, in vino vero 
ostendi sanguinem Christi. Quando autem in calice vino 
aqua miscetur, Christo populus adunatur" (Cyprian, 
JBpist. Ixii.) "In the water we see the people repre- 
sented, but in the wine the blood of Christ. But when 
the water is mingled with the wine the people are made 
one with Christ." 

f " But when it is called the blood of the grape what 
else is it shown to be but the wine of the Lord's blood 1 ?" 
(sacramental wine). 

I "Can water make garments red? Or is it water 
which in the winefat is trodden down and pressed out 1 ?" 

" For the prophetic Spirit, as if now absorbed with 
the contemplation of the Lord's coming to suffer in the 
flesh, under the figure of reddened garments represents 
him with a body stained with blood, from beirg trampled 
under foot, and crushed, as in a winepress, by the mighty 
power of his sufferings; because men who come out of 
it look as if they had been smeared with blood, by reason 
of the red colour of the wine." 

1| "Miror satis unde hoc usurpatum sit, ut contra 
evangelicam et apostolicam disciplinam quibusdam in 
locis aqua offeratur in dominico calice, quas sola Christi 
sanguinem non possit exprimere" (Cypr., Ep. Ixii.) 
" I wonder indeed whence this custom took its rise that 

ioned this because it strikes me as just possible that 
your correspondent's informant may have mistaken 
some one or other of these practices for the general 
custom of the Church. But it is quite certain that 
none of them prevailed among the orthodox, but 
were universally condemned by them. 

Patching Rectory. 

White wine is commonly used in Tuscany, and 
is known as " vin santo," taking the name from its 
being the usual sacramental wine. In a conversa- 
tion on this custom with the sacristan of S. Pietro- 
in-Casiensis, Perugia, he explained it by the 
fact that most churches have a little vineyard 
attached, and that they naturally used their own 
home-made wine. A friend in Rome sends me 
the following information on this subject, which he 
kindly obtained for me from De Rossi : 

" That the earlier Christians were in the habit of using 
white wine exclusively for sacramental purposes De 
Rossi does not believe, nor is he acquainted with any 
passage in an early writer in which any distinction is 
made between white and red wine for the sacrifice. In, 
the famous painting in the cemetery of S. Lucina, in the 
centre of the basket of bread is placed a vessel contain- 
ing red wine." 

As to the practice of Rome, both red and white 
wine are used for the mass, but a preference is given 
to white, because it stains the corporals and puri- 
ficators less. This is the reason given by St. 
Charles Borromeo for an ordinance issued to his 
clergy in the first provincial Council of Milan 
requiring them to use white wine. The same pre- 
ference for white wine is general over Italy and in 
the East. But it is simply a matter of convenience, 
and when people have no great choice, of wines they 
may probably employ whichever they can best rely 
upon as genuine. What is called white wine has, as 
the Italian white wines mostly have, an amber colour, 
in some cases almost approaching red. There is 
a wine used in some places in France for mass 
almost clear as water. Bishops have sometimes 
forbidden the use of this on account of the danger 
of mistaking the cruets and pouring water into the- 
chalice instead of wine. The conclusion is simply 
that both now and since the beginning of the 
Church white and red wines have been used 
indiscriminately for the celebration of the Eucha- 
rist. The "vin santo" of Tuscany does not 
certainly derive its name from being the only wine 
used for the mass. Probably there is only con- 
jecture for the derivation. Or it may have been 
christened " santo " by some buon temponi like ! 
the man who, getting some of it in an osteria, and j 

in certain places water is offered in the sacramental cup, 
which alone cannot represent the blood of Christ." 

'Y^pOTrapatrraroi Si ovafia^ovTai, a> i)wp arrl 
olvov irpoffQspovTtq (Theodoret. de Fab. Hceret., lib. i. 
c. xx.) "These are named Hydroparosstcdce, because 
they offered water instead of wine." 


S. XL FEB. 8, 79.] 



learing that it was " vin santo," exclaimed, 
' Utinam de isto vino in Paradiso bibatur." 

" It is certain that both the Greek and the Catholic 
Jhurch have always considered the use of red or white 
wine as equally admissible. General opinion tended to 
bhe idea that Jesus used red wine at the last supper. 
That red wine was used in Rome at the beginning of the 
second or third century is evident from the fresco in the 
catacombs of S. Lucina {De Rossi, Roma Sotteranea, 
\. tav. 8 ; Brownlow and Northcote, Roma Sott. ; Kraus, 
Rom. Sott., tafel 8). The heretic Marcus turned white 
eucharistic wine into red by sleight of hand (Irenseus, 
Adv. Hceres, i. 9). In the second century, therefore, 
white wine was certainly used in some places. Several 
diocesan councils of the thirteenth century advocated 
red wine. This was confirmed by the Council of Bene- 
vent, 1374 (tit. vii. 4), and also by the statutes of the 
diocese of Meaux (Martene, Thesaur. Anecdotor, iv. 706). 
On the other hand, the Church of Milan required the 
use of white wine to avoid staining the purificatoria, or 
linen used for cleansing the chalice (Stat. Carlo Borromeo 
in Gavanti, Thesaur., i. 334). See also an episcopal 
statute of Majorca of 1659 to the same effect. In 
northern France and Italy, as well as in all Germany, 
white wine is now generally used ; in Lower Italy, Rome 
included, red wine. For further information on this 
subject vide Augusti, Handbook of Christ. Archceol., 
ii. 687-89; Binterim, Mem. der Cath. Kirche, Mainz, 
1827, torn. iv. 2, p. 469; Gavanti (loco citato}." From 
Prof. Dr. Frz. Xav. Kraus, Freiburg-im-Breisgau, per 

White wine is used in the celebration of mass 
all over the Continent. Any wine that might 
stain the purificatory is everywhere avoided. 
T. W. M. would find any similar question readily 
and kindly solved at the sacristy of any Catholic 
church. H. L. L. G. 

In a note on p. 62 of the first edition of the 
Directorium Anglicanum it is stated that in the 
German Chapel (apparently in London) white wine 
is still used for the Holy Communion. In a church 
in Derbyshire I have been told that it has been 
the invariable practice to mix white and red wine. 


I received the sacrament at Cologne with the 
Lutherans about 1840. White Rhenish wine was 
used. Where is red wine ordered for the Church 
of England? The rubrics say nothing. The 
canons only prescribe " good and wholesome wine." 
The profane reply attributed to the canons of 
Mayence in the guide-books, when " the Pope " 
reproved them for their riotous living, " We have 
more wine than we need for the mass, and not 
enough to turn our mills with," seems to imply 
the use of white, as the red wines are less common 
on the Rhine. P. p. 

S. vii. 55, 143 ; viii. 149, 237 ; 5 th S. x. 370.) 
The portion of my father's journal, still unpub- 
lished, which describes his visit to Ofctery St. 
Mary in 1828, is interesting, not only as showing 

on how slight a foundation one theory of our 
descent from the Haydons of Cadhay rests, but 
also as illustrating his conscientiousness under 
difficult circumstances in the investigation of facts, 
and his extraordinary rashness in the interpretation 
of them. Once in sight of the supposed cradle 
of his race, he does not, as so many merely 
imaginative men would have done, give himself 
up entirely to dreaming over the family tradition, 
even in the magnified form, in which it presented 
itself to his memory, nor to wandering about 
Cadhay House and wailing over the loss of that 
beautiful and venerable residence. Some natural 
regret he feels and records ; but it is soon set 
aside, and he goes resolutely to work, like the 
dullest paid pedigree-hunter, at parish registers, 
tombstones, and tablets. He ferrets out the oldest 
inhabitants (apparently confining himself, very 
sensibly, to persons of good position), and records 
all he gets from them for future use. On his 
return to London he spends two days out of his 
scanty leisure in the Prerogative Office, and looks 
up the wills of the last Haydons of Cadhay. He 
writes to Exeter for those of others of the same 
name, and, finding nothing to his purpose in any, 
the matter drops out of notice in his diary, and his 
versatile and inexhaustible activity attacks some 
new subject. 

As- far as he proceeded in his researches my 
father pursued the right path ; and but for want 
of leisure, and a very excusable ignorance of sources 
of genealogical information other than parish 
registers, monumental inscriptions, and wills, he 
would, without doubt, have collected facts sufficient, 
if correctly interpreted, to have enabled him to 
anticipate all the results at which I have since 
arrived, and which have been already published in 
the pages of " N. & Q." He did not, however, 
go far enough to be able to disprove the story of 
Mrs. Fuge's aunt, which was, indeed, in a magnified 
form, the base of his genealogical operations. Pity 
that, like Blucher in the Waterloo campaign, he 
did not voluntarily cut himself off from it altogether. 
The result would have been, as in that case, a de- 
cisive victory over a great sham. I have said that 
my father accepted this story in a magnified form. 
As originally recorded by Mrs. Fuge (May 30, 
1815) it runs as follows : " I recollect often hearing 
my aunt [one of Robert Haydon's sisters] say that 
ler father was in possession of the estate of 
Cadhay." In his journal my father quotes this 
statement as follows : " Mrs. Fuge, my father's 
sister, remembers her aunt (my grandfather's sister) 
saying that she (her aunt) told her (Mrs. Fuge) 
that she remembered her father (consequently my 
great-grandfather) in possession of the estate ! " 

This version of the statement of Robert Haydon's 
sister, which has been adopted by other members of 
my family, of course places our descent from, the 
Saydons of Cadhay on a much more solid founda- 



5< h S. XI. FEB. 8, '79. 

tion than the statement itself, as recorded by Mrs. 
Fuge, does. The assertion that we remember a 
state of things as existent is much stronger evidence 
than the mere assertion that the state of things did 
exist. The two are so obviously distinct that one 
might justifiably wonder how they could ever have 
been confounded in the memory of any human 
being if one did not know, as matter of common 
experience, how very inaccurately the contents of 
written documents are often described in the absence 
of the documents themselves. The first of the two 
assertions is, of course, direct testimony to the 
existence of the state of things in question, and its 
value depends on the trustworthiness of the person 
who makes it. The second may also be founded 
on direct observation, but it may rest on hearsay 
of the extremest tenuity, it may be an unwarrant- 
able inference from an unsifted statement, "the 
hare-brained chatter of irresponsible frivolity," or 
a mere haphazard guess ; and so long as the grounds 
on which it is made are not stated its value cannot 
be estimated, except, indeed, by those who know 
well the character of the person by whom it has 
been made. In some cases the silence of that 
person as to the grounds of the statement is 
extremely suspicious, and may throw considerable 
doubt on the statement itself. Now, the statement 
we are dealing with was made not once, but often, 
in the hearing of Mrs. Fuge. Yet Mrs. Fuge does 
not say that on any one of the occasions on which 
it was made her aunt told her how she came by the 
knowledge of her father's " possession " of Gadhay. 
Mrs. Fuge was a very accurate person, and would 
have been naturally anxious to state the case as 
strongly as the facts allowed. We may, therefore, 
reasonably conclude that the grounds of the state- 
ment were never vouchsafed to her by her aunt. 
Of the aunt's character as a witness nothing is 
known independently of the case with which we 
are concerned. All we know is that her statement 
is utterly inconsistent with a legitimate connexion 
between the Haydons, possessors of Cadhay, and 
Robert Haydon, the parish clerk, and that an 
illegitimate connexion is extremely improbable, 
though not quite impossible. We also know that 
Robert himself " cared very little about " his sister's 
assertions in reference to his descent. 

Misled by his memory into the belief that his 
great-aunt remembered what she only asserted, my 
father, of course, came to the natural conclusion 
that his grandfather, Robert Haydon, was a son of 
one of the possessors of Cadhay ; and accepting as 
a fact Mrs. Fuge's suggestion that the possessor in 
question must have " spent the estate," he further 
concluded that the said possessor must have been 
the last possessor. Up to 1828 he had believed 
this last possessor, correctly enough, to have been 
a Gideon, though without any reason. He now 
came to the conclusion, but incorrectly, that the 
last possessor was a Robert, with just as little. In 

the register of burials at Ottery St. Mary he dis- 
covered the entry of the burial of a Robert Hay- 
don on October 8, 1757. He decided at once 
that this Robert was his great-grandfather, 
without a scrap of evidence that this was the case. 
Below the copy of the register of Robert's burial 
and under his name he draws out , a pedigree in 
which the ancestor is this Robert, and carries it 
through four descents, ending in my name, the 
intermediate links being his own grandfather, 
father, and himself. And he repeats the state- 
ments in this pedigree more definitely afterwards. 
It is followed by this curious bit of comment : 
" This is the exact pedigree, but I must decidedly 
find out the name of my great-grandfather ; till 
that is done I can't prove, though I know and 
have no doubt of, its correctness." How could this 
be the " exact pedigree " if he did not know (and 
he never discovered it) the name of his great- 
grandfather? A few lines lower down we have 
" Robert Haydon was undoubtedly my great-grand- 
father," followed by a repetition of the pedigree 
just mentioned ; and lower down still, " I am the 
direct descendant of the last possessor if this be 
Robert Haydon I shall soon see : but Robert or 
not, I am the descendant, whatever he was called." 
Shortly afterwards he appears to have applied to 
his aunt, Mrs. Fuge, for information about this 
newly discovered " great-grandfather " Robert, who 
died in 1757. Her reply, dated "Bath, Sept. 25, 
1828," pretty clearly shows that she knew nothing 
about him : 

" I cannot make out who Robt. Haydon could be who 
died, as you say, in 1757. I think he must have been my 
great-uncle, as my father died 1773, and was born iu 

1714 1 do not know my grandfather's name, but 

I think it must have [been] Gideon, as he [i.e. Gideon] 
was living and in possession of Cadhay at the time Prince 

published his Worthies of Devon in 1701 Prince 

says that Gideon Haydon the elder, whom I take to be 
my grandfather, * parted with Cadhay to Gideon, his 
eldest son.' The elder Gideon may have had a younger 
son named Robert, who may be the Robert about whom 
you inquire." 

On the very day on which this most unsatisfac- 
tory but thoroughly honest letter was written, 
another, an official one, was addressed to my father 
from Exeter, containing what was really a proof 
that the Robert Haydon he had assumed to be his 
great-grandfather had died without issue. Yet to 
this day my father's groundless assumption, thus 
proved to be erroneous, is actually accepted by 
many members of my family as perfectly correct. 
For example, I possess a copy, made by my sister, 
of a wonderful production intended for our pedi- 
gree, in which the great-grand-paternity of this 
Robert is set down as a fact on the authority of 
a MS. note in my father's Prayer Book, " in his 
own handwriting," as if the insertion of a mere 
guess, and a refuted guess, in a Prayer Book con- 
verted it into a truth. The note is simply a re- 


S. XI. FEB. 8, 79.] 



issertion of the statements which I have quote< 
'rom the diary for 1828, and is followed by th 
<rery portion of the official letter from Exete 
vvhich proved them to be false, with the raagnifie< 
version of Mrs. Fuge's aunt's story, &c., the whol 
being signed by my father ! 

I need not add anything more, I presume, t 
show that my father's conscientious labour wa 
entirely thrown away. He set to work at the righ 
kind of facts, and worked at them vigorously an 
honestly. But he did not know how to use them 
and he simply jumped at the few conclusions on 
which he alighted. It is still a question, I believe 
with the art critics whether he succeeded as i 
painter, whether he was merely "West plu 
Fuseli," or something higher. Whatever be th 
final conclusion of the omniscient and infallibl 
" gentlemen who have failed in the fine arts," i 
is quite clear that he did not succeed as his own 
genealogist. It is pleasant, however, to be abL 
to add that, so late as 1841, in a correspondenci 
with Samuel Haydon, Esq. (the father of the well 
known sculptor of that name), he honestly con 
fessed his uncertainty as to who his great-grand 
father was and whence he came. In the publishec 
autobiography, however, he says positively that his 
father was a lineal descendant of the Haydons o: 
Cadhay, though in the MS. he gives a more exact 
account of the grounds of this statement in the 
words, written in 1843, "He [his father] always 
maintained to me he knew himself to be the linea 
descendant " of the same family. How his father 
knew this does not appear. To show the uncertainty 
of my relatives as to the exact nature of the con- 
nexion between us and these Cadhay Haydons, ] 
may add that from 1815 to 1875 no less than eight 
or nine different accounts of it have been given by 
one or other of them in writing, all of which are 
in my possession. In the case of the real represen- 
tatives, the living descendants of the Rev. Thomas 
Haydon, only brother of Gideon, the last possessor 
of Cadhay, the evidence is perfectly satisfactory. 
I examined it some years since. The statements 
of the family are quite consistent, on the whole, 
with the facts otherwise ascertained of the case, 
and I have independently verified them in many 
instances. An ancient pedigree, drawn up by 
Camden in 1604, on which the Haydon pedigree 
in the Devon Visitation of 1620 is founded, is still 
in their possession. I examined it in 1873 with 
great interest. FRANK SCOTT HAYDON. 

Merton, Surrey. 

YATELEY, HANTS (5 th S. x. 307, 475 ; xi. 31, 
91.) MR. PICTON contests my position that gate, 
a way or street, is radically distinct from gate or 
gate, an entrance or doorway, and supposes, if I 
understand him right, that they are merely dif- 
ferent applications of one fundamental form, which 
might be pronounced either gate or (with the 

aspirate initial represented by the letter 3) $ate, 
passing into yate, with the sense of going in 
general. In process of time two modifications of 
meaning emerged, viz., first, a continued going, 
and thence a way or road ; and, secondly, a going 
through, and thence the opening of an enclosure, 
a portal, and ultimately the door by which passage 
through it is permitted or refused. For the con- 
venience of distinction the form $ate or yate was 
in certain dialects appropriated to the second of 
the foregoing significations, while gate, a way or 
road, like the verb go, from which it sprang, 
always preserved the initial g. 

The only principle to which I should demur in 
such an explanation is the doctrine of a general 
power of interchange between an initial g and the 
obsolete 3 and y. I believe that an original 3 may 
pass into g, but not conversely an original g, as in 
go, into 3 and y in the derivatives. But without 
arguing that question, I submit that the balance 
of probability is greatly in favour of the deriva- 
tion of A.-S. geat, E. $ate, yate, gate, and the 
corresponding forms in the Low German and 
Scandinavian dialects, from A.-S. geotan, O.E. 
yeoten, jeten, ^oten, Sc. yete, Pl.D. geten, O.N. 
gjota, to pour. In support of this etymology I 
have shown that in the fourteenth century gate, 
a way, and %ate, a portal, were clearly distin- 
guished, and were repeatedly used to rhyme with 
each other. The Promptorium has, " Gate or 
way, via, iter. Gate or 3ate (yate, P.), porta, 
foris, janua." And it seems to me a very natural 
process to signify the outlet of an enclosure, or 
the gate by which the inhabitants of a town pass 
forth into the open, by comparison with the orifice 
by which the contents of a vessel are poured out : 
" London doth pour out her citizens." 

Hen. V. 

The connexion with the idea of pouring is still 
closer in Pl.D. gat, the mouth of a river by which 
it pours into the sea, also any narrow passage of 
waters ; Du. gat, the mouth of a harbour. Yet 
there can be no doubt that these are identical 
with O.Du. gat, a gate, or with the modern sense 
of a hole or perforation. Nor is there any ground 
for MR. PICTON'S difficulty in supposing that 
gate, " with the open a sound," can be derived 
Tom the same verb with goit, gowt, a watercourse, 
gout, a drop, with " the close o or u sound." The 
Bremish Dictionary observes that in some of the 
nflections of the verb geten, to pour, the e changes 
;o a, in others to o or u. We need not be sur- 
prised, then, at finding a like variety of vowels in 
he derivatives ; and thus we have gate, a spout 
ir gutter, a vessel for pouring ; steen-gate, the 
ink of a kitchen, as well as gate, a downpour ; 
iite, the spout or lip of a vessel, or, like gate, a 
essel for pouring. The office of a, flood-gate is to 
egulate the flow of waters, either by restraining 
r allowing their outpour. The corresponding 



XI. FEB. S, 79. 

term, in 0. Swedish, flodgjuta, from gjuta, to pour, 
shows how naturally -gate, in the E. compound, 
might be derived from a like source. 

31, Queen Anne Street. 

xi. 95.) In response to DR. INGLEBY'S appeal 
relative to Scott's edition of Shakespeare, I send 
the following account : 

"In the recent life of Archibald Constable, the Edin- 
burgh publisher, precise information is given, it is 
thought for the first time, that Sir Walter Scott, in con- 
junction with Lockhart, contemplated the publication of 
an edition of Shakespeare. The plan seemed to have 
been suggested in a letter from Constable to Scott, 
February, 1822, asking for an edition in twelve or four- 
teen volumes, with readable and amusing notes, having 
an introductory volume to contain the life, &c., and the 
suggestion was accompanied by the intimation that there 
was only one individual for such a work. Scott took the 
hint, and in reply acknowledged the necessity for a 
'sensible Shakespeare,' but thought that it would require 
more time and patience than he had, and was too sure to 
disappoint expectation, if his name was connected with 
it. He became gradually more inclined to it, ' with my 
son Lockhart's assistance for the fag,' and it seemed 
finally to be determined that Scott's labour should be 
mostly confined to the introductory volume, which was 
to appear last. The only other mention is under date ol 
September 20, 1825, when Constable informs Scott that 
' Sbakespeare is getting on.' Constable's son adds that 
' three volumes of the edition were completed before the 
sad crisis in 1826, but then laid aside ; and ultimately, 
I have been told, the sheets were sold in London as waste 
paper! It is even doubted whether one copy be now in 

" The account of the Barton collection, which was 
printed fifteen years ago, contained the earliest public 
mention, it is believed, of the supposition that Scott ever 
engaged in such a work, which this life of Constable now 
renders certain. These later corroborative statements 
give a peculiar interest to the volumes which are now ir 
the Boston Public Library, and which are perhaps the 
only ones of the edition now in existence. They wer 
printed in Edinburgh by James Ballantyne & Co., an 
constitute volumes second, third, and fourth of an octav 
edition. They have no title-pages, no general introduction 
and but brief ones of a page or two to each play, the 
second containing Two Gentlemen of Verona, Comedy o 
Errors, Love's Labour Lost, and Merchant of Venice; thi 
third. Midsummer Night's Dream, Taming of the Shrew 
As You Like It, and Much Ado about Nothing ; th 
fourth, Merry Wives of Windsor, Measure for Measurt 
All's Well that Ends Well, and Twelfth Night. Th 
notes at the foot of the page seem to be derived from th 
ordinary sources. Love's Labour Lost has at the en 
' Notes concerning the Character of Holofernea.' 

" On a fly-leaf of volume two is a memorandum, signe 
by T. Rodd, the well-known London bookseller, wit' 
whom Mr. Barton had constant dealings, in which it i 
stated that he (Rodd) bought the volumes at a sale )i 
Edinburgh, in the catalogue of which they were entere 
as Shakespeare's works, edited by Sir Walter Scott an 
Lockhart, volumes two, three, and four, all printed 
un^q^ie. The memorandum continues : ' That Scot 
entertained the design of editing Shakespeare, I kno 
from A. Constable, who mentioned it to me more tha 
once ; and I sent him a little book of memoranda fo 
Scott's use, but as he, Constable, informed me, it neve 

eached him. The bankruptcies of Scott and Constable 
revented the completion of the work. The book has 

marks of Scott's usual inaccuracies, as I find on casually 
pening these volumes.... Scott is perhaps the most faulty 
nd careless of writers, unless it be T. F. Dibdin. It is 
ardly saying too much of either of them to assert that a 
ross mistake might be found in every page issued by 
ither of them.' 

There is also contained in the volumes a memorandum 
y a friend of Mr. Barton's, showing that, at the time it 
s supposed Scott was engaged upon this editing work, he 

was also giving other indications of his interest in Shake- 
peare in writing, at presumably an even date, namely, 
i his History ot Scotland, a detailed historical account 
f Macbeth's story, with a reference to the incorrect tale 
f the dramatist ; and, in his Saint Ronan's Well, a full 
ketch of an amateur representation of Midsummer 
Night's Dream. 
"It may be added that neither Bohn, Allibone, nor 

Thimm, in their Shakespearian bibliographies, makes 
,ny mention of this work ; nor have the authorities of 
he Shakespeare Memorial Library at Birmingham, in 
heir more recent eiforts to enumerate every edition that 
lelps make a complete list of those in English, given any 
ndicationof a knowledge of its existence. Boston Daily 
Advertiser, March 21, 1874." From Bulletin No. 29, 
April, 1874, Boston Pub. Library. 

JUSTIN WINSOR, Librarian. 
Harvard University, U.S. 

THE HARRISONS OF NORFOLK (3 rd S. vi. 274 ; 
5 th S. vi. 174, 196; x. 175,212, 270.) Elizabeth,* 
wife of Matthew Harrison, mentioned in the 
foot-note at 5 th S. x. 212, died June 15, 1749. 
The issue of this marriage, all born at Rollesby, 
were : Elizabeth, born April 1, 1697 ; Ann, boi 
May 14, 1698, died May 1, 1699, and buried there : 
William, born Oct. 12, 1699 (he occupied " Gi 
Harrison's farm," at Caister, from before the tii 
of his marriage there with Elizabeth Humpfrej 
Aug. 2, 1730, died March 16, 1764, and was buna 
there, as was also his widow, Dec. 16, 1778) ; Mary, 
born Oct. 17, 1701 ; Ann, born April 24, 1703, died 
June 23, same year, and was buried at Rollesby ; 
Matthew Harrison, of Hemsby, farmer, born 
May 12, 1704, and died at Caister, July 30, 1755, 
at which time he owned a "hoy " called the Horn- 
ing Maid. He married at Strumpshaw, Sept. 30, 

1732, Ann, dau. of John and Elizabeth Newell, of 
Hemsby, who was born there Aug. 28, 1711, died 
Oct. 27, 1776, and both were buried there. Gregory, 
born Jan. 30, 1706, died March 31, 1762, was also 
buried there. Jane Crome bore him a natural son, 
March 25, who was baptized as such at Hemsby in 

1733, but described as Gregory Harrison, not 

* She was own sister to Mr. William Randall, " a very 
rich merchant of Yarmouth," who in 1700, at the age of 
thirty -six years, was at Caister united in wedlock to SUSAN 
Peak (a kinswoman of the Harrisons), whose father 
and brothers, with their connexions the Bells, Sowels, 
Mayes, Fieldings, Smyths, and Nuthalls, were residents 
of that parish, and thus originated the Christian name of 
SUSAN, first Countess of Rosebery. Hester Randall, then 
of the High Street, Cambridge, spinster, was married at 
Caister to John Brown, Esq., of Gt. "Yarmouth, widower, 
July 6, 1707. 


S. XI. FEB. 8, 79.] 



< 3rome. Of him there is no trace, hut the will o 
Gregory Harrison of Palling, at which place 
branch of the family had settled, was proved a 
Norwich in 1757. 

The above Greg Harrison, of Caister, was pro 
bably a son of Gregorie Harryson, of Gt. Yarmouth 
"herrynge ffisher," who was the fourth of five son 
of Symon Harryson, of Filby, by Margaret Speed 
his "after" wife, and was born there March 1, 1579 
Greg married at Caister, April 26, 1638, Elizabeth 
dau. of Squire Jaferis,* died Dec. 29, 1668, an 
was buried at the steeple end, next the bones o 
"mother" Maria Haryson, who died May 15 
1611, and who is recorded to have spun her own 
winding-sheet from flax of her planting upon he 
own land at Stratton Strawless. She had an in 
come of two score and twelve pounds fourteen 
shillings and four pence from land at Hardingham 
in which parish she was an " outsetter." 

There were also married at Caister : Alyce Harry 
son to Kobert Ovington, Sept. 26, 1579. (He died 
July 16, 1595, and was buried there the daj 
following. Issue : Eichard, Thomas, Peter, and 
James Ovington, born there in 1587, 1588, 1591 
and about 1594 respectively. The two former, wh< 
died in infancy, were also buried there.) Anthony 
Harrysonf and Elizabeth Earchard, Feb. 10, same 
year'; Grace Harryson to Henry Barker^ July 3, 
1588 ; Bridgetfc Harrison, widow, to Thomas 
Haswell, Nov. 30, 1682 ; Rowland Harrison|| to 
his kinswoman Deborah Owner, of Gt. Yarmouth, 
March 22, same year ; Hannah HarrisonlF to 
Joseph Page, Oct. 13, 1692 ; and Anne Harrison 
to James Eiches, of Crorner, March 26, 1731. 

* William, son of John and Elizabeth Jaferis, was 
born at Caister in 1634, so the squire must have died 
between that time and Feb. 7, 1637, when his "widow" 
died, and is recorded to have been buried there. 

f He had children, Margaret, Ann, and Elizabeth, 
born of this marriage between 1580-86 at Gt. Yarmouth 
where he died and was buried, Sept. 16, 1588. 

I Anthony Harryson, Rector of Catfield, married their 
dau. Emm. Barker in 1620. See printed paper, one 
hundred copies of which were published at Great Yar- 
mouth by Mr. J. Hargrave Harrison in 1872. 

She was the widow of Nicholas Harryson, of Gt. 
Yarmouth, merchant, whose will, although stated to have 
been proved at Norwich between 1673 and 1681, cannot 
be found. The issue of the said Nicholas, all born at 
Gt. Yarmouth between 1662 and 1673, were Ann, Mary, 
Joseph, John, and Rose. 

|| He became a brewer at Gt. Yarmouth, at which 
place there were born of this marriage : Edmund in 1684 
.Elizabeth, 1685; Jane, 1688; Miles, 1693; Deborah 1696- 
Rowland, 1697 ; also Rowland and Deborah, born 1687 
a89, who died in infancy. Deborah Owner was one 
of the two daurs. of that name of Mr. Edward Owner, 
ot Gt. Yarmouth, by Elizabeth, his first wife, and was 
born about 1664 ; she was also a granddau. of Ralf Owner 
town clerk there, and grandniece of Edward Owner! 
usq M.P., whose wife, as before stated, was also a 

f She was one of the three daurs. of John Harrison 
and Margaret his wife, dau. of Pearce, and grand- 

The issue of the previously named William and 
Elizabeth Harrison, of Caister, all bom there, were 
William, born Sept. 8, 1732, died June 1, 1735, 
and buried there ; John, born July 21, 1734 ; 
Mary, born June 10, 1736, died July 20, 1754, 
and buried there ; Hannah, born Aug. 10, 1738, 
married there Jan. 24, 1769, to Henry Kettle, of 
" Westend farm," Caister : Eobert, born Jan. 20, 

The before-mentioned Matthew and Ann Harri- 
son had issue, all born at Hemsby : Mary Ann, 
born March 31, 1734 ; Elizabeth, buried there the 
year of her birth, 1736 ; Matthew, born Dec. 20, 
1737, and died Jan. 6, 1801 (he married there, 
Nov. 1, 1767, Mary Green [of the Southtown 
family], who died Sept. 1, 1774, and both were 
buried there);** John, born Dec. 22, 1741; 
William, born Nov. 24, 1743, married at Gt. Yar- 
mouth Mary Florence, also born 1743 (they both 
died in 1820, he March 28, she April 1, and were 
interred together in vault at Martham) ; Elizabeth, 
born Feb. 18, 1746 ; Sarah, born Dec. 20, 1749, 
married at Hemsby to John Mason, Gent., Nov. 13, 
1769 ; and Eandal Harrison, of Chipstead, in Kent, 
born July 15, 1753, and buried at Martham, 
Gt. Yarmouth. 

(To le continued.) 

49.) Alas ! I am not a woman, and therefore 
annot venture to describe these dainties in terms 
f the culinary art. Moreover, I never fed on 
primrose pasty, having never visited its habitat in 
spring. But it is made of primrose petals, con- 
cocted, I have every reason to believe, after the 
same fashion as mint pasty, which I have tasted, 
ind hope to taste again. Now, mint pasty is con- 
zocted on this wise : first catch your mint, then 
?hop it small and mix it with brown sugar (but 
lot, I think, with vinegar) and a little salt, as if 
7 on were going to make mint sauce ; then spread 
t, in a layer perhaps half an inch thick, on a disc 
>f light rich paste, rolled thin, and about the size 
f a dinner plate ; then lay atop of it another such 
disc, pressing the two together all round the edge, 
o that the mint may be fully sandwiched between ; 

au. of John and Margaret Harrison, all of Kemsby, and 
ad a son John Page, a sister Ann, who married William 
'rior, and a sister Sarah, who married a Fendick, of 
horn hereafter. 

** They were the parents of Mary, wife of Wm. 
hapman (she married at Caister Oct. 22, 1793, and 
ied 1817, aged 52); also of Matthew Harrison, of 
armouth, born March, 1771, married Aug. 23, 1795, 
arah, dau. of John Robinson of that place, died 
une 12, 1844, and buried at Yarmouth, as was also 
is wife, who died Feb. 19, 1843 ; of whose issue Matthew 
andal Harrison married May 2, 1820, Elizabeth Bell ; 
arah, April 5, 1829, to Thos. Humphries ; and Mary, 
pril 12, 1835, to Robt. Tobias Johnson, all of Great 



[5 th S. XI. FEB. 8, 79. 

then prick a few holes in the upper disc with a 
fork ; then bake the pasty crisply in the oven, and 
serve it hot or cold. It is an excellent and 
refreshing dish at luncheon, and may be recom- 
mended to vegetarians of good memory as afford- 
ing a delightful reminiscence of roast lamb. 

H. A. B. speaks of these as Lancashire dishes, 
but the land I attempted to describe is not Lan- 
cashire ; it is the Border, the March, of Lancashire 
and Yorkshire, belonging geographically to York- 
shire and to Craven, but holding itself as a land 
that is apart. " When wa gan ower yon hills 'at 
yo've coom fra," said John o' Wellhead to me, 
" wa ca'n it ' gawin inte Craaven.' " A. J. M. 

This old Lancashire dish is made precisely like 
an ordinary pasty, except that it is filled with 
mint instead of meat or preserves. The mint 
should be chopped up fine and mixed with a little 
sugar. HETTIE F. 

DEVON PROVINCIALISMS (5 th S. xi. 6.) The 
provincialisms recorded by MR. W. K. W. CHAFY- 
CHAFY must be familiar to every resident in Corn- 
wall and Devonshire, with perhaps the exception 
of " Pleas t' have," which is chiefly heard in the 
north-east of the latter county. The orthography 
he uses in some of the words represents no pronun- 
ciation I have ever heard. My experience would 
have led me t0 write vitty, not viddy; thicky or 
thecky,* not theggy ; wisht, not whisht ; and slock, 
not slog. WM. PENGELLT. 


The following provincialisms, noted down a few 
years ago in the neighbourhood of Lydford, may be 
deemed worthy a corner in " N. & Q." : Butt= 
a cart ; theJcky #&ere that there ; Hain't you 
swish ? =How smart you are ! Can any of your west 
of England readers tell me in what the " white 
ale " differs from the ordinary ale ? The beverage 
in question is greatly patronized by the farm 
labourers in and around Tavistock, doubtless on 
account of its cheapness. G. PERRATT. 

514.) During a residence at Shrewsbury I learnt 
the following as regards these names from re- 
sidents in the town. Mardol, in Welsh, means 
beautiful valley. Wyle Cop is the caput or head 
of the Wyle Hill. Shoplatch takes its name from 
the sheep-l&tch or pen formerly standing there. The 
meaning of Dana is said to be unknown ; whilst 
Bellstone is so called from a stone found there, and 
now preserved near its original position in the pre- 
mises of the National Provincial Bank. Dogpole 
is said to be a corruption of duck-pool, but query, 
as the street so named is steeply inclined. Besides 
these, Murivance (near the town walls), Abbey 

The th is pronounced as in than, not as in thin. 

Foregate, Castle Foregate, Frankwell, The Quarry 
'a shady walk by the Severn), Whitehall, Kings- 
land, are interesting names. 

Grammar School, Woodbridge. 

BETH (5 th S. x. 226, 335.) May I be per- 
mitted to say that bayes, or, as it was frequently 
called, bay, was not quite our modern baize, but 
was thicker and warmer ? Colchester was famous 
for its manufacture. Bombacyes is no doubt the 
same as bombast, which was a species of light loose 
wadding used as a lining, to give articles of attire 
a fashionable and extravagant degree of pro- 
tuberance, and from this the word now used, but 
differently applied, has been derived. Shake- 
speare has, "As bombast, and as lining to the 
time." NATIVE. 

GRIST-MILLS (5 th S. xi. 8.) Grain-rubbers, con- 
sisting of two stones rubbed against each other, 
are supposed to have been the most primitive 
implement used in Ireland for the manufacture of 
cereal food. Querns, small stone hand-mills, were 
an improvement on the rubbers, and were used 
from a very early date up to the thirteenth century, 
when they were prohibited by Act of Parliament, 
passed in the interest of the owners of water-mills. 
In remote districts, however, their use has been 
carried on till recent times. Water-mills, it 
appears from historical notices, were in use in 
Ireland before the introduction of Christianity. 
Cormac mac Art, King of Ireland in the third 
century, sent across the sea for a millwright, who 
constructed a mill on the stream of Nith, at Tara. 
Tigernach, a writer of the early annals of Ireland, 
under the year A.D. 651, has the following passage: 
"The two sons ofBlamac, son of Hugh Slaine, viz. 
Donchad and Conall, were mortally wounded by 
the Lagenians in Maelodran's Mill." While 
speaking of corn-mills, I may mention that there 
was formerly in this town a corn -mill owned 
by the lord of the manor, and that in old leases I 
granted here there was an injunction on tenants i 
to bring their corn to the manor mill to be ground. 
I can find no reference to A.D. 214 as given in the 1 
Tablet of Memory. H. ALLINGHAM. 


To "POOL" (5 th S. x. 368, 503 ; xi. 55.) ST. j 
SWITHIN is too ingenious. To pool traffic is when : 
two or more companies agree to pay their net ' 
profits to a common fund (or pool), and to divide j 
the total among them according to some system 
agreed on beforehand. The term is, I think, only j 
used in America. H. L. 0. i 

A SURVIVAL (5 th S. xi. 6.) My friend^ ME. 
PENGELLY must have been more successful in his 
labours for civilizing his neighbours than in pre- 1 

5> S. XI. FEB. 8, 79.] 



s jrving their folk-lore. Police magistrates can te 
t lat in this metropolis pseudo-gipsies " rule th 
jlanets" still. The man with the birds wa 
endeavouring to keep on the safe side of the law. 

BENJAMIN DISRAELI, 1788 (5 tb S. xi. 23.) 
0. S. K. may be glad to be referred to 5 th S. v 
136, where I have made mention of the death an 
burial of this Benjamin Disraeli. ABHBA. 

ROOT="CAT" (5 th S. x. 514.) A cat is formed 
by a species of grass closely allied to couchgrass 
It grows with most inconvenient luxuriance anc 
rapidity in the stone watercourses near Bath, wher 
four flags of oolite are used as always " handy, 
whereas pipes must be bought. A " cat" will grow 
to the size of a child's head, and is of a colour re 
sembling twine, with an infinity of fibres. Wha 
is the generic name ? THUS. 

ST. BERNARD'S DYING SONG (5 th S. xi. 49.) 
The words sought for are well known in every 
Roman Catholic family. They constitute one o 
the hymns chanted at Vespers on the Second Sun 
day after the Epiphany. The words of the firs 
verse are as follows : 

" Jesu dulcis memoria 

Dans vera cordis gaudia ; 

Sed super mel et orania 

Ejus dulcis praesentia." 

There is a translation of the hymn in English 
and its opening lines are these : 

" Jesus, the only thought of thee 

With sweetness fills my breast ; 
But sweeter far it is to see 

Arid on thy beauty feast." 

There are few Roman Catholic Prayer Books 
that dp not contain the original or the translation, 
and either can be procured upon application to 
Burns & Gates, the Catholic publishers in Portman 
Street, Portman Square. WM. B. MACCABE. 

LYSIENSIS (4 th S. v. 435, 516; vi. 344, 427 
514 ; 5 th S. xi. 67.) Referring to OrUs Latinus, 
the only Latin Lycia in Europe is Lechfeld, near 
Augsburg, in Bavaria. It was called Lyciorum 
Campus. As Lechfeld has not been suggested in 
any of the preceding communications, it may be 
the place of which MR. DIXON has been in search. 

"SMOTHERED IN THE LODE," &c. (5 th S viii 
408, 433 ; ix. 74 ; x. 273.) " Lode," under the 
last of these references, is properly explained as 

synonymous with drain." Many of the fen lodes 
were as wide and deep as canals. When, in 1851, 
I gave the history, with pen and pencil, in the 
Illustrated London News, of the drainage of 
Whittlesea-mere, I had occasion to use this word 

lode ' ; but the printer did not understand it, 
and my sketch of "Reed-stacks by the Holme 

Lode" appeared in the pages of the journal as 
" the Holme Lodge." The lode there represented 
was filled in with earth, and all traces of it 
destroyed from that spot to the Great Northern 
Railway, and where the reed-stacks stood Mr. 
Wells has built a lodge to his residence Holme- 
wood. The printer's error was, therefore, pro- 

DERIVATION OF "HUGUENOT" (5 th S. ii. 306, 
433 ; iii. 130 ; iv. 5, 171 ; x. 113, 215, 276 ; xi. 
51.) So many notices have already appeared on 
the derivation and history of this word, that our 
editor may deem his space to have been sufficiently 
taken up by the subject. One of the best autho- 
rities, however, appears to have been overlooked. 
The clearest and most acceptable explanation 
seems to be that given by Henri Estien, in his 
" Avertissement." I extract it from a copy of the 
fac-simile reprint made in 1860 by Mr. R. S. 
Turner : 

Sur quoy i'allegueray pour vn exemple fort familier, 
ce 'mot Hvgvenot, qui trotte tant auiourdhuy par la 
bouche de plusieurs : & a grand' peine de cinq cens qui 
en vsent, les einq sgauroyent-ils dire dont il est venu. 
le laisseray ceux qui pensent que ce soit quelque mot 
Allemand, ou pris de quelque autre pays estrange: & 
viendray a ceux qui pensent parler plus pertinemment, 
& en redre quelque bonne raison. Les vns croyent qu'il 
vient de loannes Hus, les autres tiennet pour seur qu'il 
a son origine de Hugues Capet. Les autres disent qu'il 
est pris d'vn nomme Hugues, en la maison duquel ou 
commaga a prescher secrettemefc a Tours, mais les autres 
maintiennent que c'estoit le prescheur qui auoit ce nom. 
Aucuns disent que Hugues du nom duquel a este forge ce 
mot Huguenot, estoit vn fol courafc les rues en quelque 
ville de Frace. Il-y-a encores vn' opinio qui est la moins 
diuulguee, & qui toutes fois est la vraye : c'est que ce 
not Huguenot est pris du roy Huguon, qui vaut autanfc 
a dire & Tours qu'a Paris le Moine bourre. Et celuy qui 
de Huguon deriua Huguenot, fut vn moine, qui en vn 
)resche qu'il faisoit la, reprochant aux Lutheriens 
ainsi qu'on les appeloit lors) qu'ils ne faisoyent 1'exercice 
de leur religion que de nuict, dit qu'il les falloit dore- 
enauant appeler Huguenots, comme parens du roy 
luguon, en ce qu'ils n'alloyent que de nuict non plus 
[ue luy. Que si il est tant malaise de trouuer la verite 
.'vne chose qui est no seulement de notre temps, mais 
de fraische memoire, nous deuos-nous tant formalizer 
>our des circostances de quelques faicts dont la memoire 
st ia presque perdue, combiequ'ils soyent auenus seule- 
nent vn peu deuant nostre temps, ou bien mesmes en 
celuy 1 " 

H. S. A. 

DERIVATION or " SAUNTERER " (5 th S. x. 246, 
36.) Cannot the " sitt santering alone" given 
)y MR. FURNIVALL be connected with the French 
" sante, sanitaire " ? RALPH N. JAMES. 

Ashford, Kent. 

JACK MITFORD (5 th S. ix. 509 ; x. 54.) K. D. 
will find a very interesting account of him, and of 
le charming valley of the Wansbeck, near Mor- 
Deth, where he was born, in vol. ii. of a delightful 
)ook, Howitt's Visits to Remarkable Places, ori- 



[5" S. XL FEB. 8, 79. 

ginally published in 1841. The chapter containing 
it is entitled " A Visit to Morpeth and Mitford." 
Allibone's Dictionary of Authors has the following 
brief and indefinite note about his writings : 

"Mitford, John, d. 1831, the author of Johnny New- 
come in the Navy, a poem, published a number of books, 
songs, &c., and was editor of the Scourge and Bon Ton 
magazines." Vol. ii. p. 1330. 

In addition to Johnny Newcome in the Navy he 
wrote the once popular song The King is a True 
British Sailor. JOHN PICKFORD, M.A. 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

229, 436.) MR. TEW gives the new form of 
"sanatarium," which I certainly never heard. 
" Sanatorium " is given in Chambers's Etymo- 
logical Dictionary (the only one I have at hand 
at the moment), and is undoubtedly often but I 
think wrongly used. H. A. B. 

" Sanatorium " is certainly frequently used. I 
do not know how the officials spell the name of 
their institution at Bournemouth, which is usually 
called " The Sanatorium," but it is so printed in 
a new list of the governors of the Wanstead Infant 
Orphan Asylum now before me. 


" HEMS " (5* S. x. 447, 477 ; xL 93.) If Hems 
is no misprint for Hams, neither does it refer to 
waste ground. The house in which I reside, with 
the farm attached, is called " The Hems," but it 
is sometimes printed " Hembs," and appears on 
some old maps as "Ems." The seat of Lord 
Norton, a few miles herefrom, is known as " South 
Hams." F. WAGSTAFF. 

Great Barr, Birmingham. 

DERIVATION OF "DITTY" (5 th S. x. 308, 355, 
415 ; xi. 76.) The dimensions of Jack's " ditty- 
box " given by GREYSTEIL exactly fit it for enclos- 
ing printed ballads flat. As he would certainly 
keep therein such as he possessed, frequent reference 
to the box would not improbably give it the name, 
in preference to that of letter-box. A letter-box, 
too, would be of a different shape. 


THE DUKE OF SCHOMBERG (5 th S. ix. 86 ; x. 
233.) It was the Marshal Duke of Schomberg 
to whom Louvais applied to see that nothing hap- 
pened to Louis XIV. when present at the siege of 
Bouchain. The Prince of Orange had advanced 
from Valenciennes with a smaller army to en- 
deavour to raise the siege by offering battle to the 
king. Louis professed to wish to fight, but was 
induced to call a council of war. Schomberg, being 
instructed as above to keep the king out of danger, 
assured him that a great king like him was not to 
be diverted from his purpose, which was the taking 
of Bouchain, by the audacity of a young prince, 

who only wanted to distinguish himself by a 
battle with the king in person. No battle took 
place. Bouchain surrendered, but the king has 
been charged with showing the white feather in 
declining the battle offered to him by the prince. 

On leaving the service of France the marshal 
entered the service of the Elector of ^randenburgh. 
He was offered a large income to accept service 
under the emperor, but he declined. 

One writer asserts that when the nobility and 
gentry invited the Prince of Orange to England, 
they made a positive stipulation that he should 
bring Schomberg with him. 

Charles, second Duke of Schomberg, joined the 
Imperial and Piedmontese forces in Italy in 1691, 
in command of a body of troops in the pay of 
England and Holland, including his own regiment. 
He was with the army under Prince Eugene which 
invaded France in that year, and took Embrun 
and Gap in Dauphiny. The duke was advancing 
to take Fueiros when he was recalled by the Duke 
of Savoy, and returned to Piedmont. 

In the campaign of 1693 the Duke of Savoj% 
who had been appointed by the emperor general- 
issimo of all his forces in Italy, determined to give 
battle to Marshal de Catinat, against the advice of 
Prince Eugene, the Duke of Schomberg, and others. 
The battle took place at Marsiglia on the 4th or 
7th Oct., 1693, and the allies were beaten. The 
duke, piqued that his advice and that of Prince 
Eugene had not been taken, declined all command 
that day, and acted as colonel only at the head of 
his own regiment. He was entreated to retreat, 
but said he could not do so without positive orders, 
although he perceived that they must conquer or 
perish. He was shot in the thigh. His valet, see- 
ing him fall, fell over him, calling for quarter, but 
was himself shot dead. The duke was taken 
prisoner and sent to Turin, where he died. 

Meinhardt, the third and last Duke of Schom- 
berg and Duke of Leinster, seems to have com- 
manded 8,000 men, English and Dutch, under the 
Archduke Charles, who took the title of King of 
Spain, and landed at Lisbon on March 9, 1704. 

On June 4, 1711, the duke, with a numerous 
body of the nobility, attended Harley, Earl of 
Oxford, to the Court of Chancery, where the earl 
took the oath of Lord High Treasurer before Sir 
Simon Harcourt the Lord Keeper. The duke died 
in 1719. W. H. LAMMIN. 



205, 255, 276.) The same superstition is practised j 
in Cheshire. I believe every one of my own 
children has been carried upstairs first by the 
monthly nurses. ROBERT HOLLAND. 

Norton Hill, Runcorn. 

Mr. Napier, in his interesting West of Scotland 
Folk-Lore, just published, notes the superstition as 

5" S. XI. FEB. 8, 79.] 



C( mrnon, and adds : " If there were no stairs in the 
h< >use, the person who carried it generally ascended 
tl ree steps of a ladder or temporary erection, and 
tl is, it was supposed, would bring prosperity to 
tie child'' (p. 31). WILLIAM GEORGE BLACK. 

247, 374.) The late Lord Gage, who died 1876, 
aged eighty-five, was all his life a keen sportsman 
and intelligent student of natural history. About 
a year before his death he was talking to me about 
adders, and said that he once saw one with several 
young ones. He set his foot on it and killed it, 
and was surprised to find that the young ones had 
suddenly disappeared ; but remembering the old 
story (as he said) of snakes swallowing their young, 
he ripped open the belly of the adder, and there he 
found the young ones, which a few minutes before 
he had seen on the grass. W. D. P. 

S. x. 67, 113, 156, 259.) I have a Bible with the 
royal arms on the sides of the binding. It is 
octavo ; the Old Testament dated 1631, the New 
Testament 1630. Printed by Robert Barker and 
" the assignes of John Bill." With it is bound 

" The Whole Book of Psalmes : Collected into English 
Meeterby Thomas Sternhold, John Hopkins, and Others, 
conferred with the Hebrew, with Apt Notes to sing 

them withall London, Printed for the Companie of 

Stationers. Cum privilegio regis regali. 1631." 

A copy of Speed's Genealogies is also included in 

the volume. My Bible has also the royal arms 

n'nted on the reverse of the Old Testament title, 
o not believe that these books have belonged to 
members of the royal family. 

The Prayer Book in Lord Wentworth's possession 
may possibly have belonged to one of the chapels 
royal. I believe it was (and may still be) usual 
for such books to have the royal arms stamped on 
the binding. T. M. FALLOW. 

DROWNED BODIES RECOVERED (5 th S. ix. 8, 111, 
218, 478, 516 ; x. 38, 276.) A few weeks ago, 
while an English merchantman was unloading off 
one of the Black Sea ports near Batoum, I think 
it was a man was swept overboard by a heavy 
sea and drowned. The body disappeared ; but 
two days afterwards certain Russian guns on shore 
happened to fire a salute. " That ; 11 bring him 
up ! " said a seaman on board. " Not yet," said 
another ; " wait till the fourth day." On the 
fourth day the Russian guns fired again ; and, 
during the firing, the drowned man's corpse rose to 
the surface, not far from the ship. " I was one of 
them that saw him rise, and helped to haul him 
aboard," said the sailor who told me all this, 
a trustworthy man, me judice, although he has 
never heard of " N. & Q." or of landsmen's doubts. 

You see, sir," he added, "it's the gunfiring 

bursts the gall inside the corpse, and then it rises ; 
but it must be on the fourth day." A. J. M. 

The superstition that a floating loaf will indicate 
the presence of a drowned body beneath the surface 
by remaining stationary above it is ancient. The 
lighted candle would naturally be used to mark 
the course of the floating loaf at night. 

Brooklyn, U.S. 


Lectures on the Origin and Groivth of Religion, as Illus- 
trated by the Religions of India. Delivered in the 
Chapter House, Westminster Abbey. By F. Max 
MUller, M.A. (Longmans & Co.) 

To those who formed part of one or other of the two 
closely attentive and deeply interested crowds of hearers 
who thronged the Chapter House during the pleasant 
days of last summer, when the Professor of Comparative 
Philology in the University of Oxford was unfolding 
before them his latest views on the scientific aspect of 
the religion of our Aryan ancestors, this volume, the first 
instalment of the Hibbert bequest, cannot but prove most 
welcome. That in so vast and so difficult an undertaking, 
the pioneer lecturer should have broken up the whole of 
the fallow ground which lay before him was not of course 
to be expected. He could only take a comparatively 
small portion of it, and even so he would most likely 
bring his work to a close with the feeling that he had 
left vast fields untouched. That, however, was clearly 
unavoidable. To regret it would simply be to regret that 
the impossible was not attempted. The field offered by 
Aryan religion, illustrated as it was by references in- 
volving considerable discussion of the true nature of 
African fetishism, and the apparent absence from- 
Australian religion of any outward forms of worship, was 
quite enough, we think, alike for lecturer and hearers. 
In dealing with Vedic and post-Vedic thought and 
with Buddhism, Prof. Max Miiller had the advantage 
of a great literature to help him in unravelling primitive 
Aryan conceptions. In dealing with African and Aus- 
tralian religious phenomena this help is wanting, and 
the difficulty of solving the problem is proportionately 
increased. But we are ourselves persuaded of the general 
truth of the Professor's conclusion against attributing 
a primordial character to fetishism as a religious con- 
ception. We do not say that he has cleared away all 
difficulties on the subject, but our previous convictions 
on this point are strengthened by his treatment of it. 
We much hope that the newly started South African 
Folk-lore Society will do good service in collecting fresh 
materials for a further investigation of this question. 
That the Australian aborigines really do not practise 
any outward cult is a point on which we must confess we 
are not thoroughly satisfied. Bishop Salvado undoubtedly 
says that he never could ascertain that the natives among 
whom he laboured used any outward observances of 
worship. But extreme shyness and reticence on this 
point would be quite compatible with the actual existence 
of such worship, and the absence of any outward cult 
appears to us to be far more likely, perhaps we might 
even say far more possible, in an advanced civilization 
like our own than under the very rudimentary conditions 
of the aborigines of New Nursia. But these and many 
other questions we must leave to be sought out for them- 
selves by the readers of Prof. Max Miiller's most in- 
teresting and suggestive volume. 



[5"> a. xi. FEB. 8, 79. 

The Bibliography of Riislin. A Bibliographical List, 
arranged in Chronological Order, of the Published 
Writings in Prose and Verse of John Ruskin, M.A. 
(from 1834 to 1879). Third Edition. 
IT is the function of a bibliographer (and too often the 
poor wretch finds the task almost beyond his strength) 
to recall into active life much that is slowly perishing. 
Nine times out of ten the author himself is imperfectly 
acquainted with the history of his own offspring. He 
throws his bairns on the world and leaves others to look 
after them. The painful student who is bent upon dis- 
covering their varied fortunes soon finds, as we know 
from sad experience, that only his own unaided efforts 
will bring him that full knowledge which he is in pur- 
suit of. Especially difficult is the labour of finding out 
the multifarious products of Mr. Ruskin's brain. His 
great works are the delight of all who love their country's 
literature, and are to be found in every library ; but his 
lighter labours, if we may be allowed the invidious dis- 
tinction, where are they not? His contributions have 
appeared in nearly forty separate newspapers and maga- 
zines; not infrequently he has printed, after the selfish 
manner of authors not pressed for money, to gratify his 
friends alone, and latterly his books have been published 
from an obscure village in Kent. What wonder, there- 
fore, if in the course of three editions this bibliography 
has expanded from forty-eight to fifty-nine pages. We 
cry for more; if it is to tell the whole story of Mr. 
Ruskin's life it must be still further enlarged. We can 
imagine his future biographer turning in vain over the 
pages of this useful handbook for the habitat of that 
remarkable paper in which Mr. Ruskin announced his 
discovery of the wickedness of taking interest for the 
loan of money, and his determination of resigning the 
whole of his fortune save the poetic sum of "three 
hundred pounds a year." All this is buried in the pages 
of Fora Clavigera, and Mr. Shepherd should add to the 
notice of that series the particulars of the biographical 
information and the chief topics contained in its eight 
volumes. The titles of Mr. Ruskin's works are not always 
certain guides to their contents. Every reader of the 
Book Hunter alas ! it has long been out of print, and 
rare indeed is the lover of books who can now possess 
himself of Mr. Burton's delightful volume will remember 
the misconception caused by the title Notes on the Con- 
struction of Sheep/olds. Will not Mr. Shepherd transplant 
to the pages of his own work the narrative of the mis- 
guided purchaser from the country who bought it as a 
treatise connected with agriculture. Why, too, has he 
omitted in the later impressions the pages of Ruskiniana 
printed in the first edition ? Much as the labours of Mr. 
Shepherd and his friends have secured, this bibliography 
can only be made perfect by receiving that large cir- 
culation of which we believe it to be worthy. In the 
hope of aiding in this desirable result, we add that the 
names of subscribers can only be received at 5, Hereford 
Square, S.W., the private address of Mr. Shepherd. 

The Genealogist. Edited by George W. Marshall, LL.D. 

Vol. II. 1878. (Golding & Lawrence.) 
DR. MARSHALL'S monthly issue forms a complete yearly 
volume of 400 pages, and is too well known to our readers 
to require an extended notice. It fills a gap in this class 
of literature occasioned by the death of the late Mr. 
John Gough Nichols, whose mantle appears to have 
fallen upon worthy shoulders. Several of the longer 
articles in this volume are of permanent interest, and its 
entire contents are of great value to the class of students 
for whom the work is specially intended. We congra- 
tulate Dr. Marshall on the success of his serial, and are 
glad to know that its appreciation by the public gua- 
rantees its continuance. 

The New Quarterly Magazine has commenced a series 
of papers, " Our Public Schools," with Eton. From the 
manner in which the subject has been handled we look 
forward to those to come. Those desirous of possessing 
Mr. Spottiswoode's address, delivered before the British 
Association last year at Dublin, should, if for that alone, 
secure The Year Book of Facts (Ward, Lock & Co.). 
Of vol. ii. of Brief (Wyman & Sons), we can only say that 
it possesses the merits of its precursor. 

Record, No. I. (Nichols & Sons.) FITZ BRAND writes to 
us: "I hope you will allow me to supply an omission 
in your reviewer's brief notice of this very interesting 
volume I mean his not making any reference to the 
fact that that valuable record of early English folk-lore, 
The Remaines of Gentilisme and Judaism, by John 
Aubrey, with additions by Dr. White Kennett, which 
hitherto has only been known by the extracts in 
Ellis's Brand and in The Anecdotes and Traditions, 
published by the Camden Society, is to be published 
in its entirely, under the editorship of Mr. James 
Britten. Carefully edited and illustrated as it no doubt 
will be by that gentleman and his colleagues, it cannot 
fail to do credit to the society and gratify not only the 
members, but also many foreign scholars. I wish the 
Council could see their way to giving us in like manner 
a complete edition of Barnabe Googe's Popish Kingdom, 
with which English folk-lorists have been made im- 
perfectly acquainted by the fragments quoted in Ellis's 

THE REV. DR. W. MAO ILWAINE writes that a second 
edition of Lyra .Hibernica Sacra is contemplated, and 
that should the names and writings of any additional 
writers of sacred poetry, Irish born, occur to any of the 
readers of " N. & Q.," they would confer a favour on the 
editor by forwarding them to W.MAC ILWAINE, D.D., 
Rector of St. George's, Belfast. 

We must call special attention to the following notice: 

ON all communications should be written the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

M. A. L. Have you consulted the late Lord Lytton's 
Pilgrims of the Rhine ? The hero was a bishop, and his 
name is said to have been Hatto. Nat. Lee's Alexander 
the Great. 

FIRMUS ET FIDELIS. You will probably find something 
on the subject in one of the works on natural history by 
the Rev. J. G. Wood. 

E. Your requirements would, we think, be met by the 
Rev. F. Garden's Dictionary of English Philosophical 
Terms (Rivingtons), reviewed in "N. & Q.," 5 th S. ix. 219. 

MEDWEIG will find the word in Stormonth's English 
Dictionary, 1876 (Blackwood). 

F. R. Under the circumstances it will be well not to 
print the verses. 

J. B. BAGOT should advertise in our columns. 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to " The 
Editor of ' Notes and Queries ' " Advertisements and 
Business Letters to "The Publisher "at the Office, 20, 
Wellington Street, Strand, London, W.C. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print ; and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 


S. XI. FEB. 15, 79.] 





1- OTES : Deaths on or associated with the Stage, 121 The 
Preacher's Gown, 122 Shakspeariana, 124 Dr. Maucleer, 
1689 The College of Bishops The Bishopric of Durham- 
Charles I-'s Executioner " Joined the majority 'What 
Next? John Bunyan Curious School Custom at Shrews- 
bury, 125 Kitchen Rhyme, 126. 

QUERIES: The Gas or Electric Light Foretold Turnip- 
stealing Bayard's Leap Tijou, Worker in Iron Bird, 
Sculptor The late Carlist War Durnford Family" Mun- 
telman" Sir D. Kirke Lord Chancellor Erskine Old 
Songs Wanted, 126 " Assignat de la Republique Fran^aise " 
Hogarth's Song Churchman, Natural Son of Charles II. 
J. Bowling Ghost Shows at Dutch Fairs The "North 
Briton " The Winston Monuments at Long Burton, Dorset, 
127 "Boyle Godfrey, Chymist," &c. Magyar Authors 
Wanted, 128. 

REPLIES : "Pleasure and Relaxation," 128 -Style and Title, 
129 " Blushing," 131 The Sunflower, 132" Hart Hall," 
&c., 133 Severe Winters, 134 Curious Epitaph Twelfth 
Day Sir M. Brady- Cranmer's Autograph, 135 Lunatics in 
the Seventeenth Century 35, Park Lane Statue of Camoens 
Manus Christi MS. History of Fermanagh, 136 -Judge 
St. Leger " Ginnel "The American Clergy Root=" Cat " 
English Pronunciation of Latin Proverbs which have 
changed their Meanings, 137 A Remarkable Speaking-tube 
Public-house Signs, 138 Mrs. Sheridan Do Vipers 
swallow their Young? Names of Places in Shrewsbury 
The Diary of a Yorkshire Clergyman, 1682 Tradesmen's 
Tokens March 24, New Years Day Lysiensis Alley 
Family Dr. John Speed, 139. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Locker's " Patchwork " " Palgrave 
Family Memorials" Goadby's "Shakespeare's Time." 

Notices to Correspondents, &c. 



"All the world 'a a stage, 
And all the men and women merely players ; 
They have their exits." Shakspeare. 

As several short paragraphs have at different 
times and in various works been given publicity to 
with a title similar to the above, perhaps one toler- 
ably complete list may be acceptable. In it there 
will be found a few instances which have been 
already reported, but it is thought as well to record 
them here in order to ensure the continuity of this 
record, especially as the whole includes a correction 
of names and the addition of dates. If to " killed" 
we were to add " wounded " the catalogue would 
indeed be a long one. 

Before commencing what may be termed my 
"regular" list I will quote two or three tragic 
events which occurred on the ancient stage a 
stage in all respects different from that of our 
own day, on which the above-mentioned list is 

We are told by Thomas Heywood, in his Apo- 
logy/or Actors, that it was the custom of the early 
Eoman emperors, in the public tragedies in which 
they personally took part, to choose out the fittest 
among such as for capital offences were condemned 

to die, and employ them in such characters as were 
to be killed in the tragedy, who of themselves would 
prefer to die at the hands of such princely actors 
bhan otherwise to suffer a shameful and degraded 
death ; and these were tragedies naturally per- 
formed : " And such Caius, Caligula, Claudius, 
Nero, Vitellius, Domitianus, Comodus, and other 
Emperours of Borne vpon their festivals, and holy 
daies of greatest consecration vsed to act." The 
same author, quoting from Wits Comon-Wealth, 
says : 

' It is recorded of Julius Caesar that with generall 
applause in his own Theater he played Hewules Furens, 
and amongst many other arguments of his compleatnesse, 
excellence, and extraordinary care in his action, it is 
thus reported of him : Being in the depth of a passion, 
one of his servants (as his part then fell out) presented 
Lychas who before had from Deianeira brought him the 
poysoned shirt dipt in the blood of the Centaure Nessus ; 
he in the middest of his torture and fury, finding this 
Lychas hid in a remote corner (appoynted him to creep 
into of purpose), although he was as our Tragedians vse 
but seemingly to kill him by some false imagined wound, 
yet was Caesar so extremely carryed awaie with the 
violence of his practised fury, and by the perfect shape 
of the madnesse of Hercules to which he had fashioned 
all his active spirit, that he slew him dead at his feet, 
and after swoong him terq : quaterg : (as the poet says) 
about his head ! " 

It is recorded by Plutarch of the famous and 
wealthy player ^Esopus that, on one occasion, 

" He was so possessed with his Part, that he took hia 
own acting to be so real, and not a Representation, that 
whilst he was on the Stage representing Atreus deli- 
berating on the Revenge of Thyestes, he was so trans- 
ported beyond himself that he smote one of the Servants 
hastily crossing the Stage and laid him dead on the 
place ! But a more harrowing occurrence is said to have 
happened when the first dramatic spectacle 'The 
Passion of Our Saviour' was acted in Sweden in the 
reign of John II. (1513). Lengis, the actor, had to pierce 
the side of the person on the Cross, and in his enthusiasm 
he plunged his lance into him and killed him. The King 
shocked at such brutality slew Lengis with his scimitar; 
when the audience outraged at the death of their 
favourite actor wound up this true tragedy by cutting off 
the head of his majesty ! " 

But to come nearer our own times. 

1673. J. B. Poquelin, dit Moliere, was seized 
with illness, which terminated fatally in a few hours, 
while acting in the fourth representation of his 
immortal Le Malade Imaginaire. 

1691. Win. Mountford was killed by being run 
through the body with a sword by Captain Hill, 
his would-be rival in the favours of Mrs. Bracegirdle. 
Hill fled the country, whilst his companion, Lord 
Mohun, was tried for his life, but acquitted. 

1696. The Tory actor, "the tall, handsome, 
manly Smith," died of over- exertion in the long 
part of Cyaxares in Cyrus the Great, after being 
taken ill during the fourth representation of that 
tragedy. (Smith was the original Pierre.) 

1710. After Betterton had retired from the stage, 
in 1709, being then upwards of seventy, he was 
induced by the manager of the Opera House 



[5' S. XI. FEB. 15, '79. 

the Haymarket (at which plays were then acted 
four times a week) to continue performing. On 
April 25, 1710, he appeared for the last time, for 
his own benefit. He was suddenly seized with 
gout, and using most injudicious applications to 
allay the swelling, they induced the illness of which 
he died in three days. 

1729. In this season, at the Lincoln's Inn Fields 
Theatre, Spiller was mortally stricken by apoplexy 
while playing in the Rape of Proserpine. By 
similar deaths, Monfleury, Mondory, and Bricourt 
were carried off from the French stage. On 
Dec. 22 of this year Michael Baron, the celebrated 
French tragedian, performing Diego in the Cid, 
while pushing aside a sword which obstructed him 
on the boards, injured his toe ; gangrene set in 
from neglect, and shortly caused his death. 

1735. In this year a celebrated amateur of the 
name of Bond, who was then aged and infirm, 
playing Lusignan in Aaron Hill's tragedy of Zara 
(8vo., 1735), founded upon Voltaire's Zaire, over- 
come by his feelings while blessing his children, 
died in the Music Koom, Yilliers Street, York 
Buildings, Strand, where this benefit was got up 
for him, owing to his reduced circumstances. 
Other accounts, however, state that, anxious to see 
this piece on the boards, it was got up at his own 
expense. I may just note here that a translation 
of the original by Yoltaire is printed in Dr. 
Franklin's edition of that author, and that Mrs. 
Gibber's first attempt at tragedy was in the part of 
Zara. In the same year " fat Hulett," by an over- 
strain of the lungs (his custom on the stage), broke 
a blood-vessel and expired. 

1745. A certain Lady Isabella (born in Italy), 
much celebrated here for her postures and feats of 
activity, is mentioned by Chetwood as having, 
while in an advanced state of pregnancy, fallen 
from the slack rope on to the stage, where the 
mother and new-born infant expired instanta- 

1748. Oliver Cashel, while acting Frankly in 
the Suspicious Husband (at Norwich), was smitten 
by apoplexy and died in a few hours. 

1757. May 3, Peg Woffington, while acting as 
Eosalind, in repeating the epilogue to As You 
Like It, was rendered speechless by paralysis on 
uttering the words, " I 'd kiss as many of you as 
had beards that pleased me." She died March 28, 
1760, aged thirty-nine. 

1758. Paterson, an actor long attached to the 
Norwich company, was performing the Duke in 
Measure for Measure ; he had no sooner spoken 
the words, 

" Reason thus with life : 
If I do lose thee, I do lose a thing 
That none but fools would keep, a breath thou art," 

than he dropped into Moody's arms and died 

1760. Chetwood mentions a tumbler in the 

Haymarket Theatre who, in performing one of his 

feats, "beat the breath out of his body, which 

raised such vociferous applause that lasted longer 

than the vent'rous man's life, for he never breathed 

more." Also in the pantomime of Dr. Faustus, 

t Lincoln's Inn Fields Theatre, "a machine in 

he working broke, threw the mock Pierrot down 

icadlong with such force that the poor man broke 

i plank on the stage with his fall and expired." 

1766. Mrs. Jeffreson died suddenly at Plymouth 
n this year, as she was looking at a dance that 
was practising for the night's representation. In 
the midst of a hearty laugh she was seized with a 
sudden pain and expired in the arms of Mr. Moody. 

1769. Holland, a bad imitator of Garrick, was 
one night playing Prospero, in the course of which 

villainous large rat ran across the stage just 
aefore him. The sight of the rat, and the shock of 
speaking to one who had just left a patient with 
the smallpox, were such that he never performed 
after, and in a fortnight died of smallpox. 

1777. Samuel Foote, "the English Aristo- 
phanes," was seized with paralysis while acting in 
his own comedy, The Devil upon Two Slides. He 
died October 21 in this year at Dover, on his way 
to France. In this year also that excellent comic 
actor Harry Woodward, called " Attitude Har- 
lequin," died from the effects of an injury which 
he met with on the stage. He had been acting 
the part of Scrub, and, leaping from a table, sus- 
tained injuries from the effects of which he never 
recovered. HARRY SAN BARS. 


(To le continued.) 

[See " N. & Q.," 4th g. x i. 14, 63, 126, 338 ; xii. 26, 317 ; 
5"' S. x. 157. At the first of these references will be 
found a note on the subject by the late Dr. Doran.J 


" N. & Q." is neutral ground, and happily an 
interesting subject may be treated in it without 
the importation of polemics. Long may it be so. 
There is no doubt that there were two classes of 
clergy distinguished by their dress after the Refor- 
mation : 1. The Graduates ; 2. The Literates. 
The latter were mainly Puritan, and, envious of 
the comely academical apparel of the former, 
adopted a quaint, lay dress of their own or 
Genevan devising, which they vindicated in con- 
troversial or recriminatory argument, amusing 
enough in such a trifle had it not been attended ; 
sadly enough with harsh thoughts and rough words, j 
when, for instance, the square cap for the round 
head was met by an antagonistic hat or a comical 
button cap. 

1. The mark of the graduate was the wide- [ 
sleeved gown. Thus in 1638 the doctors of Oxford 
went to meet Charles I. in wide-sleeved scarlet 
gowns, not in habit and hood (the preacher only 

5'" S. XI. FEB. 15, 79.] 



u ing the hood), and the proctors wore their wide- 
si 3eved gowns. 

2. " Gowns wide sleeved were anciently used by 

the generality of scholars The gown that 

a D.D. now wears, as also that by a M.A., hath 
o ily long sleeves with a cross slit to put the arms 
through, which gown is not ancient and never 
known to be worn by any before the time of John 
Calvin" (Wood, Hist.,i. 68, 69). It was called 
tlie " lawyer's gown." The wide-sleeved gown is 
sail worn by the "Poser" at Winchester College 
election. It was worn with a minever hood up to 
the latter part of the seventeenth century in the 
universities, and, because expensive, was laid aside. 
In the time of Elizabeth the " precisians " wore 
"Turkey gowns and hats" (2. Whitgift, 369). 
Some of the clergy wore " the side [long] gowns, 
having large sleeves with tippets " (" Vestis talaris 
colloque circurnducta stola," Grindal, 1572, p. 339). 
Others had "Turkey gowns, gaberdines, frocks or 
nightgowns of most lay fashion for avoiding of 
superstition" (3 Jewel, 612). 

In 1571 preachers were required to wear as " in 
their common apparel abrode a syde gowne with 
sleeves streyght at the hand" (Cardw., Synod., i. 
127, and Doc. Ann., i. 329), or, as it appears in 
another document, "cloke with sleeves, gowne, and 
tippet" (St. Papers Dora., 1583, vol. clxiii. n. 31). 
According to the Advertisements the sleeved cloak 
was worn on journeys. " The complete parson " 
had " a canonical cloak with sleeves " (B. Jonson, 
Epiccvne, Act iv. sc. 2), and " clerks book-read " 
wore a gown or "a cassock sidelong hanging 
down" (Spenser, M. .Hubberd's Tale). In the 
canons of 1604 (c. Ixxiv.) all beneficed graduates 
had the alternative of " gowns with standing 
collars and sleeves strait at the hands or wide 
sleeves, as is used in the universities, with hoods 
or tippets," using in their journeys "priests' cloaks 
with sleeves." The cathedral use was for preachers 
to use a surplice and hood (Cardw., Doc. Ann., 
i. 326, 1571 ; Canon xxv., 1604). 

There was always a disposition in the clergy to 
adopt a lay or even military cast in their dress 
(Stratford's Canons, 1372 ; Stat. o/Sarnm; Reform. 
Leg., c. vii.). In 1578 "great barrell breeches" 
were in fashion, and in 1638 some wore "horse- 
men's coats and riding jacquets, long shaggy hair, 
deep ruffs, and falling bands down to the shoulders" 
(2 Htp. Rit. Comm., 581) ; and the inquiry was 
made, " Doth he preach in such a solemne habit as 
becomes him, in a longe gowne and cassock, not in 
a riding or ambulatory cloake 1 " or, as it is put in 
1636, " with his surplice and hood also if he be 
a graduate and with his head uncovered " (p. 559), 
thus following the cathedral use. Shakspeare 
alludes to this system of " wearing the surplice (of 
humility) over the black gown (of a big heart) " 
(All's Well that Ends Well, Act i. sc. 3). 

Many sermons were delivered in the open air, as 

at St. Paul's Cross, at Norwich, and before the 
Court of the later Tudors. In Elizabeth's time 
lay preachers, who could not wear a surplice in 
church, sometimes occupied the pulpit. Spenser 
represents his parson " reading homilies." In 
1561 there was only one constant preacher at 
Oxford, and Mr. Taverner, the high sheriff, in 
a damask gown, "arrived," as he said, "at the 
stony stage of S. Mary's," having "brought his 
hearers some fyne biskets baked in the oven of 

It has been thought that the use of the gown 
has been derived from the custom of the friars, but 
this is not so : " Fratres in suis ecclesiis, et locis 
ubi morantur et in plateis publicis," &c. (Lyndw., 
lib. v. t. 5, p. 289). I am inclined to attribute 
the custom to the practice of inviting doctors of 
divinity to preach (ib., I.e.), who for this reason 
had the sole privilege of wearing (riding-) boots 
(Stat. Univ. Oxon., tit. ix. 2), and to the power of 
the university to license graduate preachers " per 
universam Angliam " (ib., sect. ix. 1), no doubt 
following the practice of preaching in these gowns 
as at Oxford. In 1444 the Benedictine chapter 
authorized all doctors and graduates of the order, 
when preaching in a cathedral or great minster, at 
St. Paul's Cross, or before a large congregation, to use 
their scholastic habit (Reyner, App., P. iii. p. 135). 

By the Tudor statutes the canons were required 
to go out into the neighbourhood of cathedrals of 
the New Foundation and preach every Sunday. 
The gown is in point of fact merely the out-of- 
door dress. Becon directs one of his tirades 
against the clergy " swinging with their long- 
gowns and sarcenet tippets " (Displaying, p. 261). 
In the middle of the last century Archdeacon 
Sharp, in his comments on the canons of 1604, 
mentions, as " the dress worn on every occasion 
abroad, the band, hatband, and short cassock," or r 
as Savage puts it, " a cassock, beaver, and a rose." 
Parson Adams, in 1742, is mentioned as wearing 
the cassock, and Addison, in the Spectator, more 
minutely speaks in 1714 of the clergy " equipped 
with a gown and cassock." In 1814 a print lying 
before me shows the beneficed clergyman in short 
cassock and girdle, a gown and scarf, beaver and 
rose, whilst the unbeneficed brother ambles at his 
side without the rose and short cassock. It was 
not until about the year 1820 that the bishops, 
deans, and archdeacons only retained the short 
cassock, beaver, and rose. The omission of the 
gown may have been for convenience : its use' in 
the pulpit connects it with the idea of distin- 
guishing between preaching and the ministration 
of divine service. After the consecration of Arch- 
bishop Parker two of the bishops left the chapel, 
" suis episcopalibus amictibus superpelliceo scz. et 
chimera," whilst two others used the common dress 
of the clergy, long gowns, " togae talares " (Bratn- 
hall, iii. 213). MACKENZIE E. C. WALCOTT. 



S. XI. FEB. 15, 79. 


" TWELFTH NIGHT," ACT i. sc. 3, LL. 126-7. 

"And. I, 'tis strong, and it does indifferent well in a 
dam'd colour'd stocke." 

So run the folios. Pope, however, substituted 
flame-colour' d, and other editors have followed 
him, and among them to my astonishment Mr. 
Dyce, and to my greater astonishment the Cam- 
bridge editors. Granted that " flame- colour'd " 
was a common phrase, and twice used by Shake- 
spere, how does that justify the substitution? 
There is no especial circumstance requiring 
" flame-colour'd," nor any ductus literarum, unless 
am be accounted such. Nor is there such a cer- 
tainty of error as to require such a change. 
" Damn'd-colour'd " is an easily understood epithet, 
and there is nothing against it, beyond our igno- 
rance of the use by any one of a similar phrase in 
English ; and Pope's gentility, the word being too 
coarse and too unpleasantly suggestive to him and 
his refined age. But though a Bowdler Shakespeare 
may have its uses, to Bowdlerize editions that 
profess to give the nearest approaches to an un- 
corrupted text is worse than ridiculous. Why 
cannot Sir Andrew 'be allowed the imitative 
affectation of a word very likely to have been used 
even if it were uncommon among the fashion- 
mongers of the day ? He was a country ape trying 
to pick up the town affectations when it was an 
art to extemporize with due toil new-minted 
oaths and phrases. Sir Andrew, though I own it 
to be more unlikely, may have coined the word 
himself, like a gallant as he would be, and that 
without going beyond his mother tongue. 

Pope not improbably substituted " flame- 
colour'd " as a more refined synonym. But it is 
not a synonym. Devils to this day are held to be 
not flame-coloured, but black. And in two 
late notes on " delighted spirit " (5 th S. x. 83, 303) 
I have shown that the mediaeval view of a flaming 
hell was one that was dark and even pitch dark. 
This was Shakespere's view. Malvolio confined 
in a windowless room is in " a house as dark as 
hell/' So in Jul. Gees., ii. 1, he says, " not Erebus 
itself were dim enough," and using a phrase used 
by others he has, in the M. of Venice, " dark as 
Erebus." See also Hamlet, Act iii. sc. 3, 11. 94-5. 

Thirdly, though I can lay but little claim to 
esthetic proclivities, I venture to think that dark 
or black nether garments were well fitted to show 
off a good leg, especially when in -contrast with the 
bright and glittering colours then worn. Its 
singularity, its contrast, and its own hue con- 
sidered in itself would combine to do this. 

Lastly, I would add that no one can doubt but 
that fashions and phrases were then as now freely 
imported from the Continent ; and though we 
have not yet found " damn'd-colour'd " in English 
we can find it in French. Corresponding on the 

subject with my friend Mr. Furnivall he turned 
up Cotgrave. There, under " Couleur " and 
" Enfer," are to be found, " Couleur d'enfer as 
much as Noir-brun enfume " ; " Enfer. -Couleur 
d'enfer. A dark and smoakie brown." 


WELL THAT ENDS WELL " (5 th S. ' x. 285, 303.) 
I thank the learned President of the New Shak- 
spere Society for the courteous tone of his 
strictures, a tone which some, in "bowing their 
eminent tops " to the rank and file among your 
correspondents, would do well to imitate. 

4. I would gladly accept MR. FURNIVALL'S in- 
terpretation of "In their poor praise he humbled" 
if I thought " their poor praise " could by any 
process of inversion be converted into " praise of 
them poor." To me " their poor praise " seems 
susceptible only of one of two meanings : it must 
mean either " their poor praise " of him or his 
" poor praise " of them. The latter meaning I 
reject as inconsistent with the description given of 
Count Eousillon as every inch a gentleman. The 
man who " damns with faint praise " is not so. 
The true gentleman will either praise with sincerity 
or not praise at all. The former meaning, after 
giving it the full reconsideration which I felt in- 
cumbent on me in deference to one of MR. FURNI- 
VALL'S high authority, I cannot persuade myself is 
a misinterpretation. When Theseus determined 
to witness the poor play got up in honour of his 
nuptials by Snug, Bottom & Company, he knew 
very well it was in itself a poor thing he was going 
to see ; but " taken in might, not merit " (estimated, 
i.e., by might of will, not merit of performance), he 
in generous condescension was prepared to value it 
at a worth not its own, on the high principle, 

" !Xever anything can be amiss 
When simpleness and duty tender it." 

In accepting their poor attempt, rich in will, but 
poor in deed, to do him honour " he humbled," 
and by humbling raised himself. Similar, I think, 
is the meaning in the line, " In their poor praise 
he humbled." 

5. " Such were our faults, or then we thought 
them none." My notes are merely tentative. I 
have not the self-conceit to think them conclusive. 
If we must resort to emendation here, I submit for 
MR. FURNIVALL'S consideration an emendation 
which interferes less with the received text than 
the one which he has suggested : " Such were our 
faults, for then we thought them none." Empha- 
sizing were, the meaning of the line thus read will 
be, " Such were our faults, as now in the cairn 
retrospect of age we regard them ; for then (in 
youth) we did not think them faults." Many 
things past seem wrong, which when present did 
not appear so. 

6. It was just because I did not think Shak- 

. XI. FEB. 15, 79.] 



;peare "a man to bother about niceties in 
geography " that I did not think " Higher Italy " 
?as to be understood in a geographical sense. 
But MR. FURNIVALL will pardon me if under- 
stood in a geographical sense the words can have 
but one meaning. Italy was never divided into 
Higher and Lower, qua north and south, but by 
the backbone of the Apennines, qua east and west, 
the lands sloping towards the Adriatic, mare 
superum, being reckoned Higher Italy, and those 
sloping towards the Tuscan Sea, mare inferum, 
Lower. I may very possibly be wrong in my 
conjectural emendation of this passage (in con- 
jectural emendation there can be no certainty), but 
I cannot see vrhy a proud Frank, sprung of a race 
which had never bowed its neck to the yoke of 
Borne, ruling in a land won by the sword, may not 
have been represented as speaking of the petty 
states of Italy as without exception those 

That inherit but the fall 
Of the last monarchy." 

Manse of Arbuthnott, N.B. 

DR. MAUCLEER, 1689. He was a French Pro- 
testant refugee, an M.D. of Montpelier, who came 
over to London, and prayed " in forma pauperis " 
to be admitted a licentiate of the London College. 
Dr. Munk says (Roll of the E. C. of Physicians) 
that he was so admitted, and that " he promised 
to pay his future fees if he could." I should be 
glad to know of any further particulars of him. 
He was, I believe, one of the celebrated Athenian 
Society, and wrote a good many of the replies in 
the British Apollo, 1708. The spelling of his 
name is not very exact. Dr. Munk gives it as 
Maucleer or Mauclare, but in my copy of the 
book in question, where he has carefully marked 
all his own articles, the signature is distinctly 
J. Mauclerc, M.D. A complete list of the writers 
in^this remarkable journal would be very inter- 

THE COLLEGE OF BISHOPS. The clerical alma- 
nacs and similar publications perpetuate an error 
annually by assigning the title of Chancellor to the 
Bishop of Lincoln and that of Chaplain to the 
Bishop of Rochester. The proper designations of 
the College of Bishops in the province of Canter- 
bury are : London, Dean ; Winchester, Chancellor ; 
Lincoln, Vice - Chancellor ; Sarum, Precentor; 
Worcester, Chaplain; Eochester, Crochere, or 
Cross-bearer (Lyndw., lib. v. tit. 15, p. 217); 
.Chichester, Chaplain to the Queen], 


having been promoted to the bishopric of Durham, 
it may be well to note that for at least two cen- 

turies the see has not been filled by any one who 
was not previously a bishop, as appears from the 
following table : Nathaniel (Baron) Crewe, trans- 
lated from Oxford, 1674 ; William Talbot, from 
Salisbury, 1722 ; Edward Chandler, from Lich- 
field and Coventry, 1730 ; Joseph Butler, from 
Bristol, 1750 ; Richard Trevor, from St. Davids, 
1752 ; John Egerton, from Lichfield and Coventry, 
1771 ; Thomas Thurlow, from Lincoln, 1787 ; 
Shute Barrington, from Salisbury, 1791 ; William 
Van Mildert, from Llandaff, 1826 ; Edward 
Maltby, from Chichester, 1836 ; Charles Thomas 
Longley, from Ripon, 1856 ; Henry Montagu 
Villiers, from Carlisle, 1860 ; Charles Baring, from 
Gloucester and Bristol, 1862. ABHBA. 

there has been considerable discussion on this 
point, I think the following extract may interest 
the readers of " N. & Q." : 

" In this neighbourhood [Tipperary] lives the de- 
scendant of him who gave the last and fatal stroke to 
the unhappy Charles. He had been a common dragoon 
in Cromwell's army, and for this service the usurper 
rewarded him with a captain's double debenture." 
From A Philosophical Survey of the South of Ireland, 
by Thomas Campbell, 8vo., Dublin, 1778, p. 162. 


" JOINED THE MAJORITY." This current phrase 
for " dead " is generally regarded as of modern 
invention, but it is found in an old edition of 
Littleton's Latin Dictionary, where the death of 
Milton is thus recorded: "1674. Jo: Milton 
immanissimi Parricidii defensor dbiit ad plures." 
See "N. & Q. } " 4 th S. xii. 420. W. T. M. 


WHAT NEXT? An old gossip in these parts, 
on being told by the mother of a dying child 
that her daughter's death was a very lingering 
one, went up into the sick chamber, and 
observing that the position of the bedstead was 
across the planks, instead of being parallel with 
them, assigned that as the reason for the patient's 
lingering death ; so the bedstead's position was 
altered, and it is said the poor girl's death was 
both speedy and painless ! FREDK. RULE. 


JOHN BUNYAN. The subjoined cutting from the 
Nottingham Guardian of the 3rd inst. deserves a 
corner in " N. & Q." : 

: On the 1st inst., Ann Webster, last surviving grand- 
daughter of George Bunyan, of Nottingham, and lineal 
descendant of John Bunyan, author of Pilgrim's Progress, 
aged 84 years." 

F. D. 

At Shrewsbury School, at the beginning of term, 
one of the new boys is chosen as Crier. It is his 



[5th s. xi. FEB. 15, 79. 

duty to give out notices of runs, lost property, &c. ; 
and this he does before dinner in Hall, standing 
on the form, concluding his proclamation with 
" God save the Queen ; doivn ivitli the Radicals." 

Woodbridge Grammar School. 


" If you can crop a goose and gall a pigeon 
You are fit for cook for the king's kitchen." 

H. C. 

[We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct.] 

ton, in his Ordinal ; or, Manual of the Chemical 
Art (i.e. alchemy), tells us of an alchemist who 
projected a bridge of gold over the Thames, near 
London, crowned with pinnacles of gold, which, 
being studded with carbuncles, should diffuse a 
blaze of light in the dark. (The poem may be 
seen in extenso in the Theatrum Chemicum, printed 
by Ashmole in 1652.) May I ask whether the 
above words are to be regarded as a prophecy of 
gas or of the electric light 1 


Hampstead, X.W. 

TURNIP-STEALING. In the Hastings and St. 
Leonards Observer, Feb. 1, 1879, a case of turnip- 
stealing is reported in which the prosecutor said 
that he did not wish the prisoner to be punished, 
but warned, as many turnips had been stolen. 
The prisoner was discharged. On this the editor 
says : 

_" Supposing that the magistrates had sent this man to 
prison for a month, or even seven days, what a howl 
would have been uttered by a certain section of the 
press ! We should have had highly wrought pictures of 
a poor, starving semi-idiot hounded into a felon's cell 
because he had dared to take a turnip to assuage the 
pangs of hunger. A conviction of this character might 
have added hundreds to the sale of some few weekly 
prints patronized by the unthinking or disaffected among 
the labouring classes. The case has had a more satis- 
factory termination for the central figure than that of 
the hungry soldier who was executed by the orders of the 
Iron Duke for stealing, while on the march, a turnip 
out of a field." 

I have read and heard of this execution, but 
never with the name and date. On what authority 
does it rest '? FITZHOPKINS. 

Garrick Club. 

BAYARD'S LEAP. There is a place in the south 
of Lincolnshire called Bayard's Leap. It is inci- 
dentally mentioned in the Archceologia, xxii. 26. 
Can any of your readers tell anything authentic as 
to the origin of the name 1 ANON. 

Tijou or Tijau, spoken of as a celebrated worker in 
iron, who wrought under Sir Christopher Wren 
the ironwork of St. Paul's, and where could I 
find an account of him ? 

BIRD, SCULPTOR. Who was the sculptor Bird, 
who executed much of the stonework of St. Paul's, 
including the monument to Miss Jane Wren 1 Is 
he the stonecutter at Oxford mentioned in Plot's 
Oxfordshire? . L. PH. 

[Bird was the sculptor of the statue of Queen Anne 
and the four figures which surround it. For the former 
he received 2501., and for each of the latter 220J., besides 
50Z. for the shield and arms. See Elmes. Life of Wren, 
p. 401.] 

THE LATE CARLIST WAR. Has any history of 
this war been written 1 If so, I shall be glad to 
learn the author or publisher of the best work' on 
the subject. X. Y. Z. 

DURNFORD FAMILY. Is there any pedigree of 
this family in print ? For a great many years the 
Army Lists have marked many of the name as 
rising to distinction in the Royal Engineers and 
elsewhere ; then there is a bishop (Chichester) also 
bearing the name. I have long wished to know 
something of their history. Y. S. M. 

" MUNTELMAN," a term used by the men 
engaged in the salmon fishery on the Severn, is 
applied to the man who, after the net has been 
cast from the boat, drags the tow-rope to the stage 
whereon the net is landed. Unde derivatur ? 

W. V. G. 

SIR DAVID KTRKE. In the Calendar of State 
Papers (Domestic} I find that, on Dec. 1, 1631, 
" Captain David Kirke of London, merchant, son 
of Thurstan Kirke, of Greenhill in the parish of 
Norton, co. Derby," received a grant of arms. The 

rant confirms his paternal coat, and in con- 
sideration of his having taken Canada from the 
French and captured M. de Rockmond, a French 
admiral, bestows the admiral's coat of arms upon 
him also. In the Colonial State Papers Sir David's 
father is spoken of as Gervase. Which is right ? 
Where can I obtain information about the Kirke 
family? S. 0. ADDY. 


Lord Campbell (Lives of the Chancellors, viii. 224 r 
ed. of 1857) that Voltaire, in his Letters on the 
English Nation, refers to the family name of 
Erskine as " Hareskins." I shall be obliged to- 
any one who will kindly quote the passage. 


Lennox Street, Edinburgh. 

OLD SONGS WANTED. Can any reader of 
" N. & Q." give me, or tell me where to find, three 

S. XI. FEB. 15, 79.] 



ongs of the seventeenth century, or any one of 
them 1 I have the tunes, but not the words. They 
i)ein thus : 1. "He that hath a good wife" ; 
iJ. " Shall I, mother, shall 11" 3. " Aye me ! " 
The last is not the "Aye me !" of the Percy folio, 
,vhich begins : 

" Aye me ! aye me ! poor Sisly is undone ; 

I had twelve suitors, now 1 have but one." 
This metre would not suit the tune beyond the 
nrst line. WM. CHAPPELL. 

Strafford Lodge, Oatlands Park, Weybridge. 


I have an "Assignat de cent francs, cree le 18 
Nivose Tan 3 de la Kepublique franchise." It 
bears to be " Hypotheque sur les domaines 
nationaux," and also "La loi punit de mort le 
contre-facteur, la nation recompense le denon- 
ciateur," and is signed by " Vial." Are these 
assignats rare 1 Are they of any value to col- 
lectors ? SETH WAIT. 

HOGARTH'S SONG. What was the song of " St. 
John-at-Deptford Pishoken," which is three times 
mentioned (twice only as " Pishoken ") in the 
Five Days' Peregrination of Wm. Hogarth and 
his friends in May, 1732, commonly called " Ho- 
garth's Frolic " ? F. D. F. 

Reform Club. 


There is now in the possession of one of the Norris 
family, of Maryland (descendants of Admiral Sir 
John Norris), a watch, with chain and guard, 
which is said to have been given to a Mr. Church- 
man by Charles II., the said Churchman being his 
natural son. The watch has descended by will to 
the eldest daughter bearing or having borne the 
name of Churchman. Can any of your corre- 
spondents throw any light upon it as to who the 
said Churchman was 1 S. W. B. 

MERCURY." I wish to obtain some particulars of 
the last years of this old Yorkshire worthy. 1 In 
the Life of Edward Baines, by his son, there is a 
brief mention of him, in which it is stated that 
after his retirement from the Mercury he engaged 
in alchemical pursuits and lost all his property. 
Judging from his conduct of the paper, and from 
some private letters of his which I have had an 
opportunity of seeing, I should have scarcely 
thought it possible that he would have embarked 
in such doubtful speculations. Bowling established 
the Mercury in 1767. A previous newspaper 
bearing the same title had become extinct twelve 
jears before. BIBLIOTHECARY. 

"humours" of a Dutch fair in the last century 
there appear to have been booths, in which direful 

apparitions of ghosts and hobgoblins were exhibited 
to staring rustics at a very moderate entrance fee. 
No doubt such harrowing spectacles 'drew con- 
siderable audiences. Such a display was called 
a spookerij-spel. Is there any allusion to similar 
exhibitions at English fairs 1 ZERO. 

THE " NORTH BRITON." I have a copy of the 
North Briton, without date or publisher's or 
printer's narrie. The title-page is as follows : 

"The North Briton from No. I. to No. XLVI. in- 
elusive, with several useful and explanatory Notes, to 
which is added a copious Index of every Name and Article. 
Corrected and revised by a Friend to Civil and Religious 
Liberty. Price Five Shillings unbound, Six Shillings 

Is the edition scarce, and' is it known who its 
editor was ? On the fly-leaf is the following : 
"The gift of Job Hanmer, Esq., to the Kev. Jn 
Fiske, 1779 " ; and on the inside of the opening 
cover is the following, in another handwriting : 
" The Patriot of Patriots ; or, Patriotism far Older 

t? the Creation. 

The Devil in Heav'n a Patriot need w d be : 
No Tyrant Power he 'd yield to ! Xo, not He ! 
' Liberty ! Property ! ' was all his cry, 
Nor Fools were wanting there to join y e Lie. 
Redress of Grievances was buzz'd about. 
And their good King grew odious to ye Rout. 
Go, common sence, t' a foolish people tell 
How knaves dupe fools, and fools help knaves t' RebcU, 
Till, Satan like, they 're headlong hurlled to Hell. 
"Hurll'd to Hell, 


All was well, 

And ever since there Patriots dwell : 
Nor, till they're there, ne'er think they're well. 
Ambition foul, hypocracy there dwell ; 
There 's their first Dadd, the first who dar'd rebell ; 
There they're at Home; yes, there they're more than 


They 're there Heaven is Heaven, 
Hell is Hell." 

Is the above an extract, and, if so, what is the 
name of the author quoted ? M. F. H. 

DORSET. In the church of Long Burton are 
recumbent figures of Thomas Winston, of Standish, 
co. Gloucester, "descended of many auncient 
howses both British and English," and his son Sir 
Henry Winston (died 1609), and his son's wife, 
Dionise, daughter of Sir George Bond, of London, 
Knt. Among the shields of arms with which the 
monument is decorated is one containing thirteen 
quartering^ of the Winston family. It is stated on 
a tablet that 

" Eleanor, one of their daughters, now wyfe of Leweston 
Fitzjames of Leweston, Esquire (being denyed to repayre 
and erect these remembrances of her parents in the 
Church of Standish, where they lie buried), hath trans- 
ferred them thence, and placed them here, where part 
of their posteritie is now, by the mercifull Providence of 
the Almightie, planted." 

Can any of your readers enlighten me as to the 



circumstances alluded to in this inscription, and 
assist me to the names of the " howses both British 
and English ;; from which the quarterings on the 
shield above mentioned were derived ? 

C. H. MAYO. 
Long Burton, Sherborne. 

MEDICINE." What is the source, and who the 
author, of the curious old epitaph on " Boyle 
Godfrey, Chymist and Doctor of Medicine," which 
begins thus : " Here lies to digest, macerate, and 
amalgamate with clay " ? H. A. P. 

MAGYAR. What is the correct Hungarian pro- 
nunciation ? B. 

The following lines, quoted by G. P. R. James in 
Forest Days ; 

" A pleasant heart, a happy mind 
That joy in all God's works can find, 
A conscience pure without a stain, 
A mind nor envious nor vain, 
Shall on man's head bring down God's benison, 
And fatten more than ale or venison." E. W. 
" She was not beautiful, they said ; 

To me she was much more : 
The kind of woman women dread, 

Men fatally adore." GE.EYSTEIL. 

" I might have claimed a lady's love, 
But I chose a brother's cowl." 

The lines on Scott : 

"... wrote a hundred leaves 
To prove his ancestors a race of thieves." 

A. F. 


(5 th S. xi. 47.) 

Under the less convenient title of " The Minis- 
terial Dinner at Greenwich " MR. A. H. CHRISTIE 
inquired, " Can any of your readers help me to the 
words of this song 1" In reply, I have much 
pleasure in communicating them, and they may 
amuse many other persons, otherwise they could 
have been forwarded through "N. & Q." pri- 
vately, although the applicant is to me personally 
a stranger. If inquirers of this sort added their post- 
office address it would afford a choice for answerers, 
to send either for publication or private help. Some- 
times old songs and ballads are scarcely fit to be 
given in their entirety for general readers in this 
squeamish age, when the quantity of mock 
modesty is in excess of true decency. We are 
living in an age of cant, when it is the fashion to 
declare that our ancestors were extremely reprehen- 
sible, but that we ourselves, all of us, are (excepting 
political opponents) angels of light in comparison. 
The song itself is by no means a poor one, and 
here it is. Although I possess an immense col- 

lection of old songs, I know of no copy extant in 
print ; but this one from memory only lacks a few 
lines. The tune was that which is well known as 
"The King of the Cannibal Islands" or "The 
Voyage to Putney by Water." 



Pomp and state bring nought but woe ; 
List to my song, and I will show 
That all the high, as well as the low, 

Love pleasure and relaxation. 
The Duke of Wellington met one day 
Sir Robert Peel, and said, " I say, 
I 'm glad you, Bob, have come this way ; 
We '11 go to Greenwich Fair so gay." 
Says Bob, "Why, Arthur, just like you, 
With long debates my brain 's askew, 
And so I don't care if I do, 

For pleasure and relaxation." 


They got to the top of Parliament Street, 
When Lord Brougham they chanc'd to meet, 
And he agreed to join the treat, 

For pleasure and relaxation. 
[The day was warm, the \vind was high ; 
To lay the dust which was so dry 
They thought it proper first to try 
Some heavy wet, but on the sly.*] 
In a public-house they did regale, 
Until their appetites did fail, 
And wash'd all down with porter and ale, 

For pleasure and relaxation. 


They got in a cart, were scrouged for room, 
When all of a sudden, " Whoa !" cries Brougham.,. 
" There 's Dan O'Connell and Joseph Hume 

Taking pleasure and relaxation. 
Dan, will you ride ? " " You 're very kind," 
Says Dan O'Connell; " I don't mind; 
And if for me you room can find, 
Why, Joey can ride on the tail behind." 
To this Joe Hume he did agree ; 
Says he, " Of course, I shall ride free ; 
I always studies economy 

For pleasure and relaxation." 


They started again, and all alive, 
The horse to pull them along did strive, 
When every one on 'em wanted to drive 

For pleasure and relaxation. 
Arthur forward makes some strains, 
But misses his hold, while Bob maintains 
That his were the hands and his the brains, 
From knowing the road, to take the reins. 
As forward all did strive to get, 
" Give me the reins ! " says Dan in a pet. 
" Oh ! then," cries all, "we shall be upset 

For pleasure and relaxation."! 


They got to Greenwich, and in the park 
Rambled about with many a spark, 

* Four lines have slipped from memory here; these,, 
as a substitute, are vamped pro tempore. But see final 
remarks for the variorum, 

t " Johnny who upset the coach " was not among 
them, being generally distrusted, and always bumptious* 
He would aeon have "spilt them the lot." 


. FEB. 15, 79.] 



And talk 'd to the pretty girls, fair and dark, 

For pleasure and relaxation. 
To Algar's booth they did advance, 
To the Crown and Anchor they went to dance 
The newest quadrilles just come from France, 
Which Joseph call'd " extravagance ! " 
While on the light fantastic toe 
Arthur and Bob got in a glow, 
Brougham in a reel did jump Jim Crow * 
For pleasure and relaxation. 


Now Hume with dancing would not mix, 
But on a table himself did fix, 
And began a long speech about politics 

For (his own) pleasure and relaxation. 
And as his noise he would not cease, 
And not for nobody keep the peace, 
In came some of the new police, f 
And walk'd him off without release. 
Arthur hit out left and right, 
Dan O'Connell slunk out of sight, 
And said, as he went, " I never fight J 

For pleasure and relaxation." 


At length, as homeward they did roll, 
Dan an Irish song did troll ; 
They hadn't a penny to pay the toll 

Through pleasure and relaxation. 
Arthur in his pocket feels, 
Bob to the toll-man makes appeals, 
Brougham said, as he cool'd his heela, 
" I 've only my watch, I 've lost the seals !" 
The toll- man said, " Come down with your dust, 
If so be that go through you must; 
We never gives nobody not no trust 

For pleasure and relaxation." 


Now who just then came through the gate ? 
The Queen herself, in all her state ; 
They stopp'd the coach, and began to debate 

About pleasure and relaxation. 
The Queen says, " Really, we can't see 
Whatever the meaning of this can be ! " 
Says Wellington, " Please your Majesty, 
We 've been to Greenwich upon the spree. 
We really want to get to town, 
And as for cash we 're quite broke down, 
Will your Majesty lend us half-a-crown || 

For pleasure and relaxation 1 ?" 

* It had been brought into the country by Rice from 
America, and was (except Mungo's song in the Padlock, 
" 'Possum up a gum tree," &c.) the earliest of the nigger 
melodies which attained a wide popularity. I possess 
the original verses, with a large store of additional or 
encore verses, as sung by Rice. 

f The Police Improvement Acts were of 1839 and 
1840. In connexion with Sir Robert, the police were 
called "Peelers" by the roughs, and are still termed 
" Bobbies." Robert ! loi quefaime. 

t O'Connell, although he used unmeasured language, 
refused to accept the many challenges he received for his 
oratorical Billingsgate. One coarse and stinging insult 
from him provoked the cartel from Benjamin Disraeli, 
but Dan refused to " go out " like a man. 

In 1834, when Lyndhurst returned to the chan- 

|| This is a very respectable old joke. It occurs in 
the admirable burlesque of Bomlastes Furioso, by W. B. 
Rhodes, 1810, where King Artaxominous offers Distaffina 
kalf a crown, which she spurns, until he explains that 

Her Majesty said, with wisdom sound, 
That money for them should not be found, 
But they should walk home all the way round 

For pleasure and relaxation. 
" And next time you Greenwich go to view, 
Ask us and the ladies to join you too, 
Or else you '11 find our words are true, 
Our high displeasure you shall rue." ^[ 
Says Wellington, " What your Majesty says we feel; 
The joys we 'vs had are all ideal, 
For without the ladies there is no real 

Pleasure and relaxation." 

Such, with a few unintentional variations, perhaps 
almost inseparable from keeping a few thousand 
songs floating in memory, is the ditty inquired 
for. The defective part of our second verse might 
ad libitum be filled by the lines, 

Then Wellington was trying a smoke, 

Which did Sir Robert much provoke, 

For with his stick the pipe he broke, 

And said, " You 're not with campaigning folk." 

Then in a public, &c., 
but the text was substantially as it is here given. 
The date of composition was 1840. 

Molash, by Ashford, Kent. 

This song was written by Hudson, the comic 
singer, and it was sung by him at all the public 
dinners of the period. I doubt very much whether 
it was ever published. Speaking once to Hudson 
of another song that he used to sing about the 
same time, he told me : " My songs are my stock- 
in-trade. If I were to give any one a copy, or to 
publish them, their novelty would be gone." 


STYLE AND TITLE (5 th S. x. 467.) The heir 
apparent, whether son or grandson, great-grand- 
son, &c., of a duke, marquis, or earl may assume 
by courtesy any one, not necessarily the highest, of 
the inferior titles held by his progenitor. An heir 
presumptive cannot assume any of the titles held 
by the relative he is heir to, as his right of inherit- 
ance is always liable to be terminated by the birth 
of an heir apparent. By paying attention to these 
rules MARTLET will see that the first three of his 
questions may be answered simply in the affirma- 
tive, and question 6 in the negative. In question 
4 the person contemplated is evidently heir 
apparent to his grandfather, and therefore entitled 
to assume by courtesy any one of his inferior titles. 
As to question 5, I apprehend that it is within the 
prerogative of the sovereign to create peerages with 
special remainder to a grandnephew, or to any 
other person whatever, and that such peerages with 

he wishes her to share his throne and dignity. Much 
earlier instances could be easily adduced. 

Tf An allusion is plainly here to the celebrated Bed- 
chamber Plot of April, 1839, by which Peel by no means 
gained the favour of Her Majesty's Ladies of the Bed- 
chamber, who were regarded as the allies of Lord Mel- 



[5th s. XI. FEB. 15, '79. 

special remainder are occasionally, though very 
rarely, conferred, but that such grandnephew or 
other person has no right to assume any courtesy 

I may add that when holders of courtesy titles 
are of sufficient rank their eldest sons also may 
assume courtesy titles. For instance, the Duke of 
A. might have a son Marquis of B., who might 
have a son Earl of C., who might have a son Vis- 
count or Baron D. It is also useful to know that 
when an heir apparent dies the succeeding heir 
apparent is not obliged to take the same courtesy 
title as his predecessor. The Earl of Kerry, who 
died without male issue in 1836, in the lifetime of 
his father, the Marquis of Lansdowne, was suc- 
ceeded as heir apparent by his next brother, who 
assumed the courtesy title of Earl of Shelburne. 
It is not often, however, that a change of this sort 
is made, and I do not know any instance of it in 
the case of a son succeeding his father as heir 
apparent. B. M M. 

Your correspondent MARTLET'S queries 1, 3, 4 
may be answered thus : The heir apparent of an 
earl, marquess, or duke is entitled by courtesy to 
bear one of the peer's inferior titles, not necessarily 
the highest of the inferior ones, though in the 
great majority of cases that is the one borne. The 
selection of the title to be borne, when the highest 
is not taken as a matter of course, must rest with 
the peer himself. In the event of the heir 
apparent dying, leaving a son, that son succeeds to 
the courtesy title borne by his father. It some- 
times happens that when an eldest son dies, with- 
out leaving a son, in the lifetime of the peer, his 
next brother, becoming heir apparent, takes a 
different title, as in the case of the late Marquess 
of Lansdowne, who was known as Earl of Shel- 
burne, his elder brother having been Earl of Kerry : 
and the late Earl Delaware, who was known as 
Lord West, his elder brother having been Vis- 
count Cantelupe ; and F again, the late Marquess 
of Tweeddale was called Viscount Walden, his 
elder brother having been known as Earl of 
Gifford. Another case in which the highest of the 
inferior titles would probably not be borne is when 
it is the same name or place as the title borne by 
the peer. That this may be is shown in the case 
of the Duke of Wellington, who is Viscount, Earl, 
Marquess, and Duke of the same place Wel- 

Query 5. A patent of a peerage may be 
limited to any one whom the Crown may select, 
e.g., the dukedom and barony of Somerset Avere 
granted to Sir Edward Seymour, with remainder 
to his issue male by his second wife, with a further 
remainder to his issue male by his first wife ; and 
the existing barony of Brougham and Vaux was 
granted to the late Lord Brougham and Vaux and 
the heirs male of his body, with remainder (passing 

over the issue of an intermediate brother) to the 
present lord, youngest brother of the first lord. 
This was considered ill advised, but no one dis- 
puted its legality. The answer to query 6 is 
most certainly not. 

To the above I may add that where an earl or 
higher peer has no second title, his eldest son bears 
the family surname with the style of lord, as the 
eldest son of the Earl of Devon is called Lord 

1. The second and third sons would respectively 
bear the title if their elder brothers died without 

2. Yes. The eldest son of the present Marquis 
of Ailesbury is called Viscount Savernake, not 
Earl Bruce or Earl of Cardigan. The Earl of 
Munster's son is Lord Tewkesbury, and not Vis- 
count FitzClarence ; and after the death of the Earl 
of Gifford, eldest son of the late Marquis of Tweed- 
dale, his brother (the present Lord Tweeddale) 
bore the title of Viscount Walden. The eldest 
sons of the Marquises of Lansdowue are called 
Earl of Kerry and Earl of Shelburne in alternate 
generations. The precedence of these gentlemen 
is not affected by the title they bear. 

3. Certainly the son or the grandson would bear 
the title, e.g., the grandson of the present Marquis 
of Cholniondeley is called Earl of Eocksavage, 
though his father was only Mr. Cholmondeley. 

4. This grandson of the earl would be in the 
position of the eldest son, and as such would be 
called Viscount B. 

5. I know no instance of a direct remainder to 
a grandnephew, but the effect is produced by 
granting a title to a man and the heirs male of his 
body, and, failing them, to the heirs male of his 
brother's body, as in Eathdonnell. 

6. The grandnephew could not assume a courtesy 
title, because there is always a possibility that his 
uncle might have a son. E. M. B. 

The present Duke of Devonshire, as Mr. Caven- 
dish, was member for Cambridge, Malton, and 
North Derbyshire from 1829 to 1834, and suc- 
ceeded his grandfather as Earl of Burlington, 
May 9, 1834. The late Earl of Derby was 
M.P. for Stockbridge, Preston, Windsor, and 
North Lancashire from 1820 to 1844 as Mr. 
Stanley, and was summoned to the House of Peers 
as Lord Stanley of Bickerstaffe in 1844. Ulick, 
the eldest son of the late Marquess of Clan- 
ricarde, was during his lifetime known as Lord 
Dunkellin, but on his death his brother did not 
assume that title, but was known as Viscount 


MARTLET does not seem to know, or to remember, 
that it is not simply the eldest son of a duke, 
marquis, or earl who bears his father's second title, 

. FEB. 15, 79.] 



bu ; his heir apparent, who may be the eldest son 
or :he eldest surviving son, or the eldest or eldes 
surviving son of either. On the other hand, hii 
he r presumptive, that is, his heir not descended o 
hit body, does not bear the second title. This wil 
answer queries 1, 3, 4, 6. I take it for grantee 
that in 1 and 4 Martlet supposes the elder sons to 
dio without issue or male issue. Query 2 may be 
answered in the affirmative ; the thing has often 
been done. A baronial title was borne by the 
late Earl de la Warr and the present Earl o 
Hopetotin, as a reference to any peerage of the 
proper date will show. Query 5 is not categorical 
is the "nobleman" supposed such by descent or by 
creation? If by descent, of course the grandnephew 
will succeed ; if by creation, a patent of peerage 
may be given with limitation to any person what- 
ever, and if a man's heir is his grandnephew, it is 
quite probable (though I do not remember an 
instance) that the title would be limited to him. 
Farnborough, Banbury. 

The late Governor of Madras, Lord Hobart, was 
the eldest son of the Earl of Buckinghamshire. 
Upon his death without issue the courtesy title 
was assumed by his brother, the Hon. F. J. 
Hobart, the second son. He too died very shortly 
after, and left a son, who is now heir to the earldom, 
and who assumed on his father's death the title of 
Lord Hobart. This information will answer your 
correspondent's first and third queries. And as in 
this case a second son assumed his elder brother's 
courtesy title, it follows that had that second son 
also died without issue, the next surviving brother 
would have become Lord Hobart too, as I do not 
think there can be any rule limiting the succession 
of a courtesy title to a second son only. 

With regard to the fourth query, I imagine that 
if the youngest son of an earl predeceased his 
brother, who bore the courtesy title, and the latter 
were afterwards also to die (having survived all his 
brothers), the son of the former, though becoming 
thus heir to the earldom, would only be entitled 
to the designation of Esquire ; but did the 
youngest son survive all his brothers, and become 
tieir to his father, taking also the courtesy title, 
ind then dying, his son would also take the title 
nis father bore. I assume that such titles de- 
scend by etiquette or courtesy from brother to 
3rother, or father to son only, and not from uncle 
;o nephew or otherwise. 


If the eldest son of an earl predeceased his 
:ather, the eldest son of the deceased succeeded to 
lis father's courtesy title. Such was the case when 
;he eldest son of the first Earl of Eldon died, and 
;he deceased's son succeeded to his father's title of 
viscount Encombe, and such has been the case in 
several other instances. The eldest son of an earl 

can assume any inferior title of his father which 
he may prefer. The eldest son of the late Earl 
Nelson (now the present earl) was styled Viscount 
Merton ; the eldest son of the present earl is 
Viscount Trafalgar. If the eldest son at his de- 
cease left no son, his next brother would succeed 
to the courtesy title. Such was the case when the 
eldest son of the late Earl Fitzwilliam died. The 
present earl, then the Hon. W. T. S. Went- 
worth-Fitzwilliam, became Viscount Milton. The 
eldest sons of the Marquises of Lansdowne are 
occasionally Earl of Kerry and sometimes Earl of 
Wycombe ; and the eldest sons of the Duke of 
Norfolk Earl of Surrey and Earl of Arundel and 
Surrey. No heir to a peerage can assume a 
courtesy title, as heir, unless he is the heir apparent. 
A grant of peerage, in deficiency of heir male, can 
be made to descend to any person at the pleasure 
of the Crown. When, in 1749, the seventh Duke 
of Somerset was created Earl Northumberland, &c., 
he was so created with remainder to his son-in-law, 
Sir Hugh Smithson, Bart., who was afterwards 
created Duke of Northumberland, and one of 
whose descendants now enjoys that title. 


DARK ? (5 th S. vii. 145, 295, 437 ; x. 78.) In looking 
over a back volume of " N. & Q." for another purpose 
I came upon a discussion of this apparently trivial 
but curious question. Involving a paradox, it is 
dependent upon a purely scientific principle ; and 
as this has been missed by those who have 
attempted an answer, and the subject left in an 
unsatisfactory, not to say discreditable, condition, 
[ venture to express an altogether opposite opinion, 
and give my reasons for doing so. 

The German professor of last century Lichten- 
berg believes, it appears, that folks may become 
jale from fear in the dark, but says that " die 
?rage ob Frauenzimrner im Dunkeln roth werden 
st eine sehr schwere Frage." But Shakespeare 
did not see any difficulty in it when he made 
Juliet say to Romeo : 

Thou know'st the mask of nigbt ia on my face, 

Else would a maiden blush bepaint my cheek 

For that which thou hast heard me speak to-night." 

Act ii. sc. 2. 

The modern scientists, however, are not satisfied 

vith these old lights. Darwin, it seems, says that 

Shakespeare has "erred" (Expression of the 

Emotions, p. 336) ; and HERMENTRUDE asks, 

' What is to hinder blushing in the dark if there 

)e no hindrance to thinking 1 " The answer is 

bvious : light is not necessary for the action, but 

b is for the phenomenon. But HERMENTRUDE 

oes more than ask this question, which she had 

right to do ; she distorts Shakespeare's meaning, 
which she had no right to do. Shakespeare clearly 
ays, " There is no blush on my cheek because of 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [5* s. XL FEB. is. 79. 

the darkness." HERMENTRUDE would have him 
mean, " There is a blush on my cheek, but the 
darkness prevents you seeing it.' ; Last of all, MR. 
C. A. WARD, endorsing the opinion of the latter 
writer, says that she " has given the right answer," 
and boldly affirms that " there can be nothing to 
prevent blushing from taking place in the dark." 
Yet, notwithstanding all this, I venture to say that 
the poet is strictly correct as, indeed, he generally 
is in the literal meaning of his words, and the 
modern scientists utterly in the wrong. In this 
place Shakespeare designedly, as it seems to me, 
rejecting the ordinary phraseology based upon our 
early impressions, has taken pains to express him- 
self with a scientific accuracy which we should 
rather have expected from Bacon himself ; and 
seems, one would infer, to have had an intuition or 
prevision of the truth expounded three quarters of 
a century later by Newton that colour is not 
a quality belonging to, or inherent in, bodies, but 
is entirely dependent upon the light reflected from 
their surfaces. Now, what is a " blush " ? First 
and last, it is a colour. It may be defined as " the 
redness produced in the face by the determination 
of the blood to that part, as the effect of certain 
mental emotions." Thus in Latin " to blush " is 
erubescere ; " to make one blush " is " alicui 
ruborem afferre"; in French it is rougir; and so 
on in other languages. Thus the Latin poet 
beautifully says : 

Purpurem fieri cum primum aurora movetur." 

" She gazed, she reddened like the rose, 

Syne pale like onie lily." 
And Crashaw, in his exquisite epigram on the 
miracle at Cana, which so far as it appealed to the 
eye certainly required light for its performance 
has : 

" Vidit et eruouit Nympha pudica Deum." 
HERMENTRUDE asks how darkness can affecl 
" the sensation of blushing." But here I would 
remark with deference to her that this is not the 
question at all. "We are talking of " blushing " 
not the mere " subjective sensation," which, as 
MR. GALTON has admitted, is utterly deceptive 
and which most certainly will not be accompaniec 
by the objective phenomenon the thing of which 
we are talking unless there be present the re 
quisite condition light, the element through the 
instrumentality of which alone colour exists and 
is perceived. Juliet was herself conscious of thi 
"subjective sensation," but knew or rathe 
Shakespeare, imparting to his heroine by poetica 
licence his own knowledge, makes her know tha 
her face was necessarily " unbepainted " because o 
the darkness. A flower may be said, as Gray ha 
it, to " blush unseen " waiving for a moment th 
Berkleian question as to whether existence eve 
can be predicated of an object in the absence c 

mind to perceive it, but it certainly cannot be 
aid to " blush in the dark." Neither can a human 
eing ; and to affirm the contrary is to assert the 
>ossibility of a rainbow after a nocturnal shower, 
Iways supposing the night to be moonless, and not 
o occur in those high polar regions where the sun 
hines on through the twenty-four hours. 

The scientific principle involved in this question 
was a greater novelty a couple of hundred years ago 
han it ought to be now ; and we properly enough 
ind it enforced in the curious volume, Athenian 
Sport ; or, Two Thousand Paradoxes merrily 
argued to Amuse and Divert the Age, &c. (London, 
1707, 8vo.), where " Paradox II." is, " That no 
Dolours are Real ; but what we call Green, Eed, 
Yellow, Blue, &c., only appear such to us, according 
is Bodies variously receive the Light." Here we 
read what is applicable now as then : 

"The Knowledg of Men is never compleat : What they 
mow in one manner they are ignorant of in another. 
Nothing is so manifest to the sense as Colour; nothing 
so obscure to the understanding, which doubts whether 

it hath a Real Existence, &c So that this Paradox 

(that No Colours are Real, &c ? ), however strange and 
surprising it looks, is what no Man can ever disprove, 
and I scarce think our Virtuosi will ever attempt it," &c. 
P. 8. 

In the " N. & Q." of a former day a young lady 
[as I presume) asks how it is that she is so given 
to blushing : 

" I 'm so ready to blush 

Upon every turn, 
My face does so flush, 

It can never be borne ; 
Come tell me the reason, 
And that in due season, 
Or with wrath I '11 pursue you, 

Till there 's no such a one ; 
I '11 make Sol shine through you, 
Tho' akin to the sun." 

To this the oracle replies with scant gallantry ; 
" Now perhaps you'll expect 

That from modesty we 
Should derive this effect, 

Which can't probably be : 
'Tis ill humour and passion 
Make this alteration ; 
Those occasions then shun, 

And these heats will expire ; 
But get out of the sun 

Lest your nose should take fire." 
The British Apollo, London, 1726, vol. ii. p. 453. 
Poor stuff this, though, as we learn from the 
title-page, the answers are " Perform'd by a Society 
of Gentlemen," and are " Approved of by many of 
the Most Learned and Ingenious of both Univer- 
sities, and of the Royal Society." 


THE SUNFLOWER (5 th S. viii. 348, 375, 431, 497 ; 
x. 14, 156, 352 ; xi. 58.) This flower obtains its 
name from the resemblance of its corolla to thf 
sun. By the ancient Peruvians it was used as f 


S. XL FEB. 15, 79.] 



symbol in their religious ceremonies. The order of 
V rgins who officiated in the Temple of the Sun 
w ;re crowned with helianthus wrought of pure 
geld. It was affixed on their breast and carried in 
their hands. 

In 1596 this flower is mentioned by Gerard, who 
n.Mnes it " the Flower of the Sunne or the Mary- 
golde of Peru." The word heliotrope or turnsol 
which we find in French as tournesol, in Spanish 
hi liotropio, in Italian elitropea or clizia, alludes to 
the popular idea that the blossoms turn themselves 
towards the sun. On this point, however, there is 
a difference of opinion. Some assert that the 
flowers, which face the east at sunrise, do not face 
the west at sunset ; also, that they branch out on 
all sides of the plant. The meaning of the word 
heliotropium is rendered by the Dictionary ol 
Five Alphabets (Linguce Romance Dictionarium, 
MDCXCIIL, chiefly compiled from a large MS., in 
3 vols., of Mr. John Milton) as follows : 

" Heliolropium, r/XiorpoVioi/, ab ij\iog } sol, and 
rptTrw, verso, quod se cum sole circumagat. The herb 
turnsole. Ruds or waterwort. It turns with the sun 
both at rising and going down, even in a cloudy day 
(Plin., 22, 9). But Mr. Ray acknowledges no such thing, 
though in several plants the leaves open by day and close 
at night. The plant grows not in England, and there- 
fore not (calendula) a marigold." 

If we accept Bay's statement the allusions made 
by Moore, Thomson, and other writers must be 
read with " poetic licence." Thus, in the Irish 
Melodies : 

" As the sunflower turns to her god when he sets 
The same look which she turn'd when he rose." 

Or, more to the purpose, we may compare the 
transformation of Clytia (Ov., Met., 4) : 

" But angry Phoebus hears, unmov'd, her sighs, 
And scornful from her loath'd embraces flies. 

She turn'd about, but rose not from the ground, 
Turn'd to the sun still as he roll'd his round ; 
On his bright face hung her desiring eyes, 
Still fix'd to earth in vain she strove to rise, 
Her looks their paleness in a flower retain'd." 

The remembrance of the unhappy fate of Clytie 
will answer the remaining queries of H. A. B. : 
"Nyrnpha ab Apolline demeata et postmodum 
despecta, cujus odii inipatiens, dolore contabuit ; 
in Heliotropium deinde conversa." Hence we 
read that " the jealous Clytie gave her yellowness 
and attitude to the sunflower." 

It may be noted that the European marigold 
opens its petals during the day and closes them at 
night. Thus : 

"The Mary-budde that shutteth with the light." 
Again : 

" See the day is waxen olde, 

And 'gins to shut in with the mary-golde." 
To conclude with another reference to the sun 
may compare Keats : 

" Open afresh your round of starry folds, 
Ye ardent marygolds ! 
Dry up the moisture of your golden lids, 
For great Apollo bids." 

According to Linnseus, however, this flower 
opens its petals at nine in the morning and closes 
them about three o'clock in the afternoon. 


H. A. B. is plainly right in his suggestion that 
the sunflower is so called not from turning to the 
sun, but because its disc resembles the old pictures 
of the sun. CUTHBERT BEDE pointed this out in 
"N. & Q.," viii. 431, and MR. LEES at x. 15 ; the 
latter indicated the marigold, about which, how- 
ever, difficulty is made, and reasonably, at x. 156 
and 352. 

Jos. J. J. has already asked the question. " But 
into what flower was Clytie supposed ' to be 
changed ? " (viii. 432). The answer seems to be 
the heliotrope. Ovid mentions the pallor and 
rubor of the flower into which the nymph was 
transformed, and calls it Viola simillimus, but the 
colour affords little clue. Chambers (Cyclop., sub 
voce) says it exhibits " great variety in size and 
colour." What is more to the purpose is that, 
unlike the sunflower, it is a " native of the south 
and west of Europe," " in almost universal cultiva- 
tion for its fragrance," and " used by perfumers for 
making scents " (Chambers). On this head Ovid 
describes Apollo as sprinkling the body of Clytie 
and her grave with odorous nectar : 

" Nectare odorato spargit corpusque locumque. 

* * * # # 

Protinus imbutum coelesti nectare corpus 
Delicuit terramque suo madefecit odore." 

Sunflower and marigold, if I mistake not, lack 
this attribute, and if established authority (such 
as it is) be wanted, it will be found in Ainsworth, 
who says that Clytia or Clytie " pined away with 
grief and was changed into an heliotrope" which 
liberal shepherds give the grosser name of cherry- 
pie, the strong and pleasant fragrance of which 
none will care to dispute. W. T. M. 


xi. 85.) I have not read the notice about William 
Wyrcestre, but I can assure D. P. that the con- 
nexion of Hart Hall and Balliol College is not so 
"astonishing" as he thinks. "Would he be 
surprised to hear " that there were two Hart Halls 
certainly, perhaps a third, and that one of them 
was connected with Balliol through its first master, 
and therefore it is not impossible that in the 
earliest times of Balliol College one of its members 
may have been a student resident in that Hart 
Hall 1 

Let me here say that Ingram is not always 
right ; I could point to more than one error ; 
still he, a standard authority, makes no allusion 



5 th S. XL FEB. IB, '79. 

to a Hart Hall beyond the one in St. Peter's 
parish, which became Hertford College, Mag- 
dalen (no final e, though Ingram puts it in) Hall, 
and Hertford College again. 

The removal, by the way, of old Magdalen Hall 
from Magdalen College had been contemplated, 
and an Act of Parliament had been obtained for 
the purpose about two years before its destruction 
by fire. 

But although neither Ingrain nor any of the 
more modern writers mentions more than one 
" Hart or Hert Hall," Antony a Wood does. He 
gives notices of three halls dedicated to St. Mary 
Magdalene, and there was perhaps a fourth. He 
gives descriptions of two " Hart or Hert Halls," 
and there was perhaps a third. 

Antony a Wood left matter he had collected 
for a history of the city of Oxford, which was 
edited with additions by the Rev. Sir J. Peshall, 
Bart., and this quarto volume, known generally 
as Peshall's Wood, is a mine of information 
as to the Oxford of the earliest times. In 
this volume there are described and indexed 202 
old halls, and " many other halls, to the number 
of 300 or more, were there, but their names 
and places have been long since lost." In 
describing St. Peter's parish the Hart Hall of 
Magdalen Hall and Hertford College is, of course, 
described. And at pp. 136 and 142 will be found 
notices of another in St. John's parish, where 
Merton College stands. This Hart Hall appears 
to have stood to the eastward of Merton, probably 
where St. Alban Hall now stands ; and Wood 
(a Merton man) describes it and its connexion 
with Balliol College thus (p. 136) : 

" On the E. side of this (Alban Hall) was Hart Hall 
Item de Hart Hall in vico S. Johannis per qua Magister 
Aulae Balliolae solvit 4s. Quit Rent. So a Rental of St. 
John's Hospital made the beginning of Ed. III., which 
annual rent was given to them by Mr. Peter de Abendon, 
the first Warden of Merton College, by the same name 
circa 12, but the Chief Rent and Moiety thereof, did 
belong to Walter de Fodirighey, the First Master of 
Baliol College, who in his will left it to R. Hunsingore, 
Clerk, and he, 9 Ed. II., to the said College. It was 
ruinated and converted into a garden before 1424, as 
appears by the aforesaid Description of this Parish ; and 
then probably it was by Merton College added to the 
Limits of St. Alban's Hall, paying for the same a Quit 
Rent to Baliol College as they do to this day." 

At p. 142 there is another notice of a Hert Hall 
in the parish of St. John, which was connected 
with University College in 1356, and I am inclined 
to think this another, and a third, Hert Hall. 
I cannot think that the writer referred to by D. P. 
has " announced a new fact " or added an element 
to the comic history of England. He perhaps owns 
Peshall's Wood. 1 have bought it for myself and 
others, paying from 1?. to II 10s. fur it. Mr. 
Gee, in the High Street, would obtain a copy for 
D. P., I have no doubt. GIBBES EIGAUD. 

18, Long Wall, Oxford. 

SEVERE WINTERS (5 th S. xi. 24.) After the 
wops came down from Pekin in Nov., 1860, 1 was 
one of those who spent the winter of 1860-61 in 
Tien-tsin. Although the latitude of Pekin is not 
very northerly (being about the same as Madrid) 
the frost is severe and unbroken from the third 
week in November to the third week in March. 
The river Peiho is frozen ; the ice is a foot thick, 
and more than that in parts ; and the margin of 
the Gulf of Pechele is ice-bound for a width of six 
miles, with broken ice extending twenty or thirty 
miles out to sea. This condition of things is usual, 
though it did happen in England and elsewhere 
that the frosts in 1860-61 were exceptionally 
severe. In Tien-tsin, of course, everything con- 
gealed, and I have seen fatigue parties go to the 
commissariat stores to draw ale and porter, and 
find on arrival that the casks were broken up, and 
the frozen beer was served out by " dry " measure. 
Chinese coolies brought it up in large baskets on 
their backs, broken with axe and hammer into 
pieces of various sizc;s, and then these were thrown 
into large kettles and melted. I remember 
a peculiarity which I never understood, namely, 
that the porter ice was no darker than ice from 
very muddy ditches, of a dirty yellowish colour, 
but as soon as it was melted in the kettles the dark 
black colour of stout returned. This bringing 
home the porter in baskets was a great amuse- 
ment, even to those who had been long in South 
Africa and seen the beautifully close-woven baskets, 
so close that no drop exudes, in which Kaffirs 
carry their milk. GIBBES PVIGAUD. 

18, Long Wall, Oxford. 

Under the above title MR. WALFORD refers to 
a passage in Virgil's Third Georgic as " describing 
a severe winter in England. 1 ' But Virgil's de- 
scription begins with the lines : 

" At non qua Scythice gentes Mceotiac/ue unda, 
Turbidus et torquens flaventis Hister arenas, 
Quaque redit medium Mhodope porrecta sub axem." i 

LI. 349-351. ! 

Scythia represents Kussia generally, the 
" Meeotian water " is the Sea of Azov, and Rhodopi 
is the mountain range now known by the saui( 
name, and also as the Despoto Tagh, in Eoumelia 
As to the Hister, or Danube, the allusion if! 
probably to the region about the mouths of tha 
river, now the Dobrudscha, near which was situatec 
Tomi, Ovid's place of exile. Writing thence th< 
poet observes a similar fact about the frozen wine 

" Udaque consistunt formam servantia testae. 
Vina : nee hausta meri, sed data frusta bibunt." 
Tristia, 1 10, 23. 

The reference to England seems a strange ovei 
sight on the part of your correspondent. Is i 
moreover, a fact that wine has ever been froze 
into blocks in this country, even in its mo; 
northern parts 1 C. S. JERRAM. 

[Prof. Conington says of the former quotation, " Tl 

ith S. XI. FEB. 15, 79.] 



ge jgraphy is vague, as usual when he (Virgil) speaks o 
co intries out of the ordinary beat."] 

Meursius, in a note on Macrobius, Saturn. 
liK vii. cap. xii. p. 436, ed. Lond., 1694, has th 
authority for the frozen wine which MR. E. WAL 
FCRD mentions in an extract from Philip d 
Comines : 

' Cui addas velim insignem hunc ex Cominaeo locum 
' Vinum sic erat astrictum gelu in ipsis vasis, ut secui 
fractum distribueretur militibus, qui ascito aliunde 
calore, circumferebant illud, donee liquesceret.'" 

I have not a copy of the Memoirs with which tc 
compare the extract. ED. MARSHALL. 

Those who desire to see the latest collection o: 
facts regarding the severe winters which hav( 
visited this country may consult vol. xli. of the 
Journal of the Statistical Society of London (1878) 
p. 461. As to frozen wine, I never tasted any bul 
once it was claret, supposed to have been very 
good. It was frozen into solid lumps, of course 
breaking the bottles. When thawed it tasted like 
dirty water with a little ink in it, and I believe in 
the solid form had none of its original flavour. 

Belsize Park Gardens. 

_ CURIOUS EPITAPH (5 th S. xi. 108.) Three years 
since the curious epitaph on George Eoutleigh was 
read by myself on a tombstone on the east side of 
the south porch in Lidford Churchyard, Devonshire. 
Another curiosity was the parish stocks stored 
away in the aforesaid porch. 

C. T. will find that Mr. Tegg, in his little work 

ntitled Epitaphs, Witty, Grotesque, Elegant, &c>. 

ives the burial-place of George Eoutleigh as 

lidford Church, Devon. S. A. 

See Mr. Eavenshaw's Antiente Epitaphes (187 
p. 183, 184, with the surname as Eongleigh (not 
loutleigh) and other differences. ABHBA. 

TWELFTH DAY (5 th S. xi. 3.) The following 
Id Burgundian custom may be worth recording 
n the columns of "1ST. & Q." On the eve of 
n welfth Day the children go round to the various 
ouses chanting the following : 

" Le Gateau des Hois. 

Pour Dieu, pour Dieu, donnez-nous la part a Dieu. 
Dieu benisse le couteau, qu'il en coupe un bon morceau, 
Dieu benisse la fourchette, qu'elle en donne un' bonn' 

liquette [leche]. 

Pour Dieu, pour Dieu, donnez-nous la part a Dieu." 
-he paper from which the above cutting is taken 
ives also the tune to which the words are sung or 


GET (5 th S. x. 469.) The recent notice in 
A T. & Q." of the late Lord Chancellor of Ireland, 

Sir Maziere Brady, as a poet, induces me to send 
the following graceful lines by him, which have 
not been published before. I have them from his 

Light high the beacon flame ! 

Hang out the banners wide ! 
And shout an English welcome 
To greet a Danish bride ! 

She comes but not as came 

The fierce sea kings of old, 
With flashing sword and torch of war, 

And battle-flag unrolled. 

With love and peace she comes 
Prom her dear Northland shore, 

With a hand and heart for England, 
For England evermore. 

Joy, love, and peace be thine, 

Fair daughter of the Dane ; 
Joy now, and every coming year 

Be joy to thee again ! 

Love true as thine from him 

Who takes thee to his home ; 
Peace to thy latest earthly day, 

And long be that to come ! 

And deep a nation prays 

That, lady, thou wilt be 
All comfort to the widow'd one 

Who gives her son to thee. 

Light high the beacon flame ! 

Hang out the banners wide ! 
And shout an English welcome 

To greet a Danish bride ! 

March 8, 


CRANMER'S AUTOGRAPH (5 th S. xi. 83.) In the 
Eouth Library at Durham are at least two volumes 
in which Abp. Cranmer has placed his autograph 
signature. One is " Gregorii Nazanzeni | Theologi 
Oratio- | nes novem ele- | gantissim?e. | Gregorii 
ISTysseni J Liber de Horniue, Qute omnia | nunc 
primum, emenda- | tissima, in lucem prodeunt. 
[Anchor and dolphin, with "AL DUS"]. 
M.D.XXXVI." On the top of this title is written 
' Thomas Cantuar." In the same volume are 
T-egory of Nazianzen's sixteen orations. Inside 
he cover is written in Dr. Eoutb/s handwriting : 
" Gregorii Naz. Oratt. 9. 
Aid. Venet. 1536. 

Orat. 16. 

Aid. Venet. 1516. 

larum principum editionum Exempla* quae prse 
manibus habes, penes Beatum Mariyrum Thomam Cran- 
nerum,* Archiepiscopum Cantuariae olim fuerunt, uti 
stendit chirographum ejus libello prsefixum." 

The other is, " 10. wic- | LEFI VIRI VNDIQVA- | 
[ue piis. Dialogoru libri q'ttuor [on Divinity and 
deas, on Creation, on Virtues and Vices, and on 
he Sacraments, &c., of the Eoman Church], 

MDXXV." (s.l.). With it is bound "I. H. De 

* In red ink written over the black. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [6* s. XL FEB. 15, 79. 

Ecclesia" (Prague, MDXX.). On the top of the 
former title is " Thomas Cantuarien," in the same 
half black-letter, half current hand as the other. 
There are some MS. notes by Dr. Kouth relating 
to the book, but not to the signature. A former 
owner has written, " The autograph at the top is 
that of Archbishop Cranmer (E. Farmer)." This 
of Wickliffe's is in itself opus rarissimum. 

J. T. F. 
Bp. Hatfield's Hall, Durham. 

His signature, " Thomas Cantuariens," in a hand 
rather more cursive than that which is engraved 
in Sims's Autographs, appears on the title-page of 
a copy of the Apologia of Erasmus in reply to 
the charge brought against him by the Prince of 
CJarpi, printed at Basle by Froben, 1531. On the 
lower part of the title-page is the signature of Lord 
Lumley, showing that this was one of the books 
which came to him by bequest from the Earl of 
Arundel in 1579. NIGRAVIENSIS. 

S. xi. 89.) The following two pieces of legislation, 
the first of which is an Act of the Barebones Par- 
liament, may serve to your correspondent for an 
indication of what he wants. They are taken 
from Scobell's Acts. P. 265 : 

Oct. 13, 1653. " Bill for passing the Custodies of Idiots 
and Lunatiques, under the Great Seal, shall be first 
signed by the Council of State, which shall be a sufficient 
Warrant to pass the same. The Commissioners of the 
Great Seal shall give relief to such Idiots and Lunatiques 
as any Commissioners or Keepers of the Great Seal, or 
the Master and Council of the late Court of Wards and 
Liveries, might have done. This Act to continue till the 
iirst of September, 1654." 

P. 281 : 

March 20, 1653-4. " The Chancellor, Keeper or Com- 
missioners of the Great Seal for the time being shall not 
pass any Custodies of Idiots and Lunatiques under the 
Great Seal before the same be signed by His Highness 
the Lord Protector, and that the same so signed by his 
Highness shall be a sufficient Warrant for passing the 
same under the Great Seal." 


35, PARK LANE (5 th S. xi. 108.) The object in 
the railed enclosure opposite 35, Park Lane is 
a specimen of nature's work, not man's, being 
a basaltic column, probably from the Giant's 
auseway. The hexagonal form and transverse 
jointing that are usual, though not invariable, in 
basaltic columns are well shown in this instance. 

E. M M. 

107.) E. H. A. will find some account of Victor 
Bastos's beautiful statue of Luis de Camoes in Lady 
Jackson's Fair I/usitania, published in 1874. 
This statue was erected, she tells us, in 1867, 218 
years after the death of Camoens, in the Largo das 
dois Egrejas (the Square of the Two Churches). 
The statue, which is fifteen feet high, is surrounded 

by smaller statues of early Portuguese historians 
and poets. It stands on a pedestal twenty-three 
feet high. All this and something more is told by 
Lady Jackson. YELTNEB. 

MANUS CHEISTI (5 th S. xi. 3.) Southey, in The 
Doctor, gives from Dr. Adrian Gilbert the follow- 
ing recipe for composing the Manus Christi: 
" The true receipt required one ounce of prepared 
pearls to twelve of fine sugar, boiled with rose 
water, violet water, cinnamon water," or howsoever 
one would have them ; " but apothecaries seldom 
used more than a drachm of pearls to a pound of 
sugar, because men would not go to the cost 
thereof : and the Manus Christi simplex was made 
without any pearl at all." It was to be used for 
all faintness, hot agues, heavy fantasies, &c. It 
was a draught, not a candy, as ZERO supposes. 

Oculus Christi is the Salvia verbenaca or 
vervain sage. The seeds produce a quantity of 
mucilage when moistened, and are most useful for 
extracting substances from the eye. If put under 
the eyelids for a few moments the tears dissolve 
them, and the mucilage envelopes and brings 
away with it any sand, dust, or grit that may have 
entered. The old writers called it Oculus Christi, 
and they thought clary was clear eye. 

Gratia Dei is given in Bailey's Diet, as the 
lesser centaury, which perhaps is what Withering 
calls the marsh centory or least gentianella. 
But there is a Centaurea benedicta that had 
wonderful repute once, though held of no im- 
portance in modern materia medica. That is 
nothing against it, for pilewort, which is invaluable, 
is also set aside as useless by Lindley. Now this 
Centaurea benedicta Simon Paulli declares has no 
equal for ulcers, and has cured cancer. Arnoldus 
cured with it ulcers where all other medicines 
proved vain. They thought it cured plague ; 
that it was a fine bitter and an alexipharaiic. It 
is admitted in modern practice to have restored 
a stomach to health that had been injured by 
irregularities, and amongst country people it is 
still in vogue as a posset drink. Infusion of the 
leaves, Meyrick says, in large quantities is a vomit ; 
in small quantities it excites appetite and prevents 
sickness. All this shows that it has great qualities, 
and may be well called Benedicta or Gratia Dei. 
The corn centaury has also properties of value for 
the sight, and as a styptic Centaurea cyanus. 

C. A. WARD. 


MS. HISTORY OP FERMANAGH (5 th S. xi. 28.) 
Is C. S. K. certain that this MS. was formerly in 
the possession of Sir William Betham ? I ask the 
question because I cannot discover it in the cata- 
logue of Sir William's MSS. sold on May 10, 1860, 
by Sotheby & Wilkinson. However, it may have 

5> 8. XI. FEB. 15, 79.] 



] een previously disposed of, as I had the refusal of 
j MS. purchased at the auction by Sir Thomas 
3 'hillipps for one-third of the price asked from me. 

Y. S. M. 

JUDGE ST. LEGER (5 th S. x. 208, 318.) Sir 
J ohn St. Leger, Knt., a Baron of the Court of Ex- 
chequer in Ireland, died May 14, 1743 (Archdall's 
Peerage of Ireland, vol. vi. p. 119). L. L. H. 

" GINNEL " (5 th S. x. 388 ; xi. 97.) In the 
town of Strabane, Ireland, there are a number of 
r arrow passages, called " vennels," from the main 
street to the river shore, between or through the 
intervening houses. They are public rights of 
way about six feet wide. No one that I asked 
when there could give me a clue to the meaning of 
the word. C. E. 

THE AMERICAN CLERGY (5 th S. x. 496 ; xi. 58.) 
The Rev. J. N. McJilton, author of Poems, 
1840, was formerly a resident at Baltimore, but 
has been dead quite a number of years. The Rev. 
E. J. Stearns, A.M., formerly professor at St. John's 
College, Annapolis, is now living at Easton, Talbot 
County, Md., where a letter will reach him. 
There is a Rev. Haynes L. Everest registered as 
living at Batavia, New York State. S. W. B. 

The Rev. Charles W. Everest, born at East 
! Windsor, Connecticut, May 17, 1814, died at 
'. Waterbury, Conn., January 11, 1877. 

F. J. P. 

ROOT="CAT" (5 th S. x. 514; xi. 117.) It is 

1 certainly true that draining pipes are often stopped 

j up by the roots of willow or other trees taking 

j possession of them, and dividing and subdividing 

within until they form a dense wad, impervious to 

! water ; but the offending substance more generally 

I is the creeping root or rhizoraa of the cat's tail 

\(Typha latifolia), which is perennial, and our 

(largest herbaceous water-plant, growing in or near 

ponds, marshes, and ditches. Drainers call them 

" cats," and a farmer tells me " he has paid many 

a twenty pounds for taking out the cats," mean- 

ng the masses of fibrous roots of the cat's tail or 

?reat reed mace which had insinuated themselves 

nto the joints of the pipes, and by continuous 

growth completely plugged them. F. S. 

F LATIN (5 th S. ix. 387, 438 ; x. 29, 150, 176, 
58.) I am afraid I must infer from the tenor of 
be communications of LORD A. COMPTON and 
I. N. that I failed to make clear to them my 
bjections to the new pronunciation of the Latin 

as our w, lately sanctioned by our universities, 
.t present I waive the point of how it was pro- 
lounced by the ancient Romans. I am not such 
^ classicist as to venture to impugn LORD A. 
)OMPTON'S argument from the Greek, which ought 

certainly to carry weight in such a matter. My 
present object is to repeat my protest against the 
late innovation on practical grounds. 

It is well known that England up to a late 
period has differed not only from continental 
nations, but even from Scotland and Ireland, in 
the pronunciation of Latin, particularly as to the 
vowels a, e, and i, and that such difference has 
proved an obstacle in the way of English learned 
men making themselves understood in attempting 
conversation in Latin with savants of other countries. 
By our late university authorities that obstacle has 
been for the most part removed as regards those 
three vowels. But, strange to say, those authorities 
have invented (I say it designedly) a fresh obstacle 
to such intercommunication in pronouncing the 
Latin v as an English w. None of the continental 
nations, as far as I know, ever pronounced it so in 
the memory of man, but have given it, probably 
always, and certainly at present, the same sound as 
our own v. I must observe, en passant, that sound 
in a language may be merely a matter of taste ; 
but still there is some sort of taste in it. One can 
hardly imagine, for instance, an opera singer 
venturing to give such an edition of " Son vergine 
vezzosa " as this, " Son werghenay wezzosa " ! 
Why should our taste be offended, and we be 
isolated from other nations, in our pronunciation 
of this letter as a w, because from Greek analogies, 
or otherwise, it may be fancied that the ancient 
Romans so pronounced it ? H. N.'s remarks on 
transliteration in dialects of different English 
counties have no application to the present point, 
which concerns only pronunciation as between 
England and foreign countries. M. H. R. 

INGS (5 th S. ix. 345, 470; x. 193, 352.) MR. 
VINCENT S. LEAN says : " ' Great cry and little 
wool, as one said at the shearing of hogs,' has 
staggered many, from a seeming allusion to 
swine " ; and he infers that a hogg sheep is meant, 
and goes on to explain that because a hogg sheep 
was a young sheep it would only have a small 
quantity of wool. This seems very reasonable, 
and would carry conviction to many ; but it is 
altogether wrong. I have seen thousands of sheep 
clipped, and know, beyond all doubt, that hogg 
fleeces the first fleeces clipped are almost in- 
variably the heaviest, and always the most valuable 
the sheep ever yields. The greater proportion 
there is of hogg wool in a farmer's " clip," the more 
it fetches in the market. Besides, hoggs do not 
cry when shorn, but are as still as mice. The 
proverb alludes to swine, two or three hundred 
years back always called either swine or hoggs ; the 
poung only appear to have been called pigs at 
east, I cannot recollect an instance of the full- 
grown animal being so called. The word pig does 
not occur in any of the old versions of the Bible 



[5 th S. XI. FEB. 15, 79. 

which I possess. I have generally heard the 
proverb quoted thus, " Great cry and little wool, 
as the Devil said when he shore a hogg." Properly 
Devil, for no man could shear a pig, the latter 
being so " fractious " and " owd-farrand." 

" Do not lose the sheep for a ha'porth of tar " 
alludes to the custom of applying tar to cuts and 
sores to keep off the flies, which would otherwise 
" strike " the sheep, and, if not attended to, they 
would soon be eaten to death by worms. I have 
seen sheep nearly dead from this cause, and many 
farmers do constantly lose sheep for want of 
a " ha'porth of tar " applied in time. Sheep are 
liable to worms from other causes, and a shepherd 
generally carries his tar with him, now in an old 
blacking-bottle, but in olden times it was kept in 
a box, hung to a belt round the waist, with shears 
for trimming, knife for paring " cleas," &c. In 
fact, I think I could give instances of shepherds 
therefrom being jocularly called " old tarboxes." 
So neither of these proverbs has changed its 
meaning. This is also true of " I '11 put a spoke in 
his wheel." It means to obstruct, to bring to 
a standstill. If a man take a strong spoke or 
stave and put it, in the proper way, in the wheel 
of a loaded cart, he will lock the wheel and stop 
the carfc. I have often seen this done by carters 
and ploughmen when having a little " horse play " 
together. These proverbs are well understood by 
rustics, for whom they were intended ; they are 
only difficult to studious town-bred men not well 
acquainted with country life. K. K. 


MR. SOLLY wishes for a " carefully prepared 
handbook of proverbial sayings." I think he will 
find an approach to his wish in a little work that 
was published about eighteen months ago, entitled 
Proverbial Folk-Lore, by the author of Songs of 
Solace (no date), published at Dorking by R. j. 
Clark, printer, and Simpkin, Marshall & Co., 
London, pp. 165. J. JEREMIAH. 

Keswick House, Quadrant Road, Canonbury, N. 

Sheep may be sometimes hogs, but sows at least 
are not sheep. Vide the Scotch proverb, " Mich 
cry, little woo, as the Deil said when he sheared 
th' auld soo." P. P. 

357.) The curious extract given under this head 
by SIR WALTER C. TREVELYAN refers to the still 
popular tradition that the legionary soldiers, who 
garrisoned the Roman Wall between the mouth oi 
the Tyne and the Solway, communicated with each 
other, at the various stations along the line of the 
Wall, by means of a tube of brass or lead built 
into the masonry of the Wall. It is somewhat 
startling, however, to learn that the Romans de- 
fended the Wall with cannon against the paintec 
Caledonians. This must prove a staggerin 

)iece of news to the learned historian of the Wall, 
lie Rev. J. C. Bruce, of Newcastle-on-Tyne. 
weaving out the extraordinary cannon item, the 
,radition has been handed down for ages that the 
garrisons of the stations on the Wall communicated 
with each other by means of a brass tube, which 
extended the whole length of the Wall. This 
urious tradition has been thus embalmed by 
Drayton in his Polyolbion : 
" Towers stood upon my length, where garrisons were 


Their limits to defend ; and for my greater aid 
With turrets I was built, where sentinels were placed 
To watch upon the Pict ; so me my makers graced 
With hollow pipes of brass, along me still they went, 
By which they in one fort still to another sent, 
By speaking in the same, to tell me what to do, 
And so from sea to sea could I be whispered through.'* 

Dr. Bruce, in his Wallet Book of the Roman 
Wall (p. 31), thus refers to the tradition, which 
would seem to have been well known in Drayton's 
ime : 

" If tradition is to be credited, the Romans were not 
satisfied with roads as a means of rapidly communicating 
information ; speaking-trumpets or pipes, we are told, 
ran along the whole length of the Wall, It may perhaps 
3e sufficient to say that no one is known to have seen 
these speaking-tubes, though earthen and leaden pipes, 
for the conveyance of water, are not unfrequently met 
with in the stations." 


Stacksteads, Lancashire. 

PUBLIC-HOUSE SIGNS (5 th S. ix. 127, 174, 257, 
293, 353, 391, 439, 472 ; x. 57, 137, 276.) 
I was talking with a friend " who knows a thing 
or two," and I said that some years ago I saw The 
Mayor of Garratt performed at the St. James's 
Theatre, and I believed it was the regular " gag," 
as it is technically termed, for Jerry Sneak to give 
the most absurd sign to the public-house where 
his club used to meet. On that occasion Jerry said, 
" I do go to our club, where I sing a song, I do ; we 
meet at ' The Flatiron and Fourpence.' " The ori- 
ginal text is, " To our club at the ' Nag's Head ' in 
the Poultry" (Foote's Works, 1830, vol. ii. p. 216). 
My knowing friend said the " association of that 
supposed sign is very easily accounted for. In the 
good old times there was a fixed tariff at the pawn- 
brokers' for all things pawned, and fourpence was 
the regular advance on a flatiron." Shoddy has r 
I suppose, reached flatirons as well as everything 
else ; but whatever may be their value now, this 
illustration of the former social life of the working 
classes is worth preserving. CLARRY. 

I remember a curious old sign which was sus- 
pended close to a small inn standing on the road 
between Hastings and Bex Hill, somewhere about 
the present site of the Marina, St. Leonards. It 
was roughly carved in bas-relief in wood, and 
painted in colours. It represented a man in the 
full dress of the middle of the last century, blind- 


S. XL FEB. 15, 79. J 



folded, and holding a pair of scales in his right 
land. Underneath was painted, " New England 
3ank." I should like to know the meaning and 
origin of this singular piece of carving, and whether 
t is still preserved in some collection of relics of 
;he past. Z. Z. 

The intent of this tavern sign, " The Case is 
Altered," was discussed in "N. & Q.," 2 n(i S. iv. 188, 
.235, 299, 418, where full information is contained 
respecting the origin of the phrase and the use of 
it in literature, as well as its adoption by inn- 
keepers. ED. MARSHALL. 

MRS. SHERIDAN (5 th S. xi. 18.) Frances 
Sheridan (1724-1766), the authoress of the two 
novels Memoirs of Miss Sidney Biddulph and 
History of Nourjahad, and also of the two comedies 
The Discovery and The Dupe, was a very near 
"connexion of the family of Richard Brinsley 
Sheridan," as she was his mother, and therefore 
wife of Thomas Sheridan. H. B. W. 

247, 374 ; xi. 119.) While looking into Browne's 
Pseudodoxia Epidemica I came across (bk. iii. 
chap, xvi.) a treatise on vipers, to which some of 
your readers may like to refer. 


514 ; xi. 116.) I have read somewhere (t think in 
" N. & Q.") that Latch is a miry way: hence Shop- 
latch would be a dirty street bordered by shops. 

X. P. D. 

(5 th S. xi. 88.) The diary in question is that of 
Abraham de la Pryme. It has been edited by 
Mr. Charles Jackson for the Surtees Society. The 
MS. is in the possession of Mr. F. W. Bagshawe, 
the Oaks, near Sheffield. S. 0. ADDY. 


TRADESMEN'S TOKENS (5 th S. xi. 28.) I think 
CLARRY will find all the information he requires 
in Batty 's Catalogue of the Copper Coinage of 
Great Britain, &c., published by D. T. Batty, 
10, Cathedral Yard, Manchester. The parts 
already published contain descriptions of upwards 
of six thousand coins and tokens. As the cata- 
logue is classified in counties, it is very easy for 
reference. W. STAVENHAGEN "JONES. 

MARCH 24, NEW YEAR'S DAY (5 th S. xi. 89.) 
Before 1751 the year, in ecclesiastical affairs, began 
on March 25. Swift did not mean that it was 
New Year's Day with the Irish, but with the 
clergy. M. N. G. 

LYSIENSIS (4 th S. v. 435, 516 ; vi. 344, 427 
514 ; 5 th S. xi. 67, 117.) I am much obliged to 
MR. CHAPPELL for his suggestion, but evidently 

iysiensis cannot be the adjective of Lycia. I need 
lardly say that I had referred to Graesse's Orbis 
Latinus during my search after this puzzling 
vord. Has MR. CHAPPELL any edition later than 
,861] In my copy, of that date, no "Lycia in 
Europe " is mentioned at all. Lyciorum Campus, 
;he Lechfeld through which the Lech flows, could 
no more have given origin to Lysiensis than 
~ycia in Asia. J. DIXON. 

455 ; xi. 56.) See the short notice of the Rev. 
Peter Alley in "N. & Q.," 2 nd S. vii. 512. 

Y. S. M. 

DR. JOHN SPEED, THE POET (5 th S. x. 327, 
453.) In the account of the Speed family, con- 
tributed to the Journal of the Archaeological 
Society by the late Rev. E. Kell, it is stated that 
Dr. John Speed, M.D., of Southampton, senior, 
was buried in Holy Rood Church, Southampton, 
in 1710, aged eighty- five. There is error in both 
of these figures, the repetition of which in the pages 
of " N. & Q." calls for correction. Reference to 
Dr. Speed's monumental inscription in Holy Rood 
Church and to the church register of burials shows 
that he died on the 21st, and' was buried on the 
27th, of September, 1711, in his eighty-fifth year. 

PatchworL By Frederick Locker. (Smith, Elder 


IN all senses this is a dainty book. Its appearance is 
especially attractive, and its contents are light and effer- 
vescent, yet not wanting in value. The merit of a 
commonplace-book depends of course upon the man by 
whom the selections are made. Mr. Locker has nice 
taste and delicate judgment, and his work is excellent. 
When Dodd's Beaiities of Shakspeare was shown to 
Sheridan, or pome other celebrity, he is said to have 
observed, " Very good indeed; but where are the other 
volumes'?" We feel inclined to ask a similar question. 
Mr. Locker must have abundant materials for a com- 
panion volume, if not for more. Compared with the pon- 
derous commonplace-booka of Southey, his little volume 
is like a cockboat by a man-of-war. It has, however, 
the merit that few of the anecdotes or observations are 
ushered in without some comment of the author, 
which rarely fails to enhance their value. The books 
most frequently laid under contribution are the sort 
that would have delighted Charles Lamb. Hazlitt is 
perhaps the name that appears most frequently, his 
criticisms having obviously won Mr. Locker's warm 
appreciation. After him come, however, Thomas 
Fuller, the author of the Worthies, Richard Crashaw, 
the Catholic poet, Andrew Marvell, \yhose charming 
lyric to his coy mistress is given entire, Browne, of the 
Britannia Pastorals, and even Aphra Behn, whose one 
marvellous lyric, "Love in fantastic triumph sat," is 
quoted. Mr. Ruskin, Hartley Coleridge, Grote, Gibbon, 
and such American poets or humourists as Lowell and 
Oliver Wendell Holmes, contribute. One of Mrs. 
Browning's Sonnets from the Porlug^lese is inserted. De 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [** s. XL FEB. is, 79. 

Quincey, Ben Jonson, Sydney Smith, are names that 
occur with more or less frequency, and once the name 
of Thomas Paine comes in. " Gastibelza," one of the 
most directly inspired of M. Hugo's early lyrics, is given 
in full. A selection like this shows the catholic taste 
which is the one essential in a work of this class. Some 
of Mr. Locker's own lyrics are introduced, and form not 
the least pleasing portion. There are, moreover, some 
capital stories, and two or three letters by Swift and 
others, printed for the first time. One or two political 
paragraphs are the only things which " give us pause." 
They are in good taste enough, but superfluous in a book 
of this class. 

Palgrave Family Memorials. Edited by Charles John 

Palmer and Stephen Tucker (Rouge Croix). 
THE passion for family monographs appears to pre- 
vail in this country almost as extensively as on the 
other side of the Atlantic. The production of such 
volumes as the one before us is a creditable employment, 
and cannot be too strongly commended. The personal 
history of individuals and the collective histories of 
families combine to make up the history of the nation. 
While much of the detail in a volume like this is im- 
portant only to the family immediately concerned, there 
is always something in the lives of some members of it 
of more general interest, and worthy of perpetuation. 
The joint editors of this volume have displayed remark- 
able skill in hunting out all that is to be known about 
the family of Palgrave, and have produced the results of 
their labours in an intelligible and systematic form. 
The volume contains numerous portraits and other 
illustrations, and is admirably printed by Miller & 
Leavins, of Norwich. The numerous and well-con- 
structed pedigrees are fortified by full abstracts of 
numerous wills, monumental inscriptions, and copious 
extracts from parish registers, and the volume may be 
regarded as a model one of its kind. Unfortunately, it 
has been printed for private distribution only, which 
fact may induce the editors to regard as impertinent the 
only adverse criticism we can pass upon it, viz., that the 
index is not so complete as it should be. The index to 
such a work as this, to be of any value, should contain a 
reference to every name that appears in the text, and this 
certainly is far from being the case in the present 

Shakespeare's Time. A Lecture delivered at the York 
Institute, November 5, 1878. By Edwin Goadby. 
(A. H. Moxon.) 

THIS is a pleasant and attractive sketch, not of Shak- 
speare's character or career, of which the author judi- 
ciously says little, but of social life in England during 
the later Elizabethan time. Perhaps Macaulay's famous 
third chapter may have furnished its model. At any 
rate, Mr. Goadby has gone for his information to sources 
more original and recondite than Mr. G. W. Thornbury 
and even Mr. Seebohm, both of whom he quotes ; and in 
spite of a few slight inaccuracies, his lecture must have 
been a lively and profitable " eye-opener'' for the som- 
nolence of a cathedral town. 

THE " BUILDER." There is a pleasant announcement 
in last Saturday's number of the Guilder, a propos of its 
being No. 1,879, the same number as that of the present 
year. Of that number no less than 1,781 have been 
edited by our old friend George Godwin during some 
thirty-four or thirty-five years; he boasts and it is a 
proud boast that his endeavour has been to perform 
faithfully, and with high aims, the functions of his 
position ; that self-seeking has never been a motive ; 
that pain has never been willingly given ; that while the 
Builder has often stepped out of the way to assist 

budding talent or back up struggling desert, it has 
never knowingly sought to gratify personal pique. 

flotfce* 10 C0tre*p0n*tJS. 

We must call special attention to the following notice: 

ON all communications should be written the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

R. J. G. (Stratfield Mortimer). "Sodor" is a contrac- 
tion for " Sodorensis," like " Roffen " for " Roffensis." 
It means bishop of the Sudoreys, or Southern Islands, 
i.e. the Hebrides, or Western Isles, which were named 
Sudoreyar by the Norsemen from their geographical 
position in relation to the Orkneys and Shetlands, or 
Norderneyar. The diocese of Man and the Isles was 
originally co-extensive with the kingdom of Man and the 
Isles. When the Manx portion fell under English rule, 
and was separated from the Isles, a division of the 
diocese was the necessary result. The Scottish portion 
gave title to the " Sodorensis Episcopus," or Bishop of 
the Isles, in the Scottish Church, while the Manx portion 
gave rise to a new bishopric of Man, which, however, 
continued also to use the title " Sodorensis," though the 
jurisdiction was confined to the Isle of Man. 

F. C. T. (" The Almanack "). There appears to be 
nothing on this subject in Brand's Popular Antiquities 
(Hazlitt's edit.). There are passages in Hone's Table 
Bool, pp. 137 and 270; and in his Tear Boole, p. 44, under 
Jan. 13, mention is made of two Clog almanacks in the 
collection at the College, Manchester, similar to that 
which is engraved as a frontispiece to the second volume 
of the Every-Day Book, and described in that work. 
Of the word " Clog " Hone tells us there is " no satis- 
factory etymology." For the word " Almanack " Larousse 
suggests both Celtic and Arabic etymologies, but inclines 
to the latter, as does Haydn (Diet, of Dates). Virtue 
says that the Chinese had the reputation of being the 
oldest almanack makers. Egyptians, Greeks, Romans, and 
Indians have used almanacks from time immemorial. In 
the Middle Ages they were inserted in the service books 
of the church. In their present shape, of course, they 
are subsequent to the invention of printing. 

A. W. B. J. asks for the number and names of parks 
and recreation grounds given to the public during the 
last five years, or to be told where such information is to 
be obtained. We shall be happy to forward prepaid 
letters to our correspondent. 

E. WALFORD, M.A. See 5th s. ix. 214. Rivus there 

states that the trimming of an earl's robes was originally 

. of catskin, but that subsequent to 1529 it was changed to 

I ermine, the earls created before that date being allowed 

\ the privilege of retaining the catskin trimming, 

J. R. H. The value and the interest of your offer 
necessarily depend upon the accuracy with which the 
compilation has been made. If you can assure us on 
this point,' Yes. 

B. We believe we were misinformed. It might be as 
well if you would refer the matter to the Meteorological 

A KENT LABOURER. The language is Spanish. The 
meaning, " God be with you." 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to " The 
Editor of ' Notes and Queries ' "Advertisements and 
Business Letters to " The Publisher "at the Office, 20, 
Wellington Street, Strand, London, W.C. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com; 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print ; &* a 
to this rule 7/8 can make no exception. 

5* S. XI. FEB. 22, 79.] 



y, SATURDAY, FEBRUARY 22, 1879. 


N 3TES : Shrovetide, 141 The Use of Westminster Abbey in 
the Fourteenth Century, 142 Robert Burrowes, Dean of 
Cork Walter Scott : Mat Prior, 143 Supposed Antiquities, 
144 -Superfluous Use of Personal Pronouns The Galloway 
Flail A Fearful Story The Great Frost of 1683-4, 145 
Folk-Lore An Historical Ship Cornish Dialect in Old Plays 
Barnabe Googe s " Popish Kingdom " " To tarry " Shaff 
Tuesday Cyprus A Good Hint, 146. 

QUERIES: Lines attributed to Byron Sir Isaac Newton's 
House in the Minories Marshal Blucher-Norfolk Dialect 
and Hymnology An Altar-piece at Copenhagen Goronwy 
Owen, 147 Mrs. Henry Wood's "St. Martin's Eve" 
Dante's Voyage of Ulysses Fletcher's Saying about Ballads 

< St. Pancras " Loss and Gain" Wellingore " The Deil's 
Eeply to Robert Burns," 148 Bolles Pedigree English 

E Provincial Dialects " Waggonell" Bell A Bristol Elec- 
tioneering Speech "Haysel" A "Philadelphian" A Beau- 
tiful Bad Woman Authors Wanted, 149. 

REPLIES: Cyprus: Hogarth's Frolic, 149 -Periwig, 151 
The Right to bear Arms Laurence Eusden, 152 A Layman 
officiating as Deacon at Mass When do Sheriffs take Office ? 
Lysiensis The Meaning of "Scotia," 153 " Choiro- 
chorographia sive Hoglandke descriptio " The Blue Boar 
"Fylfot," 154 Nicholson's Charity Curious Surnames- 
Showers of Sulphur Old Saying " Moke " Chesney 
English Engravers, 155 Franks Leicestershire Fox-hunting 
"The Last of the Irish Bards" Field Names-Siege of 
Dudley Castle, 1644 " Inkle-weaver," 156 "The Pilot that 
Weathered the Storm" Tradesmen's Tokens ""Seeing is 
believing" A "Fussock" The Divining or Winch el Rod, 
157 Yateley, Hants Percy Bysshe Shelley Turnip-stealing 
Welsh Proverbs Norfolk Draughtsmen " Ost-house " 
The Pavior's " Hoh," 158 Bequests in Old Wills The 
Epistle for Good Friday Dr. Hurdiss Private Press-Wright 
the Conspirator, 159. 

NOTES ON BOOKS :-Church's " Dante " " Debrett " 
''Correspondence of the Hatton Family. 1 ' 

Notices to Correspondents, &c. 


Shrovetide was formerly a season of extra- 
ordinary sport and feasting. An idea of its im- 
portance in days gone by may be gathered from 
an old writer* of the seventeenth century, who 
quotes among its many titles the following : " Sole 
monarch of the month, high steward of the 
stomach, prime peer of the pullets, first favourite 
to the frying-pan, greatest bashaw to the batter- 
bowls, protector of the pancakes, first founder of 
the fritters, baron of bacon-flitch, earl of egg- 
basket." Taylor, too, the Water Poet, has given 
a quaint account of the various ceremonies per- 
formed at this time. One of the most popular of 
these was cock-fighting. It entered into the occu- 
pations of old and young. Schools had their cock- 
fights. Travellers,! we are informed, agreed with 
coachmen that they were to wait a night if there 
was a cock-fight in any town through which they 
passed. Even the church bells occasionally an- 
nounced the winning of a " long main." In the 
time of Henry VII. this horrible diversion seems 

* Vox Graculi, 4to., 1623, p. 55, quoted by Brand, 
Pop. Aniuj.,!^, i. 65. 

f S ' Couniies f E 

to have been practised within the precincts of the 
Court. It is now happily by law a misdemeanour, 
and punishable by penalty. At no remote period 
the cruel sport of " throwing at cocks " was prac- 
tised at Shrovetide. This, too, is a thing of the 
past. In imitation of this barbarous custom pro- 
bably arose a practice called " shying at leaden 
cocks." t 

The pancake we find from time immemorial 
assbciated with Shrove Tuesday. Shakspeare 
makes his Clown, in All 's Well that Ends Well, 
speak of something being " as fit as a pancake for 
Shrove Tuesday." In most places a great bell was 
formerly rung, intended to call the people to- 
gether for the ceremony of confessing and being 
shriven. When, however, the need of it ceased 
with the introduction of Protestantism, it got the 
name of the pancake-bell, and was regarded simply 
as a signal for the goodwives to fry their pancakes. 
It is still rung in many country places. Here and 
there it is known as the fritter-bell. In Lincoln- 
shire a bailey-bell is rung. In Northamptonshire 
the bell rung on this occasion is called the pan- 
burn-bell. Referring to pancakes, we may mention 
that in the time of Elizabeth it was customary at 
Eton for the cook to fasten a pancake to a crow 
(the ancient equivalent of the knocker) upon the 
school door. At Westminster School the cere- 
mony of tossing the pancake is still kept up. 

Various other Shrovetide observances are chiefly 
of a local nature. In Dorsetshire and Wiltshire 
a practice is kept up called " Lent crocking." The 
boys march about in bands, headed by a leader, 
who goes from house to house soliciting alms and 
repeating a doggerel 5 || of which the subjoined is 
a specimen : 

" I 'm come a-shroving 

For a piece of pancake, 

Or a piece of bacon, 

Or a little truckle cheese 

Of your own making. 

Give me some or give me none, 

Or else your door shall have a stone." 
A similar custom is practised in Devonshire, 
Hampshire, Cornwall, and Oxfordshire, and in 
other counties. In Somersetshire the day is called 
Sharp Tuesday, when the small boys, after dusk, 
throw stones against the house doors, begging at the 
same time for a present of some kind. In Stafford- 
shire Shrove Tuesday is known as Goodish Tues- 
day, and in some parts of Oxfordshire as Soft 
Tuesday. In Hertfordshire, Brand tells us, it was 
termed Dough-nut Day, when small cakes, called 
dough-nuts, were made. In Norfolk it is customary 
to eat a small bun, called " cocque'els," " coquilles," 
which is continued throughout the season of Lent.!" 
At Earls Barton, Northamptonshire, a custom of 

J Every-Day Book, 1827, i. 253. 
Book of Days, i. 237. 
|1 See"N.&Q.,"4 th S. ix. 135. 
If See " N. & Q.," 1 st S. i. 293, 412. 



[5 S. XI. FEB. 22, 79. 

making " leek pasties " is observed. A party of 
shoemakers, says a correspondent of the Gent. 
Mag. (1867, New Series, iv. 219), after procuring a 
chaff-cutter and a quantity of leeks, proceed to the 
green, where they publicly chop the vegetable, to 
the amusement of the spectators. 


It is well known that by the Saruin use the 
colour for all Sundays was red. Violet blue 
(indicum) was probably the colour, as at York 
and Wells, for Lent and Advent. Yellow was 
used on confessors' days. White is the other 
colour named. At Chichester the colours in the 
fifteenth century were black, white, green, and 
red, when black included probably a deep blue, 
as well as the black for masses of requiem. 
By the Exeter use the colours were 

1. Green and red. SS. Peter and Paul. 

2. Ked cloth of gold. Martyrs, St. Peter. 

3. Green (glaucice). Confessors. 

4. Blue (blodice). Obits, mass " Salus Populi," 
Sexagesinia, Lent. 

5. Bed (rubia). Passion and Holy Week, Lent, 
feasts when the choir was ruled, Martyrs. 

6. Black. Exequies, Missse Animarum, Good 
Friday, Lent, Ferial Obits. 

7. Violet ("purpull"). Sundays in Advent and 
Lent, All Souls', Advent, Vigils of Apostles. 

8. Cinereus. Ash Wednesday. 

9. Croceus. Unknown. 

10. White. In processions, B.V.M., and Virgins. 

11. Russet. Unknown. 

12. Green (viridis). Pro ferialibus diebus. This 
entry shows that there was a marked difference 
between the uses of Sarum and Exeter which 
Grandison perpetuated. Chapter Mass. 

At Wells : 

1. Red. Sundays, Maundy Thursday, Good 
Friday, Easter Eve and week, Virgin Martyrs, Ev 
and Octave of the Ascension, Martyrs, Apostles. 

2. White. Epiphany and Octave, Christmas 
Day Matin Mass, Ascension Day and Sundaj 
after, B. V. M., Virgins, Low Sunday. 

3. Blue and white. St. John Ev., Dedication o 
the church. 

4. Blue and green. Confessors. 

5. Green and yellow (croceus). St. Sylvester. 

6. White and red. The Circumcision. 

7. Violet blue (indicum). Advent. 

The double colours indicate the habit of th 
rectors of choir. On Good Friday the deacon am 
subdeacon wore black or purple, and at the Ad 
vent ordination white. 

The famous Sarum use is brief : 

1. Yellow (croceus). Confessors. 

2. Red. Sundays, Apostles and Martyrs not i 
Eastertide, Ash Wednesday, Maundy Thursday. 

3. White. Eastertide, Annunciation, St. John 
Sv., Dedication of the church, St. Michael. 

Violet blue (indicum) was worn at St. Paul's 
n All Saints' and St. Erkenwald's day, and red 
n feasts of Apostles. 

Westminster Abbey in the main followed Sarum, 
.sing (according to a MS. preserved at Canter- 

1. Red (rubece). All Sundays, feasts of Apostles, 
Holy Rood, and " Shere" Thursday. 

2. Blue (blodice). Michaelmas and Confessors, 
>ctave of St. Edward, St. Alban. St. Edward's day 
was marked by the use of blue tissue at Michael- 
nas (transl. Oct. 13), the Jesses at Christmas 
obit. Jan. 5), and blue mills for his vigils. Some 
if the palls were of Paris or Norfolk work. 

3. Green (virides, glaucece). St. Mary Magdalen, 
St. Benedict, vigils of Easter and Pentecost. 

4. Yellow. St. John, Evangelist ; cloth of gold 
aurtce brudata), St. Peter, probably the same as 
' a-Bruges," " tynsin gold," " de dyaspelis " (as at 


5. Purple or dark violet. St. Lawrence, Good 
Friday (us at Wells), Palm Sunday. 

6. White from Christmas to Candlemas on 

7. Black (as at Sarum). Masses of requiem. 
Some other ceremonial matters may be men- 
tioned : 

1. " Pannus de diversis coloribus stragulatis 
"in stripes] vocatis kanope ad cooperiendum 
cawagium [a chair of estate] regis juxta magnum, 

2. "Frontellum pro tempore quadragesimali 
assignatum magno altari, de panno de bawdkyn, 
coloris de tawny cum frontelecto." 

3. " Muscarium ad fugandum muscas," with a 
handle of silver plated : bancale, "vocatnm passus 
longitudinis ["the rolled palye otherwise called 
the passe "], ab hostio vestibuli usque ad magnum 

4. "j reredos attingentem usque ad celaturam 
magni altaris." 

5. The images of St. Edward and John ad 
Feretrum were veiled in Lent. 

There were copes of St. Edward and St. Dunstan ; 
St. Edward's ring ; and albes with the most gro- 
tesque embroidery, monsters ("bestise deformes"), 
baboons (" babewyni ") fighting with hatchets 
among vines and flowers, women-faced beasts with 
bows and arrows, knights tilting in a tournament, 
fountains jetting water, a fox and goose, an angler 
with a fish in his hand, swans, cocks, and peacocks. 
No wonder, then, that misericords have quaint 
carvings. I omit the contents of the travelling 
bag of a priest, containing the altar furniture, on 
a journey, and give 

" The revesting of the Abbot of Westminster at Even- 
song. Fyrste, the westerer shall lay the nbbott's cope 
lowest apon the Awter within the saycl Westre, next 

5' h S. XI. FEB. 22, 79.] 



} pon hys grey ames [almuce], then hys surples, after 
that hys rochett, and appemost hys kercheive [linen 
; mice]. 

" The revestyng of the sayd Abbott at syngyng hy 
jaasse. Fyrste the Westerer shall lay lowest the chese- 
1 ell; above that the dalraatyck, with the largest sleeves 
sppeniost and the other nethermost; then hys stole, 
5 nd hys fan one, and hys gyrdyll opon that; hys albe, 
theropon hys grey ames, above that hys rochet, and 
f permost hys kerchure [amice], with a vestrye gurdull 
to tukk up hys cote [the frock of the Benedictine]. Hys 
myter [with orphreys, metal plates, and eight long bells] 

d c rosse [with the church and synagogue] beyng redy 
with hys glovys and pontyficalls. And afore all thys you 
must se that hys subatyns [of gilt leather with divers 
atones] and sandalls [of blue, red, or black samyt or 
?ilk, embroidered with moons, roses, roundels, or vine 
leaves in silver work] be redy at hys fyrst comyng, when 
he settyth hym downe in the travys [a curtained seat].' 1 

When the abbot presided a " pyllow " was set 
apart for his seat : " Cervical frectatum cum 
ferulis diversorum colorum et diversis armis pro 
abbate quum residet in capitulo." 

Might I suggest through your columns, to those 
who have time for the work and influence with the 
(1) Surtees and (2) Camden Societies, how desir- 
able it would be to print 

(1) The Statutes of York, with extracts from 
the registers and chapter books. 

(2) The Laudabiles Consuetudines of Hereford ; 
the Ordinale and Statutes of Exeter (the latter 
imperfectly analyzed in the Arcliceologia) ; Chyle's 
MS. History and the Statutes of Wells ; and the 
Custumal of Norwich. 

The tide is setting away from church archae- 
ology into another direction, but surely there are 
some survivors of the old school who would spend 
their best toil on such congenial employment. 




Dean Burrowes entered Trinity College, Dublin* 
at the early age of thirteen years, under the tutor- 
ship of the Rev. William Hales, author of A Neiv 
Analysis of Chronology and other learned works. 
In 1775 he was elected a Scholar, and in 1782 a 
Fellow. In 1787 he was selected by the Earl of 
Charlemont to draw up the preface to the first 
volume of the Transactions of the recently formed 
Royal Irish Academy. He soon became a cele- 
brated preacher, a distinction which he enjoyed to 
a late period of his life ; and many have borne 
testimony to the effect produced by his sermons, 
delivered as they were with peculiar felicity of 
manner. In 1796 he resigned his fellowship for 
the rectory of Cappagh, in the diocese of Derry, 
and in the patronage of the College Board, being 
at the same time presented to the archdeaconry of 
.terns by Bishop (afterwards Archbishop) Cleaver. 
In 1798 Mr. Pelham, Secretary for Ireland, 
anxious to establish a good school at Ennis- 

killen (the mastership of the school there having 
hitherto been held as a sinecure), fixed on Dr. Bur- 
rowes as one fully qualified, from his various literary 
attainments, to carry out the important object in view. 
And in this he was not disappointed, inasmuch as for 
several years Dr. Burrowes maintained one of the 
best schools in the kingdom, appropriating part of 
its revenues, in a very creditable manner, to the 
foundation of scholarships to which pupils were 
elected after an examination. His archdeaconry 
he resigned on his appointment as Master of the 
Royal School of Enniskillen. In 1807 he ex- 
changed the rectory of Cappagh for Drumragh (or 
Ornagh), in the same diocese, and likewise in the 
gift of the Board of Trinity College. In 1819, 
having discharged the onerous duties of Master of 
Enniskillen School with unabated vigour for more 
than twenty years, he was promoted by Earl 
Talbot, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, to the deanery 
of Cork, vacant by the elevation of Dr. Magee to 
the bishopric of Raphoe ; and in Cork he resided 
for the greater part of each succeeding year, con- 
stantly preaching in his cathedral, and also devoting 
no little time and attention to the various charit- 
able institutions of the city. As Archdeacon 
Cotton has well described him, he was "an accom- 
plished scholar and most eloquent preacher, a 
man of great talent, sparkling wit, and instructive 
conversation." He died at his glebe-house, near 
Omagh, September 13, 1841, in the eighty-fifth 
year of his age, leaving behind him the following 
writings : 

1. A Letter to the Rev. Samuel Barber, refuting his 
Remarks on the Bishop of Cloyne's Present State of the 
Church of Ireland. Dublin, 1787. 8vo. 

2. The Preface to Vol. I. of The Transactions of the 
Royal Irish Academy. Dublin, 1787. 4to. 

3. Observations on the Course of Science taught at 
present in Trinity College, Dublin, with some Improve- 
ments suggested therein. Dublin, 1792. 8vo. 

4. A Sermon preached before the Association for Dis- 
countenancing Vice, &c. , in St. Mary's Church [Dublin], 
March 5, 1795. Dublin, 1795. Second edition, 1815. 8vo. 

5. Advice, Religious and Political, delivered in four 
Sermons to a Congregation in the North of Ireland, 1797 
and 1798. Dublin, 1801. 8vo. 

6. Sermons on the First Lessons of the Sunday Morn- 
ing Service, from the first to the thirteenth Sunday after 
Trinity ; together with four Sermons on other Subjects. 
London, 1817. 8vo. 

7. Sermons upon Various Subjects. London, 1818. 

8. A Sermon on the Coronation of King George IV. 
Cork, 1821. Svo. 

9. Sermons on the First Lessons of the Sunday Morning 
Service, taken from the Mosaic Scriptures ; being for the 
Sundays from Septuagesima to Trinity Sunday. London, 
1829. Svo. 


CORDELIER," A BALLAD. All great scholars have 
insisted on the supreme duty of verifying quo- 



XL FEB. 22, 79. 

tations. I have lately come across a very curious 
illustration of how the fulfilment of this obligation 
is sometimes neglected, and presumably the 
omission in this instance is chargeable to no less 
eminent an author than the late Sir Walter Scott. 
As is well known, it was this writer's habit to 
introduce each chapter of a novel with a few lines 
professing to be a quotation more or less appro- 
priate to the subject of the sequent text, and, as a 
general rule, he appended the name of the authority 
from whom he quoted. Critics have indeed sur- 
mised that when this reference simply appears in 
the form of the vague generalization " Old Play," 
Sir Walter himself is responsible for the composition 
of the pretended excerpt. Be that as it may, he 
sometimes referred to works sufficiently accessible 
to enable any reader to examine for* himself the 
accuracy and applicability of his prefatory extract. 
Such is the case in the misquotation I am about to 
note. The second chapter of the Heart of Mid- 
lothian (now the first, by employing the original 
first chapter as an introduction) is devoted, as 
every one knows, to the account of a riot in the 
streets of Edinburgh, which resulted in the hanging 
by lynch law of Captain John Porteous, in 1736. 
In narrating the incidents which led up to this 
tragedy it is necessary to describe the place of 
public execution in Edinburgh, viz. the Grassmarket, 
and the author, by a natural association of ideas, 
introduces his description by a reference to the 
corresponding locality in London, viz. Tyburn. 
This chapter is prefaced with the first two stanzas 
of Mat Prior's well-known ballad commencing, 
"Who has e'er been at Paris must needs know the 
Greve," entitled The Thief and Cordelier, indubitably 
a very appropriate quotation. The second verse, 
however, appears in all the editions of the novel 
with the third line so altered from the original as 
to read like little less than nonsense. Let me 
quote the stanza as reproduced apparently by the 
novelist himself : 

" There death breaks the shackles which force had put on, 
And the hangman completes what the judge but begun ; 
There the Squire of the poet and Knight of the post 
Find their pains no more balk'd and their hopes no 
more cross 'd." 

Now Prior wrote : 

" There death breaks the shackles which force had put on, 
And the hangman completes what the judge but begun ; 
There the Squire of the Pad and the Knight of the 


Find their pains no more balk 'd, and their hopes no 
more cross 'd." 

Of course in the above, in each version, the italics 
are my own. 

It will be observed that by the substitution of 
the dissyllable "poet" for the monosyllable "pad" 
in the perverted version, the omission of the definite 
article is indispensable for preserving the proper 
quantity of the line. Was this Scott's mistake or 
an originally overlooked printer's error that has 

been repeated carelessly for the last sixty years ? 
Of course no demonstration that it is an error is 
for one moment necessary. The briefest reference 
to Prior's works, or, if they are not at hand, to the 
pages of Wills's Poets 1 Wit and Humour, or to 
Chambers's Cyclopaedia of English Literature, or 
perhaps to even a common song-book, will evince 
what the ballad-maker wrote. But even without 
the trouble of referring at all, it is obvious that two 
classes of depredators were meant, the foot-pad 
and the highwayman the rogue who " padded the 
hoof" in his predatory pursuits and the "high- toby- 
man" who, mounted on his blood mare, " under the 
moon " scoured the post road for prey. Is it pos- 
sible to correct this error in future editions or is 
all the text stereotyped ? S. P. 


through a book intituled Recollections of Parts, 
by John Pinkerton (the author of several other 
works, and among them the well-known geogra- 
phical dictionary), I was struck by the following 
passage : 

" In 1679, some excavations being made by order of 
the police, in search of stolen articles said to be hidden 
between Belleville and Montmartre, a stone was found 
with an inscription in Roman characters, which was 
deemed worthy of examination of gentlemen of the 
Academy, and a committee was named for the purpose. 
Here is the inscription : 

S A N E S 

The Academy of Inscriptions, being completely puzzled, 
had recourse to the learned author ot the Primitive 
World, Count de Gebelen, who was inclined to think it 
antediluvian, or at least as ancient as the skeletons of 
unknown animals found in the neighbourhood. He had 
written to the late learned Mr. Bryant on the subject, 
and was preparing a dissertation to show that the Roman 
characters were derived from those of the inscription, \ 
which were very rude and primitive, and seemed to be 
the only remains of the Celtic empire. Meanwhile a 
member of the Academy, of a more cool and sagacious 
turn, visited the spot in order to determine the localities 
of this grand and interesting discovery. The visit and 
the stone making a noise in the village, the beadle waited 
on the Academy, recognized an old acquaintance of fifty 
years, and thus read the antediluvian inscription, ' Ici 
le chemin des anes/ that is, in plain English, ' This is 
the road for asses,' for those animals, which are very 
useful, though they be not academicians, have been 
employed from time immemorial in carrying plaster 
from the kilns, and the roads wind about so much, and 
sometimes end in nothing, that this admonition had be- 
come wholesome and salutary." 

This, of course, at once brought to my mind the 
admirable scene in The Antiquary about the Prsp- 
torium and Edie Ochiltree's "Praetorian here, 

5th s. XL FEB. 22, 79. J 



Praetorian there, I mind the bigging o't," and I 
think it not improbable that it was suggested by 
the French story. The Recollections of Paris was 
published in 1806, and The Antiquary in 1816. 
Pinkerton was Scott's fellow countryman, and the 
-subject of his book was likely to interest Scott, 
.particularly at the date when published. 

C. Ross. 

A REFLEXIVE SENSE. I have a cousin who con- 
tinually makes use of expressions such as these : 
" My head aches me," " His ear aches him," " Does 
your tooth ache you ? " He is much laughed at 
in consequence, and invariably replies that he 
can't help it ; he learned it from his mother. Now 
his mother is a North American, from New York 
I believe, and I would ask if such a form of ex- 
pression is really used in the United States. If it 
is, the question will arise whether this superfluous 
use of the pronoun has been derived from Old 
English, or is due to contact with Germans* or 
people of other nations. I have referred to Mrs. 
Oowden Clarke's Concordance of Shakespeare, but 
there I find only the form which is now in common 
use, viz., " My head aches." F. CHANCE. 

Sydenliam Hill. 

THE GALLOWAY FLAIL is particularly mentioned 
as an implement of warfare in an ancient Gallovidian 
ballad, entitled The Battle ofCraignilder, published 
some years ago by Captain Denniston. In one of 
the notes appended to that publication the author 
makes the following remarks : 

"The Galloway flail must have been a formidable 
weapon when wielded by a muscular arm. It is described, 
if we mistake not, by Henry the Minstrel, and seems to 
have been a weapon indigenous to the country, as several 
old writers mention it by that name. We had the for- 
tune to see one, reported to have been taken out of 
Dumbarton Castle ; it was in a museum collected by the 
ingenious Mr. Burrell in Edinburgh, about twenty-five 
years ago. In so far as our recollection of it is to be 
depended on, its staff" might have been about five feet in 
length, the soople about three and a half or four feet, and 
joined with iron rings, either in one or two places, so 
that it doubled with resistless force over any interposin- 

The lines of the ballad to which Captain Dennis- 
ton's note is appended are the following : 
" With vengeful speed fierce Douglas flew 

Where rang the swinging/cwY, man." 

The handstaff of the Galloway flail was made of 

^ashwood and the soople of iron, the latter having 

three joints, by means of which it " fitted like a 

thong to infold the body of a man, and in this 

* The Germans say, "Der Kopf that mir well," and 
t is possible that this dative may have been imported 
into English, whilst the possessive pronoun was retained 
at the beginning. Against this theory is the fact that 
my cousin's mother is about seventy years of age, so 
that when she was a child there were probablv but few 
Germans in the United States 

way was calculated to crush the ribs after the 
manner of a boa constrictor. One stroke could 
shiver a sword to pieces, and leave the person of 
the defenceless antagonist to be subjected to the 
same treatment as a sheaf of corn on the barn-floor." 
Such an implement was used by Theodorick in the 
encounter described in The Talisman, and with 
which the soi-disant " flail of the infidels" " struck 
into fragments a large stone which lay near him." 

I think this note will form a fitting sequel to 
" The Protestant Flail" : vide 5 th S. x. 451, 518 ; 
xi. 53. J. MANUEL. 


A FEARFUL STORY. Mr. Forster, in his Life of 
Goldsmith (ed. 1863, p. 235), tells a fearful story of 
a poor woman whose husband had been pressed to 
sea, and having been left with her two babies in a 
state of complete destitution, she attempted to 
steal some coarse linen from a shop in Ludgate 
Hill. Notwithstanding her defence, which, as 
Mr. Forster says, " might have penetrated stone," 
she was sent to the gallows with her infant sucking 
at her breast. This story, appalling as it is, is not 
at all incredible, as unfortunately nothing is too 
bad to believe of English criminal law in the 
eighteenth century ; still one would like to see a 
contemporary report of the affair. The date, Mr. 
Forster says, was 1770. Where did Mr. Forster 
find the story ? 

When one reads of such things happening in 
Christian England only a century ago, it is difficult 
to repress a feeling of contempt towards the shrieks 
of indignation uttered by Croker and writers of his 
class over " that series of murders which has no 
parallel in the annals of mankind " committed by 
the guillotine in the Reign of Terror, as surely no 
more foul murder than the above was perpetrated 
by the guillotine even during the last two months 
of the Terror, when its victims averaged twenty-five 
or- thirty a day. The guillotine-massacres, more- 
over, were committed in a period of the- wildest 
excitement, whilst our own gallows-massacres were 
committed calmly, deliberately, and in cold blood. 

THE GREAT FROST OF 1683-4. Although Nar- 
cissus Luttrell, in his Diary, gives us many in- 
teresting particulars of this frost, which began 
on December 15 and lasted over eight weeks, till 
February 4, the following entry in the parish 
register of Holy Rood Church, Southampton, made 
by the then vicar among the baptisms, under the 
month of February, 1683-4, is so curious an 
example of the severity of the frost in the south of 
England, that it seems worthy to be perpetuated 
in the pages of "N.&Q.": 

" This yeare was a great Frost which began before 
Christmasse, soe that y e 3 a and 4 ll > dayes of this month of 
February y e River of Southampton was Frossen all over 
and covered with Ice from Calshott Castle to Redbridge, 



[5'h S. XL FEB. 22, 79. 

and Tho. Martaine Ma r of a Vessell went upon y e Ice 
from Berry neare Marchwood to Milbrook-point. And 
y e River at Icben Ferry was soe Frossen over that 
severall persons went from Beauvois-hill to Bittern Farme 
forwards and backwards." 

The arm of the sea called Southampton Water is 
eleven miles in length from Calshot Castle to 
Eedbridge, at its head. B. W. GREENFIELD. 

BERRIES. It is worth while to remark on the 
failure of this folk-lore prediction the connexion 
between a hard winter and many berries. This 
severe winter is remarkable for the absence of 
berries of any kind, and consequently the absence 
of birds. I have not seen a fieldfare, redwing, or 
even a Norway crow for many weeks ; even 
thrushes have deserted my garden. 


AN HISTORICAL SHIP. The following, which 
appeared in the Shipping Gazette, deserves to be 
permanently placed on record in the columns of 
" N. & Q." : 

" At low tide, at Monterey, California, a part of the 
wreck of a vessel, formerly the Natalia, can be seen, 
though very few who see it are aware that she was the 
ship in which Napoleon Bonaparte escaped from Elba 
sixty-three years ago. The old vessel, now slowly going 
to pieces in the Pacific, brought to California in 1834, 
from Mexico, the colony of Hijas whose members in- 
tended to settle in what was then Sonoma county. Not 
liking Sonoma, they returned to Monterey, and gradually 
dwindled into indistinction, being typified by the ship 
that had transported them thither." 


71, Brecknock Road, N. 

over the dramatis persona of the London Prodigal, 
one of the plays falsely attributed to Shakespear, 
one is attracted by the words " Oliver, a Cornish 
Clothier." It is disappointing, however, to find 
that this person is described all through the play 
itself as a Devonshire man. He speaks a sort of 
rude Southern dialect of no philological value. 
Such quaint words as Vrampolness, dowssabel, 
chill (for "I will"), &c., to say nothing of the regular 
Southern v and z for / and s, are scattered here 
ind there to give the language a proper local 
colour. The clothier wishes that some one was 
'as well ydoussed as ever was white cloth in 
locking-mill." The playwright probably thought 
that only one dialect was spoken throughout the 
West country. TREGEAGLE. 

suggestion that a reprint of Googe's translation of 
Naogeorgus's Itegnum Papisticum would be a 
great boon to students of English folk-lore, lately 
made in the columns of " N. & Q.," is by no means 
a new one. A similar proposal was made in the 

Gentleman's Magazine as long since as May, 1827 
(p. 407), by a correspondent who admits that the 
book itself has never fallen in his way, but from 
the different extracts he has seen, " the work, as 
illustrative of our ancient customs and super- 
stitions, is highly interesting." Like the writer of 
this, I have never had an opportunity of examining 
Googe's translation (I have a copy of, the Itegnum 
Paputicum}} and I should be greatly obliged by 
the loan of a copy of Barnabe Googe's version, 
information as to where a copy may be seen in 
London, or, as a last resource, where one may be 
purchased if there is one anywhere for sale. 

Those interested in Barnabe Googe may be glad 
to know that in the Gentleman's Magazine for 
November, 1837, p. 477 et seq., are some interest- 
ing letters relative to the marriage of Googe 
(between whom and Lord Burleigh there was some 
relationship) with Mary Darell. 


40, St. George's Square, S.W. 

"To TARRY." During a recent visit to the 
United States I discovered that the verb to tarry 
is still used, in some parts of the States at least, 
in ordinary conversation. Two or three times I 
was asked (once I know it was in Virginia), "How 
long do you intend to tarry in the States 1 " The 
word, if now quaint to English ears, is very 
pleasing, and I caught myself regretting that with 
us it had passed into disuse. F. CHANCE. 

Sydenham Hill. 

SHAFF TUESDAY. Shrove Tuesday is so called 
in Somerset. Shaff occurs in many dialects in the 
sense of " nonsense, loose talk," so I suppose the 
term may be explained by the fun, and humour, 
and chaff of the Carnival. " A. L. MAYHEW. 


CYPRUS. Alexander Drumrnond, in his Travels 
in the East, published in 1754, says of Cyprus : 

" There is not (properly speaking) a river in the whole 
island, but I am fully persuaded that if it were in the 
hands of the English or Dutch, they would make such 
advantageous use of the springs, rivulets, and winter rains 
that it would in a little time become the garden of the- 
East, and exhibit beautiful plantations for the shelter of 
the cattle and ground." 


59, Westmoreland Road, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

A GOOD HINT. We are indebted to a much 
respected correspondent for the following sugges- 
tions, which we commend to general attention : 

1. Quicquid prcecipias, esto brevis. 

2. Quicquid forte roges, esto brevis. 

3. Quicquid respondeas, esto brevis. 

5" S. XI. FEB. 22, 79.] 




[We must request correspondents desiring information 
0:1 family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
n imes and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
a iswers may be addressed to them direct.] 

tie Rev. F. Hodgson, lately published by Mac- 
millan & Co., the following lines are quoted (vol. ii. 
p. 150) as Lord Byron's on the Bible : 
" Within this awful volume lies 
The mystery of mysteries. 
Oh ! happiest they of human race, 
To whom our God has given grace 
To hear, to read, to fear, to pray, 
To lift the latch and force the way ; 
But better had they ne'er been born, 
Who read to doubt, or read to scorn." 
But the same lines (with one or two trivial varia- 
tions) are put into the mouth of the White Lady 
of Avenel in the Monastery, and applied to the 
mysterious volume lying in the supernatural fire ; 
nor is any hint given that the verses are not the 
composition of the author of the story. Is it cer- 
tain that Byron wrote them ? They are not (as 
Mr. Hodgson, junior, admits) published with his 
I works. Byron died in 1824. What is the date 
of the Monastery ? C. S. JERRAM. 

Sir Isaac Newton is said to have lived in 

| Haydon Square, Minories, while he was Master 
of the Mint. When was his house taken down 1 
This is said to have taken place when the East 
India Company pulled down a number of houses 
there and erected warehouses on their site. Can 
any City antiquary state in what year that took 

I place? F.S.A. 

MARSHAL BLUCHER. A story, of which the 
following is a summary, is related of Marshal 
Blucher. He was first in the Swedish service, but, 
having been taken prisoner, he became a Prussian 
tiussar, to regain his liberty, in 1757, the second 
year of the Seven Years' War. Being without 
aews of his family, he obtained leave to visit his 
borne. On entering it he found it deserted, saw in 
one of the rooms a spectral apparition of its various 
members, and took the hand of his mother, whom 
he found a robed skeleton. Upon this, he mounted 
his horse and fled precipitately, and was found at 
daybreak under a tree, with his horse killed by the 
fall, and with his skull fractured. He buried the 
hand in the oratory chapel, but kept the bracelet 
which was on the wrist. When he felt that he 
was near death, in 1816, he sent to the king and 
urged him to come, and when he came told him 
his secret, said that the day, August 12, was the 
anniversary of his visit, put the bracelet into his 
hand, related the chorus of voices which he heard 
say, "To our next meeting," and expired. Is there 

any book in which there is an examination of this 
story and an attempt to ascertain its character ? 
It occurs in B. W. Savile's Apparitions: a Narra- 
tive of Facts, London, 1874. ED. MARSHALL. 

Morse published without a date, at Norwich, 
Original Hijmns and Poems, in which we have, 
says a writer in Christian Society for Nov., 1866, 
" many eccentric notions and a strange tinge of 
provincialisms." This verse is given as an example : 
" Lov'd with a love that never fail 

In Christ, who over all prevail ; 
He sits upon his throne to guide 
The footsteps of his chosen bride." 

Is this curious abandoning of the verbal termina- 
tions a common feature in the Norfolk folk-speech, 
or is it an individual effort to improve the English 
language? WILLIAM E. A. AXON. 

Museum, of Northern Antiquities at Copenhagen 
a very curious altar-piece attracted my attention. 
On it was painted a representation of the Last 
Judgment, rude I might almost say grotesque 
alike in conception and execution. The Saviour 
is seated as Judge, and while the good are being 
received into heaven, the devil is seen drawing 
the bad with a long rope into his unpleasant 
regions, which are here made to look as frightful 
as the most terrified imagination could picture. 
I have no note of the artist's name or the history 
of the altar-piece, which is, I think, a triptych. 
Can any reader assist me with the information ? 
I have described the painting as accurately as my 
memory serves me after a lapse of some time. 


GORONWY OWEN. Among your contributors 
are many from the United States, and we have 
occasionally been indebted to them for valuable 
notes. Perhaps some one of them could clear up 
for us a few lacunce in the life of the Welsh poet 
Goronwy Owen, so much admired by his own 
countrymen and a few outsiders who have taken 
the trouble to make themselves acquainted with 
his writings. In 1860 an edition of the works of 
Goronwy Owen was published at Llanrwst, but 
the American portion of the poet's life then re- 
mained almost as much a blank as it did when the 
words " Ignotus obiit " were inscribed on his 
monument in Bangor Cathedral. Nor are matters 
much mended in the enthusiastic and genial bio- 
graphy prefixed by the Rev. Robert Jones, Vicar 
of All Saints', 'Rotherhithe, to his elaborate 
edition of the poet's works, published by Longman 
& Co. in 1876. The very date of Goronwy's death 
is uncertain. He emigrated to America in 1757, 
and is known to have been one of the masters in 
William and Mary College, Williamsburg, Vir- 
ginia, in 1760, and we subsequently find him 



[5 th S. XI. FEB. 22, 79. 

vicar of a parish called St. Andrews, in Brunswick 
county, in the same State. This, then, is what I 
wish to ask through the medium of " N. & Q." : 
Will some of our American friends take the 
trouble to search the registers of St. Andrews, 
and see if there is any mention of the poet's 
burial, or of any of his children's births or deaths ? 
He is conjectured to have died about 1770. Are 
any descendants of Goronwy Owen living there ? 
Some twenty years ago or more a report reached 
this country that two of his granddaughters sur- 
vived in extreme old age. We may probably hope 
to get answers to these questions as there must 
be many persons in America who take an interest 
in Welsh matters. W. E. MORFILL. 

Are any instances known or on record of such 
a reception held by a corpse as that which is so 
graphically described by Mrs. Henry Wood in her 
novel St. Martin's Eve? It will be doubtless 
remembered that the loathsome spectacle to which 
I refer consists of the exhibition, in full bridal 
panoply and in an erect posture, secured by 
mechanical props, of the corpse of a young lady 
who died a few days before or after the date fixed 
for her expected marriage, and that the scene is 
laid in Normandy in a family more than ordinarily, 
even for those parts, attached to the Born an 
Catholic faith. The whole story may be an 
exaggeration of, or a parody upon, the practice of 
a corpse lying in state, now, I believe, happily well- 
nigh obsolete, in respect, at all events, to private 
individuals, and such a parody is perhaps per- 
missible in a sensational tale ; but, if I mistake 
not, the authoress in a foot-note states that such 
a spectacle once came under her personal observa- 
tion, and it would be interesting to learn whether 
and where the custom was (if it ever was) generally 
observed, whether it is still observed anywhere, 
and under what conditions. 


the twenty-sixth canto of the Inferno traceable in 
any legend, or is any hint of it discoverable in any 
Greek or Latin writer? I have heard that 
tradition makes Ulysses the founder of Lisbon, 
suggested probably by some similarity in the names 
of the hero and the city ; but so slight a circum- 
stance would hardly have given to Dante the germ 
of his conception, which may have been the pro- 
duction simply of his own creative faculty. In 
the Odyssey I can find nothing that could give rise 
to the imaginary voyage of Ulysses into the 
Atlantic. There may have been some fable 
respecting this voyage current in the Middle Ages 
and known to Dante. Can any of your readers 
afford any light hereon ] 


Leek, Staffs. 

Fletcher of Saltoun's well-known sentence in his 
Account of a Conversation concerning a right Regu- 
ation of Government for the Common Good of 
Mankind is in these terms : " I knew a very wise 
man, so much of Sir Christopher's sentiment that 
ae believed if a man were permitted to make all 
the ballads he need not care who should make the 
aws of a nation." I should like to know if the 
belief here attributed to " a very wise man " has 
been ascertained to have been written by any of 
our old authors, I am unable to find any trace ;. 
and it has occurred to me that Fletcher's having 
attributed the belief to " a very wise man," whom 
he " knew," was a pardonable piece of his stern 
egotism. JAMES PURVES. 


ST. PANCRAS. In a sketch of the parish of" 
St. Pancras, published in No. 1 of the North 
London Conservative last year, it is stated that 
eleven churches in England are dedicated to this 
saint. I can find only ten (as stated by me in Old 
and New London, vol. v. p. 325), as follows :: 
St. Pancras, Middlesex ; St. Pancras, Soper Lane 
(now incorporated with St. Mary -le- Bow) ;. 
Pancranswick, and Widdicorabe, Devon ; Coldred, 
in Kent ; Alton Pancras, in Dorset ; Arlington, in 
Sussex ; Wroot, in Lincolnshire ; and one in 
Chichester and Exeter respectively. Can any of 
your readers tell me an eleventh, or further supple- 
ment this list 1 E. WALFORD, M.A. 

Hampstead, N.W. 

" Loss AND GAIN." In the advertisement pre- 
fixed to the sixth edition of Loss and Gain the- 
author, John Henry Newman, states that it wa 
written as an answer to a tale directed against the- j 
Oxford converts to the Catholic faith which had 
been sent to him in 1847. To what " tale " doe* | 
Dr. Newman refer, and who was its author ? 


WELLINGORE. I am induced again to beg the- 
favour of being allowed to ask the valuable help of I 
the readers of "N. & Q." in my endeavour to 
ascertain the probable derivation and meaning of 
the place-name of this village Wellingore. 
stands on the edge of the abrupt termination of 
the ridge of hills which extends hither ten miles 
from Lincoln, and is known as the South Cliff. 
The name has at various dates (from that of 
Domesday Book downwards) been spelt Wel- 
lingoure, Willinghor, Walingor, Wellingover, &c.. 
I may add that there is no stream in the parish. 


Wellingore Vicarage, Grantham. 

poem in twenty-six verses, beginning, " 0, waes 
me, Eab ! hae ye gane gyte." By whom was it 

5 S. XI. FEB. 22, 79.] 



\v dtten ? Any particulars as regards date, &c. 3 
w )uld greatly oblige. W. T. 

BOLLES PEDIGREE. Where can I find a pedigree 
oi the Bolles family ? I have a copy of a letter 
from Sir J. Bolles " to the Eight Ho b ' le S r Eobert 
Cecyll, Knight, principall Secretary to her Ma%" 
with the following heading : 

" 1601, June 18, Louth. 
" Sir J Bolles to Cecyll. 

" His desire to leave the Irish Wars. Prays 
that his Company of foot may be bestowed on M r 
Farmer his brother-in-law." 

Where can I obtain some particulars of this 
connexion ? M. M. B. 

printed list of the different county glossaries which 
have been published up to the present time '? 


" WAGGONELL" BELL. Can any of your readers 
inform me what is the " waggonell " bell 1 When 
the commissioners of Edward VI. took away the 
Eoman Catholic relics, &c., from the churches of 
the town where I reside, they carried away the 
" waggonell " bell and the bells from the steeples. 


remember once reading a speech, delivered, I think, 
at a Bristol election, in which the speaker denounced 
one of the parties interested in the same as one 
whose money was his God, his ledger his Bible, 
and who had faith in none but his banker. Can 
any of your correspondents favour me with the 
name of the speaker, and the occasion and exact 
words of his speech ? H. W. C. 

" HAYSEL." Is this word a localism, or is it in 
general use ? What is the derivation of the latter 
syllable ? B. 

A " PHILADELPHIAN." Strype, in his account 
of Eoger Crab, the " hermit of Bethnal Green," 
observes, "He was a Philadelphian a sweet 
singer." What do these words mean ? 

Hampstead, N.W. 

A BEAUTIFUL BAD WOMAN. Can any of the 
readers of " N. & Q." tell me of what famous, 
clever, and beautiful woman it was said, and by 
what eminent man, that " three furies reigned in 
her breast sordid avarice, disdainful pride, and 
ungovernable rage " ? YELTNEB. 

In the New Monthly Magazine for 1843-44 a series of 
stones appeared anonymously, entitled "Reminiscences 
of a Medical Student." They were graphically written, 
ugh of course imaginary, and subsequently repub- 
lished in three volumes. Who was the author? 

JOHN PiCKroiiD, M.A. 

" Best friends would hate me if the hateful things 
That I know of myself they also knew " 

A. B. 
" A cloud lay cradled near the setting sun " 

E. R. W. 


(5* S. xi. 106.) 

Hogarth says- (Analysis of Beauty, Bagster's 
edit., p. 60) : " Most compositions in painting and 
sculpture are kept within the form of a cone or 
pyramid as the most eligible boundary, on account 
of their simplicity and variety." Further on in 
the same work (p. 84), he adds : " That sort of 
proportioned or winding line which will hereafter 
be called the precise serpentine line, or line of 
grace, is represented by a fine wire properly twisted 
round the elegant and varied figure of a cone." 
In his preface he quotes Lamozzo : " It is reported 
then that Michael Angelo vpon a time gaue this 
observation to the Painter Marcus de Sciena his 
scholler ; that he should alwaies make a figure 
Pyramidall, Serpentlike, and multiplied by one, 
two, and three. In which precept (in mine 
opinion) the whole mysterie of the arte consisteth." 
Hence in the vignette on the title-page of this 
able, most interesting, and unjustly neglected work 
of Hogarth we have, as the symbol of beauty, 
a pyramidal figure, or " triangular glass," and upon 
or in it a serpentine line, such as he contended 
Apelles traced upon the drawing-board of Proto- 
genes when he paid him the visit at Ehodes 
commemorated by Pliny. Hence also the " crest," 
as sketched by himself and painted on his carriage 
by Catton, the Academic herald painter, is sur- 
mounted by a cone, round which is twisted a 
serpentine line, or rather a straight line which 
in the twisting becomes serpentine. But there is 
also a deeper meaning in this symbol. A reference 
to Dr. Trusler's preface to his edition of Hogarth, 
reprinted by Major in his beautiful miniature 
reproduction, will show that Venus, the goddess 
of beauty, was worshipped by the ancients in her 
temple at Paphos under the symbolical form of 
a cone. An accompanying engraving of a medal 
said to have been struck on the occasion of the 
visit of a Eoman emperor to the shrine illustrates 
this, and a passage from the History of Tacitus 
(lib. ii.) is cited in confirmation : " Simulacrum 
dea3 non effigie humana, continuus orbis latiore 
initio tenuem in ambitum metse modo exsurgens." 
Thus, if this figure be compared with plate i. of 
the Analysis of Beauty, it will be seen that 
Hogarth, in his much ridiculed theory, has done 
nothing more than assert and illustrate a principle 
which had slumbered in obscurity for some two or 
three thousand years. 



[6th & XI. FEB. 22, 79. 

The word "Cyprus" read below is specially 
appropriate, not as commemorating the diplomatic 
achievements of Lord Beaconsfield, but as in- 
dicating an island dedicated to Venus, whose chief 
temple was at Paphos, one of its cities, and who is 
sometimes called " Cypris," from being its pre- 
siding deity and making it her most favoured 
habitation. The other word, still lower down, 
" Variety," must be held to shadow forth the 
opinion also illustrated by Hogarth, that beauty, in 
what he terms " the ornamental part of nature," 
consists in great measure of a " composed variety." 
This tenet, he contends, was held by the ancients, 
who " made their doctrines mysterious to the 
vulgar, and kept them secret from those who were 
not of their particular sects and societies by means 
of symbols and hieroglyphics." He adduces 
Shakespeare, " who had the deepest penetration 
into nature," as summing up " all the charms of 
beauty in two words, infinite variety" where, 
speaking of Cleopatra's power over Anthony, he 
says (Act ii. sc. 3) : 

" Nor custom stale 
Her infinite variety." 

And he cites Milton, in the motto on his title- 
page, as making the serpent employ the same 
element in his too successful efforts to fascinate the 
mother of mankind : 

" So vary'd he, and of his tortuous train 
Cuii'd many a wanton wreath in sight of Eve, 
To lure her eye." Book ix. 

Of which lines I will take the liberty of giving 
also, as still more forcibly illustrating Hogarth's 
point, Rolli's Italian version, 

" Si varia il Serpe i moti, e il flessuoso 
Strascico in piu scherzevoli attortiglia, 
Circoli, a vista d' Eva, ond' egli alletti 
II suo guardo," Lib. ix. 

as given on the title-page before me of the trans- 
lation into that language of the Analysis : L' Ana- 
lisi della Bellezza. Scritta col disegno di fissar 
V Idee vaghe del Gusto. Tradotta dalP Original 
Inglese di Guglielmo Hogarth. Livorno, 1761, 8vo. 
It will be remembered that Hogarth first threw 
down the gauntlet to his professional brethren in 
1745 by the introduction into one corner of his own 
portrait, which served as frontispiece to the collec- 
tion of his engravings issued in that year, of 
a painter's palette, on which was traced a waving 
line inscribed " The Line of Beauty." This 
mysterious symbol brought down upon him such 
an amount of inquiry, opposition, and satire, that 
he was forced to explain and defend himself in his 
Analysis of Beauty. The vignette upon the 
receipt of the subscription money for this was his 
well-known design of " Columbus breaking tht 
Egg," in which he satirizes those who proclaimec 
the nullity of his discovery. Here, too, on the 
dish on the table are seen a couple of eggs witl 
two eels twisted about them, as specimens of the 

much vexed line in question. It was doubtless in 
llusion to Hogarth's exposition of this theory that 
Dr. Johnson wrote the verse : 
" The hand of him here torpid lies, 

That drew the essential Form of Grace; 
Here closed in Death the attentive eyes 
That saw the Manners in the Face ! " 
Those who are desirous of pushing 'their inquiries 
^ this subject further may be referred to Dr. Le 
Petit's Ausf'dhrliche Erldarung der Hogarthischen 
Kupferstiche (" Die Analyse der Schonheit," 
. 57-87), Gottingen, 1854, small sq. 8vo., this 
aeing the " Vierzehnte Lieferung" of G. C. Ltch- 
;enberg's elaborate commentary to accompany 
Eliepenhausen's engravings from the designs of our 
great English pictorial satirist. 


The crest referred to by S. P., and reproduced 
in Hotten's reprint of the Five Days' Peregrina- 
tion, is (as stated) that designed by Hogarth for 
Catton,the coach-painter (vide Nichols's A necdotes, 
1785, p. 415), and published after his (Hogarth's) 
death by R. Livesay, the engraver, who was then 
lodging in Leicester Fields with Mrs. Hogarth. 
There is a woodcut of it in John Ireland's Illus- 
trations, 1793, ii. 357. The apparently " meaning- 
less cone " is the same as that which (according to 
Ireland) appears under the title of the print of 
Finis, or the Bathos, with this inscription : " The 
conic form in which the Goddess of Beauty was 
worshipped by the ancients at Paphos, in the 
Island of Cyprus. See the Medal struck when 
a Roman Emperor visited the temple." Opposite 
this is the white pyramid with the serpentine line, 
shown in plate i. fig. 26 of the Analysis of Beauty, 
and there is also this further note by Hogarth : 
" Note, the similarity of these two conic figures 
did not occur to the author till two or three years 
after the publication of the Analysis in 1754." 
See also Trusler's preface in Major's edition, 1841, 

The island of Cyprus was unquestionably 
referred to by Hogarth in the sketch mentioned by 
your correspondent, or rather (to be more precise) 
the city of Pupho?, where numerous altars were 
dedicated to Venus, there worshipped under the 
figure of a shell-like cone or pyramid. Hogarth 
adopted this figure as an emblem of grace in 
design, to illustrate his theory of the superior 
excellence of the serpentine line of beauty. 


I have never seen the original edition of the 
Five Days' Peregrination, but as it was published 
in 1732 it cannot possibly have contained a repre- 
sentation of Hogarth's crest "painted on his 
carriage by Mr. Catton," for Catton was then only 
four years old. F. NORGATE. 

King Street, Covent Garden. 

5th s. XL FEB. 22, 79.] 



PERIWIG (5 th S. xi. 8.) The word also appears 
ir the following forms : perruJce (Nomendator, 
li-85), perwike (Cooper, 1573), perwig (Torriano, 
& iege, &c.), per wick (Somner), perwicke (Minsheu), 
p<rwigge (Minsheu), periwicke (Minsheu), peri- 
u-incke (Hall), pereivake (Fuller). The last two 
fcrms are so unusual that it is worth giving quo- 
te tions for them : 

" Hia bonnet vail'd, ere ever he could thinke, 
Th' unruly wind blows off his periwinke" 

Hall, Sat., iv. 5. 

" For which bald place the reader (if so pleased) may 
provide a perevsake" Fuller, General Worthies, c. xxv.* 
The form periwig is used (twice) by Shakspeare, 
and also occurs in Cotgrave, Torriano, &c. 

Now compare Fr. perruque ; Du. paruik or 
pruik ; Ir. pereabhic ; Ital. perucca or parucca ; 
Span, peluca; and there will be no great doubt 
about the etymology of periwig. 

Now it has been stated that periwig is peruke- 
wig abbreviated. Dr. Johnson says that wig is 
contracted from periwig, but both statements seem 
rather doubtful. Mr. Wedgwood, the best modern 
authority, says : " Periwig, a corruption of Fr. 
perruque, Du. peruik, under the influence of E. 
wig of the same meaning already existing in the 

Mr. Wedgwood is generally right, and not 
likely to speak without his book, but for the 
moment I cannot recall any quotation of wig 
(except in the cake sense^Ger. iveck) as old as the 
time of Shakspeare, when periwig was already 
established. This, of course, is far from proving that 
no such quotation exists. The memory and reading 
of each individual student must of necessity be most 
fragmentary and imperfect. I have also searched 
vainly for wig in such early dictionaries as I have 
at hand, e.g., the Alvearie, Cooper's Thesaurus, 
Cotgrave, Torriano, Skinner, Junius, &c. ; still 
the word may lurk in some of their unsuspected 
corners or occur elsewhere. What I should like 
to ask your readers is Could wig have been in 
common use, say, before 1650 1 Indeed, with such 
transitional forms as perwick, periwicke, it seems 
hardly necessary to call in the influence of wig at 
all in accounting for periwig. 

It is worth noting in conclusion that neither 
perruque nor periwig originally meant a whole wig of 
false hair, but rather a single lock or tuft of real hair. 

Cotgrave gives, "Perruque, a locke or tuft of 
haire ; une fausse perruque,^ a periwig, a Gre- 
gorian ; perruquet, one that wears an effiminate 
locke, or frizled tuft of haire." And so Torriano : 
" Zazzera, a forelock, a bush, tuft, head of hair, 
also a periwig or lock of hair upon a man's fore- 
head." ZERO. 

* I copy these from Nares and Richardson respec- 

t So the Alvearie: "A. bushe of heare, csesaries, 

It has generally been stated that wig, as a 
shortened form of periwig, or as it was commonly 
spelt perwig, was derived from Fr. perruque. 
Commentators on Hudibras (part ii. canto iii. 
line 768), 

" Or does the man i' th' moon look big, 

And wear a huger periwig ? " 

have introduced an element of confusion by giving 
the date of 1629 as the epoch of the long perukes 
at Paris, in place of 1529. It has consequently 
been asserted that periwig could not have been 
derived from the French, as it is to be found in 
English dictionaries of much earlier date, such as 
John Higin's Nomenclator, Lond., 1585. 

Lemon, in his English Etymology, 1783, after 
disposing of periwig as a ludicrous and vitiated 
word, discusses the derivation of per-ruke, and 
prefers that given by Minsheu : " Perwicke, and 
perruque quasi peregrina rica; contracted to 
per-ric, or per-ruke, i.e. vellum capitis muliebris " ; 
but, as Minsheu does not explain whence those 
words are derived, Mr. Lemon proceeds, " as for 
peregrina, we have already seen that it is Gr., and 
rica is evidently derived a Pex os > cingulum mu- 
liebre capitis, a woman's hood, so that the whole 
compound per-ruke signifies the foreign covering 
for the head ; but though foreign, not French, but 
Greek, and yet the Greeks knew nothing of those 
curious machines." 

MR. KEIGHTLEY ("N. & Q.," 2 nd S. ^v. 184) 
observes that the French perruque, Italian par- 
ruca, and Spanish pduca are the Greek TH/I/IK*? 
or TnivtJKr), which is evidently connected with 
Tr-ijvri, woof. In all these cases the word is dis- 
tinctly applied to an artificial covering of the head 
made of hair, though the French perruque, it 
would seem, was applied to a natural head of hair 
as well as to a wig. Thus in the Geneva Bible 
of 1608 the passage in Numbers vi. 5 is given, 
" laissant croistre la perruque des cheveux de sa 
teste"; and Ho well's French Dictionary, 1673, 
has, " Perruque, a lock or tuft of hair," and " Une 
fausse perruque, a periwig, a Gregorian." The 
latter term, it must be remembered, is purely an 
English one, the Gregorian, according to Blunt, 
being a cap of hair, so named from one Gregory, 
a barber in the Strand, that first made them in 

If your correspondent had asked what was the 
derivation of wig, the answer would have shown 
that he was right in his supposition that irepi had 
nothing to do with the first two syllables of peri- 
wig. Wig is derived from the Latin mto==fiair, 
a startling derivation, but none the less certain. 
From pilus comes in modern Latin the French 
poil, the Spanish and Italian pelo, and from these 
the Spanish peluca, the Italian parrucca, and the 
French perruque, I and r being nearly the same 
in sound to some ears, and often interchangeable. 



[5"> S. XI. FEB. 22, 79. 

The French perruque, borrowed by England, 
naturally became perwicke or perwigge (Minsheu), 
or periivig, in the mouth of any one aiming at but 
missing the French pronunciation, and periwig 
was shortened into wig. 

The editor of Menage compliments Wachter on 
the ingenuity of his derivation of peruke from 
7rvpptK05=yellow. For no other good quality could 
it be praised. HENRY H. GIBBS. 

Minsheu has, sub wee : 

" PerwicJce, or perwigge, or counterfet haire. Low 
Dutch perruycke, quasi liayr guycke, i.e. tegumentum 
capitis ex pilis confectum. French perruque, quasi 
peregrina rica, i.e. velum capitis muliebris," &c. Ductor 
in Linguas, 1617, folio. 

Samuel Pegge, F.S.A., says : 

"You might as well say that periwig is Greek from 
Trepi, circum (Graece), and wig (Anglice), whereas it is 
only unfortunately a corruption of the French peruque." 
Anecdotes of the English Language, 1344, 8vo., p. 258. 
The father of this writer, the Rev. Samuel Pegge, 
LL.D. and F.S.A., had previously written : 

" We have one word which has not a single letter of 
its original ; for of the French peruke we got periwig, 
now abbreviated to wig. Ear-wig cornea from eruca, as 
Dr. Wallia observes." Anonymiana, 1818, 8vo., cent. i. 


MR. WALFORD should refer to the recently 
published Gaelic Etymology of the Languages of 
Western Europe, by Dr. Charles Mackay. 

G. E. M. 

xi. 29.) The only way by which the children of 
A and B can bear the arms of C is by procuring 
a grant of arms to A (or his issue) from the College 
of Arms (Queen Victoria Street). The children of 
A and B can then bear the newly granted A arms 
in the first and fourth quarters of their shield and 
the C arms in the second and third. They cannot 
use the C crest. 

Perhaps I may be permitted to take this oppor- 
tunity of pointing out a few facts regarding 
armorial bearings, of which some thousands o: 
persons either are, or pretend to be, ignorant. In 
England there are only two means by which 
a person can become possessed of a coat of arms 
1. By obtaining a grant from Her Majesty's duty 
appointed officers of arms ; 2. By producing 
original documentary evidence proving an un 
broken descent in the male line from a grantee, o 
from the direct descendant of a grantee who appear: 
as such in the official records of the College o 
Arms. All other arms and crests, vvhethe: 
" found " by the proprietors of emporiums fo: 
armorial bearings, manufactured for the occasion 
by the same obsequious gentlemen, invented b; 
unscrupulous candidates for armorial honours, o 
assumed in any other way, are spurious, and rank 

with sham titles, paste, and pinchbeck, being pre- 
entious attempts to deceive. By the way, it is- 
\ subject of surprise to me that the " arms finders '* 
do not accommodate their customers with quarter- 
ngs, supporters, and coronets ! Such highly 
rnamental additions (plenty of colour being 
udiciously thrown in to produce a brilliant and 
triking effect) would not be one whit less authentic 
han the " family arms " which they so generously 
jestow, in the form of a " plain sketch," for the 
^significant "fee" of 3s. 6d. I write feelingly, 
laving only a short time since lost several hours in 
i wild-goose chase caused by one of these abomin- 
ble arms of misrepresentation. D. Q. V. S. 

In the case put by X. Y. Z., the sons of A and 
B would not be entitled to bear any arms. If A 
were entitled to arms of his own, he would bear the- 
arms of his wife, being a co-heiress, on an escutcheon 
of pretence on his own shield, and his children 
would be entitled to quarter the arms of their 
mother's family C with their own paternal arms. 
Having none, however, this, of course, cannot be 
done, and the only remedy would be for A to- 
obtain a grant. JOHN MACLEAN. 

Bicknor Court, Goleford, Glouc. 

The sons of A and B would not be entitled to 
bear the arms of C, nor, by the hypothesis, any 
others. HENRY H. GIBBS. 

St. Dunstan's, Regent's Park. 

TO 1730 (5 th S. xi. 28.) The date of his birth does- 
not appear to be known, and is not given in 
any of the biographical notices of him. It may 
be approximately ascertained from the period of 
his graduation, however, as he is recorded as having 
taken the degrees of A.B., 1708, and A.M., 1712, 
at Trinity College, Cambridge, of which he was 
also a fellow. This was during the mastership of 
the celebrated Dr. Richard Bentley (1700-17), and 
a reference to the matriculation registers of that 
college would probably give his age. He was son 
of Rev. Laurence Eusden, D.D., Rector of Spottis- 
worth, or Spofforth, in Yorkshire (now in the diocese- 
of Ripon), who was also a fellow of Trinity College, 
Cambridge, graduating there A.B., 1664, A.M.,. 
1668, and S.T.P., 1688 (Graduati Cantabri- 
gienses, 1659-1723, Cantab., 8vo., 1823, p. 160). 
His birth might therefore be discovered in the 
parochial records there, though it is strange that 
no mention can be found at Coningsby, as stated 
by MR. HAMILTON after inquiry from the present 
rector of that parish. All authorities assert that 
Mr. Eusden retired to his rectory of Coningsby, in 
Lincolnshire, and died, though it is not said where, 
on Sept. 27, 1730, when he must have been under 
fifty years of age. His undistinguished career as 
Poet Laureate was from December, 1718, till the 
period of his death, as above, and the fullest 

,th S. XI. FEB. 22, '79.] 



count of his life (which, though extending to 
i out six pages, is by no means ample or minute^ 
:. .ay be found in The Lives of the Poets Laureate 
;y Messrs. Austin and Ralph (London, Bentley 
1853, 8vo., pp. 428). He is generally described as 
a drunken parson, much bemused with beer,' 
though it is also stated that " his plays manifest 
considerable ability, and he was a brilliant con 
troversialist." But it is also said that his transla 
tions of Ovid's Metamorphoses, Tasso, &c., " display 
some command of language and smoothness of ver 
fification" but qualified commendation, and h< 
was certainly undeserving of the name of poet. 

A. S. A. 
Richmond, Surrey. 

MR. HAMILTON will find some information as to 
the poet in vol. iii. pp. 280-85 of Dr. Nathan 
Drake's Essays illustrative of the " Tatler," " Spec- 
tator," and "Guardian," London, 1814, 3 vols. 
Drake does not give the date of Eusden's birth. 



(2 nd S. xi. 172, 230 ; xii. 509.) It is nearly 
eighteen years since an inquiry was made in 
"N. & Q." with regard to the custom that the 
emperor should act as deacon if present when the 
Pope celebrated, and on Christmas Day should 
read the Gospel. Besides the reply which this 
query evoked from the learned CANON ROCK, I was 
able, at the last reference, to give a quotation from 
Du Cange, in which the fact was stated that the 
Emperor Charles IV. read the Gospel at Mayence 
on Christmas Day. I have recently come upon 
another remarkable instance in which an eminent 
layman thus officiated in the presence of the Pope. 
The epitaph of Simon de Lalain, Seigneur de Mon- 
tigny, &c., Knight of the Golden Fleece, in the 
abbey church of Deynze, near Ghent, on the road 
to Courtrai (of which he was the founder), records, 
among the other chief events of his life, that he 
" chanta aussi le S. Evangile le Jour de Noel, 
devant le Pape Eugene au Conseil de Ferrare Pan 
trente sept [i.e. 1437], et fit Poffice qu'il eut faict 
PEmpereur de Rome, qui fut lors s ; il y eut este 
en personne," &c. (Maurice, Le Blason des 
Armoiries des Chevaliers de la Toison d'Or, p. 28). 


446 ; xi. 58, 98.) Sheriffs do not come into office 
as soon as the oath of office has been taken. They 
enter on office on exchanging with the old sheriff 
duplicate lists of the unexecuted and partly 
executed writs, &c., prepared by the old sheriff. 
Till that time the old sheriff acts. In 1833, for 
the last time, sheriffs were appointed by letters 
under the Great Seal, a writ of assistance com- 

manding all dukes, archbishops, &c., in the county 
to aid them, and a writ of discharge to the old 
sheriff. These articles cost more than 100Z. On 
exchanging the list above referred to the new 
sheriff is in, as if the old sheriff had been super- 
seded by the writ of discharge. The writer is a 
remnant of old times, and probably the " last of 
the Mohicans," having been apposed in the Court 
of Exchequer in Trinity Term, 1833, a ceremony 
abolished the same year. On that occasion he was 
asked to account for about eighty years' rents of a 
cottage belonging to " Daniel Clarke, outlawed at 
the suit of Philip Coates." His ghost had haunted 
the Exchequer from the time of his murder in 
1745. W. G. 

LTSIENSIS (4 th S. v. 435, 516 ; vi. 344, 427, 
514 ; 5 th S. xi. 67, 117, 139.) The purport of my 
brief answer has been mistaken by MR. DIXON in 
a way that I did not anticipate. It was never 
my intention to suggest Lysiensis as a correctly 
formed adjective from Lycia, but as probably the 
phonetic spelling of an engraver of the sixteenth 
or seventeenth century, i.e., when the pronuncia- 
tion of the letter c in Latin words had been 
softened into s. Originally c was a hard con- 
sonant, even before soft vowels such as e and i. 
In our own language we have many words, like 
cyn and cyning, of which we have changed the 
first consonant in order to preserve the pronuncia- 
tion, and we make them kin and king. An 
Anglo-Saxon would have pronounced Cicero's 
name Kikkero, and Lyciorum Campus, Lykiorum 
Kampus. But in the course of time, as our own 
pronunciation changed, so did that of Latin words 
in England and in Germany, neither country 
troubling itself to refer to Quintilian as the 
authority for Latin pronunciation. It is still 
usual with us to pronounce the name of Cicero 
as if it were written with s's, Sissero. Again, 
phonetic spelling was well-nigh universal in the 
fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, and very general 
in the seventeenth. Considering, then, that the 
question of Lysiensis has been before the classical 
and antiquarian readers of " N. & Q." for about 
nine years, and that it had previously baffled the 
special researches of so able a scholar as MR. 
DIXON, and since then of such men as the late 
Dr. F. C. Husenbeth, with his wide knowledge of 
mediaeval literature, it occurred to me that the 
very obvious phonetic solution of the difficulty 
bad never been referred to in the discussion. I 
mve not quoted the Italian pronunciation of c 
aecause it was not adopted by other nations. MR. 
DIXON well deserves that his perseverance should 
be crowned with success, but authority for any 
>ther solution seems all but hopeless. 


THE MEANING OF " SCOTIA" (5 th S. x. 348, 
389.) The point on which I requested MR. MAY- 



[5 -J1 S. XI. FEB. 22, '79. 

IIEW'S opinion was whether in early times Scotia 
ever included Hibernia. The Officia, Propria of 
the diocese of Ghent gives a lectio iv. somewhat 
less improved than that found in the Offic. Prop. 
of Mechlin, but the view of the relation of Scotia 
to Hibernia is the same : " Rumoldus Dublinensis 
Archiepiscopus ex Scotise parte quse Hibernia nunc 
dicitur," &c. Supposing that the original source 
of these lessons may have been some compilation 
subsequent in date to the creation of the arch- 
diocese of Dublin, still the question of the early 
tradition of Flanders and Brabant remains. Then 
-several passages of Adamnan's Life of St. Columba 
seem to support this view, while it may be doubted 
whether there is one that contradicts it. For 
example, take that which tells the fate of the 
unstable penitent, to whom the saint said : 

"Si duodecim annis inter Brittones cum fletu et 
Jacrymis poenitentiam egeris, nee ad Scotiam usque ad 
mortem reversus fueris, forsan Deus peccato ignoscat 
tuo. Haec dicens Sanctus ad suos conversus dicit, Hie 
homo filius est perditionis qui quam promisit poenitentiam 
non explebit ; sed mox ad Scotiam revertetur, ibique in 
brevi ab inimicis interficiendus peribit. Quse omnia 
Eecundum Sancti prophetiam ita contigerunt; nam 
miser iisdem diebus ad Hiberniam reversus in regione 
quae vocitatur Lea in manus incidens inimicorum truci- 
datus est." 

This passage has been quoted to show that, in 
the time of Adamnan, Scotia and Hibernia were 
convertible terms. But is not the other view more 
natural ? This " homo perditioni? " is forbidden 
Scotia ; he breaks the prohibition by entering 
Hibernia, a part of Scotia. Adamnan specifies the 
particular way in which the injunction is infringed. 
On the supposition that Scotia and Hibernia were 
identical, the change of term seems unnatural. 
John Smith was banished for life from Great 
Britain. Being an obstinate and perverse character, 
he risked his life by returning to Albion, and Avas 
accordingly imprisoned and hanged. This is surely 
unnatural. So far from employing the word 
Albion, I should naturally be led to enforce my 
assertion by repeating my term Great Britain, if I 
did not prefer a pronoun. On the other hand, the 
-change of term is reasonable when I say : John 
Smith was banished from Great Britain, but being 
found by the police in the south of England, he 
forfeited his life to the law. Again, the prohibition 
of St. Columba appears to have included lona, on 
which he would not allow the unfortunate criminal 
to land, and therefore Scotia embraced more than 
Hibernia. Lastly, Scotia is opposed to "inter 

Many thanks to MR. CARMICHAEL and MR. 
MARSHALL for their kind attention not the less 
kind because I do not feel altogether rescued from 
my difficulty. If " the Mediterranean Sea" means 
what we nowadays understand by the words, the 
passage cited by MR. MARSHALL would support 
the legend that brings the Scots from the valley of 

Ebro ; if it means the Irish Channel, it does 
not militate against the view of the lessons of the 
Mechlin Offices. I am still anxious for help. 

H. L. L. GALL. 

SCRIPTIO " (5 th S. x. 428, 455, 477 ; xi. 34.) To 
complete the reply given to this question it may 
3e well to add the name of the writer. When 
Holdsworth, at the suggestion of Dr. Sacheverell, 
lad written his celebrated poem entitled Mus- 
cipula, the doctor sent a copy of it to Mr. Edward 
Llwyd, of Jesus College, the Keeper of the Ash- 
molean Museum at Oxford, with this message : 
'' Here, Mr. Llwyd, I give you a poem of banter 
upon your country, which I defy all your country- 
men to answer." Mr. Llwyd, much irritated at 
this, asked Mr. Thomas Richards, then a student 
at Jesus College and afterwards Rector of Llan- 
yllin, to write a reply, suggesting the subject and 
bow to treat it. In about a week's time young 
Richards brought him Hoglandia, which Llwyd 
revised, and for which he wrote a very caustic 
preface in elegant Latin. Llwyd died, however, 
on June 29, 1709, before the poem was printed ; 
his preface was suppressed on account of its 
severity, and a much more meek one prepared by 
Mr. Richards, with the assistance of Mr. Anthony 
Alsop of Christchurch. In Parry's Cambrian 
Plutarch, pp. 337-47, there is a memoir of Edward 
Llwyd, who was Esquire Beadle of Divinity at 

Oxford when he died. 


THE BLUE BOAR (5 th S. xi. 69.) The blue 
boar is the well-known cognizance of the Veres, 
Earls of Oxford. It was sssumed by them as 
allusive to their name, verves being the Latin for a 
boar pig. The Vernons similarly used a boar's 
head. See Harl. MS. 5910, ii. p. 167, in the 
British Museum Library, and also Mrs. Bury 
Palliser's Historic Devices, &c., pp. 342-3. 




" FYLFOT " (3 rd S. v. 458 ; viii. 415 ; 5 th S. x. 
436.) Starting from the Old Eng. fcla, feala, 
feola, Mid. Eng. fele, feole, &c., I have always 
thought that fele-foot (fylfoof) was simply and in 
the usual v?&y=many-footed, which exactly de- 
scribes the mark itself. We have had many such 
excellent compounds in English, some of which 
might well be brought back : fela-facne, most 
cunning ; fela-feald, fele-fold, manifold (Mid. Eng. 
feolevold, multiplex ; fele-faldien, to multiply) ; 
fele-ferd, the centipede (from its many feet) ; fela- 
frecne, very fierce ; fela-geong, most youthful ; 
fela-geonge (-genge), fele-ganging, far-travelled ; 
fela-geomor, fele-yammer, much sorrowing ; fela- 
hror, much bent, very decrepit (?) ; fela-hror, most 
bold, fearless ; fela-leof, fele-lief, very dear ; fela- 
meahtig, fele-mighty, prepotent ; fela-modig, fele- 

VS. XI. FEB. 22, 79.1 



rr. )ody, right bold ; fela-specol, much speaking ; I heard the word used by a native ? I have lived in. 
ft 'a-specolnes, chattering ; fela-synnig, full of sin ; Devonshire upwards of forty years, am acquainted 
ft 'a-wlanc, very stately. with almost every part of it, have for many years 

Many old words do not happen to be found collected its verbal provincialisms, and have on my 
in old manuscripts. What is the oldest printed shelves all the known glossaries of its dialect, but 
e> ample of felefot or fylfot I do not know, but I have never heard the word used by a native, it 
fc',a-fote, many- footed, would seem to be natural does not occur in any of the glossaries, and a ser- 
aiid simple enough. It is wonderful that the vant girl, born in the county, whom I have just 
common word feil, fele, &c., should be in none of questioned, does not know what it means, 
our dictionaries, though used by so many of our WM. PENGELLY. 

poets, even later than Byron, but it is in Jamie- | Torquay. 

m under "Feil." GEORGE STEPHENS. 

Cheapinghaven, Denmark. 

[" Fele " is in Hyde Clarke's Dictionary.^ _ 

/ R , o -.o- x A f ii a charter of the date of A.D. 1143 (Kennett, Par. 

NICHOLSON'S CHARITY (5* S. x. 18, )-A full A nt., i. 136). William de Caisneto appears rather 

t.nA nnnfori l~i ' __j i. _ p. , i * r 

CHESNEY (5 th S. x. 408.) This name appears in 
the signature of Roger de Caisneto as witness to- 

CURIOUS SURNAMES (5 th S. x. 466.) Without 


in Middleton Cheney, Northamptonshire, whence 
there come (but too few) replies to " N. & Q.' r 

giving any opinion respecting the "rule" pointed I l n th e "Table of Ancient Surnames in Mount's- 
j out by MR. DELEVINGNE, I may state that I am Law Dictionary there is, de Casmeto et Chaisneto, 
well acquainted with persons named Abbot, Angel, .duey, Cheney. 
Bishop, Dan, Forrest, Glen. Gun, Mallet, Pannel, Sandford St ' Martin ' 
|Peel, Short, Steel, Wood, and Wren Inancienfc deedg thefomily of Cheney> Chestn 

Torquay JELLYt or Kaines is described as De Querceto or De Cais- 

neto=oak or chestnut, the oak and the chestnub 

SHOWERS OF SULPHUR (5 th S. x. 495.) So-called (Spanish) being botanically of the same family. 

| sulphur showers are not uncommon in some parts Originally the arms of the De Cheyneys were- 

'of Europe, but the yellow substance taken for three chestnut leaves ; and the name of this once- 

sulphur is nothing else than the pollen of fir and powerful family is perpetuated in Horsted Keynes, 

pine trees. A sudden gust of wind, following a Sussex, and in Somerford Keynes, Wiltshire. 
long calm, when the trees are in blossom, carries J. E. SCOTT. 

the pollen away in clouds, and it is often deposited 

distance from the place of its 
that a forest of wattle (acacia), 
or other trees producing pollen in large quantity, 
in blossom might, under similar conditions, give 
rise to the supposed shower of sulphur. 

Turnham Green. 


of which the following is the 

A New Book of Cyphers more Compleat and Regular 
than any ever Publish 'd. Wherein the whole Alphabet 
(twice over), consisting of 600 Cyphers, is variously 
Chang'd, Interwoven and Revers'd. Very Entertaining 
to ye Curious, and Useful to all Sorts of Artificers. By 
Sympson. London, Printed for John Bowles and Son 

OLD SAYING (5 th S. xi. 24.) In an article on 

Scottish Universities in the Westminster 'Review, \ at the Black Horse, in Cornhill ' 
April, 1876, the writer concludes by quoting the The book consists of 

Northern representative 
say ! what say they ? let them say.' " 

12, Monteith Bow, Glasgow. . n v 

1 Colours m Arms on Plate, Seals." There is no 

printed date, but the name of " G. Bankin, 1756, 
is written in my copy. CRAWFORD J. POCOCK. 

and a plate at the 

end, inscribed at the top, * " The Coronets and 
Helmets used by the Nobility, &c.," and at the- 
bottom, "The Way to distinguish the Different 

C /nmllVG 171 AvmCJ rtv T^lofr* Qnoln )> T 1 U /\vn t ***. 

"MOKE" OR "MOAK" (5 th S. xi. 28.) This is 
i very common costermonger's slang word for a 
lonkey. It seems to be derived from a Gipsy 
svord, which Pott traces to mulus. 

Junior Garrick. 

MR. E. WALFORD says, "In Devonshire a 
lonkey is generally called a moke." Will he be so 

24, Cannon Place, Brighton. 

Peter Pelham was an engraver in mezzotinto r 
who, according to Bryan, flourished at the com- 
mencement of the eighteenth century. There are 
many excellent portraits executed by him, among 
them those of Oliver Cromwell, after Walker ; 

T , . " ^^ k ' v I ^^^VUJ. UHWOCi \JL V/ilVCi. V-/1UIJJ VT Cll. ttl LCl WUlKcl 

;o state in what part of the county he has King George I. and George II., after Kneller ;. 



[5th S . XL FEB. 22, 79. 

Ann, consort of the Prince of Orange. He was 
: born in London about 1684, and died about 1738. 

Jos. J. J. 

FRANKS (5 th S. xi. 29.) An account of the 
franking privilege may be found in the First (and 
probably in other) Report of the Postmaster- 
General. Some of its " curiosities " are recorded 
in an article in Once a Week for 1865 (vol. xii. 
p. 316), entitled " A Forgotten Mania." 


Hampstead, N.W. 

In 1832 "Nimrod" (Apperley) wrote his article on 
hunting. See Quarterly Review, vol. xlvii. No. 93, 
art. vii. GIBBES RIGAUD. 

18, Long Wall, Oxford. 

A shilling reprint, with illustrations, was issued 
by Murray in 1851, under the title of The Chase. 
It has since then been embodied with two other 
essays in one volume, entitled The Turf, the 
Chase, and the Road. SHELSLET BEAUCHAMP. 

It is perhaps needless to say that "Nimrod" 
was the pen-name of Mr. Charles James Apperley, 
who died in 1843. In the essay on "The Chase" 
he speaks of the Quarterly reviewers when Snob 
arrives upon the scene. An excellent 3s. 6d. 
edition of the work was published by Murray in 
1853, with many woodcuts by Sir John Gilbert, in 
addition to the original illustrations by Alken. 


28.) Carolan was certainly one of the last of the 
Irish bards : a bard was one who sang his own 
composition. The Irish harpers who met at Bel- 
fast in 1792 were merely performers of ancient 
Irish music on harps. S. I. J. 

FIELD NAMES (5> S. ix. 325, 403, 479 ; x. 158, 
209, 309, 394, 416, 476.) Amongst a lot of mis- 
cellaneous deeds, picked up under peculiar cir- 
cumstances in Weymouth Harbour, is a paper 
endorsed : 

"This is a true Copy of Mr. Anthony Gisborne's 
Tarrier for his Yard Free Land in Longborough Field 
taken from the General Tarrier made at a Court Barron 
ield Nov r ye eleventh One Thousand Seven Hundred & 
seventy one.. Jas Leigh Lord of the Manor." 

The first list is headed " Furlongs," the names 
of which are given. Their size is indicated by 
the number of " lands" each contains half a land 
one land, or two lands, and their relative situations 
by the names of the tenants east and west of the 
furlong. Thus " Longhorsenton, one land, Thos 
Gollins west, Rowsharn east." The word " acre ' 
occurs three times in this list, and " varnel" twice 
What is the meaning of the latter term 1 These 
are some of the more remarkable names of th 
furlongs : Under ye riedgeway, Under Bench 

Under ye sych, Flinthill, Grandmore, Puck pit, 
Shortendale, Longcoates, Shortecoates, Hemplats, 
Sapwell, Whales Bottom, Between ye ways, In 
the Quick, In the Wall, Whipthill, Under the 

Grandmore is said to be bounded by Gisborne 
Paxford west, the Greensward east; from which 
[ infer that the furlongs were arable lands set out 
on the open down, and, as in no case is length 
referred to, they were probably of equal length 

furrow long. 

Then follows a list of meadows, in indicating the 
size of which the following terms are employed 
'varnel," "pick," "acre/' "plat." The entry 
under " Shortendale " might throw light on the 
meaning of the first of these : "One varnel the year 

1771 in this acre of varnels, and in the lower sett 

1772 to change always." Does it mean the right 
to take a spring (vernal) crop or feeding of grass ] 
A " plat " of heath is described as " shooting from 
Joseph Alcock's free land to Frogmore plat," and 
a " lay " as " shooting from the Heath to Frog- 
more Hedge." 

I should like to be told the meanings of " var- 
nel," "pick," and "lay," and doubtless some of 
your readers will be able to help rne herein. 

Tnos. B. GROVES. 


The Rector of Turvey, the border parish of 
Bedfordshire on the Buckinghamshire side, has 
supplied me with the following list (not ex- 
haustive) of field names in his parish. Pightle is 
a common field name in Northamptonshire : 
Baden Pightle, Rous, the Slade, Hungry Hill, 
Dog's Tail, Little Lither Nail, Little Goblin's 
Hole, Long Perry, Luggin's Bury, Bearshanks, 
Sterk Legs, Whitley Baulk, Polycroft, Long John, 
the Blundells, Great Round Table, Dead Woman, 
Cholsey. A. J. M. 

SIEGE OF DUDLEY CASTLE, 1644 (5 th S. x. 348, 
523.) This important fortress was afterwards sur- 
rendered to Sir W. Brereton on the most lenient 
conditions, which would seem to show that the 
resources of the garrison were not then exhausted. 
The stipulations granted were these : " Unmolested 
peace at their own homes to those who chose to go 
there. Passes to be given to those who left the 
country. Ten miles' march a day to be the limit 
for those who went to join other garrisons, and 
carriages to be found for the officers." The castle 
was then dismantled, but it was afterwards suffi- 
ciently restored for the residence there of the 
Baron Ward ; and in July, 1750, it was accident- 
ally destroyed by fire, only its massive walls 
remaining, as they still remain to the present day. 

"INKLE- WEAVER" (5 th S. ix. 7, 153, 299; x. 
156.) In Mrs. Linnaeus G. Banks's novel, The 

5th s. XL FEB. 22, 79.] 



J\r a nchester Man, among other archaeological 
B atters, it is stated that in the early years of this 
c> ntury inkle was made there by the manu- 
f; cturers of small wares. Among these were 
ii .eluded tapes, bindings, fringes, girthings, &c. 

M. P. 

(5 th S. xi. 47, 75.) As this song is a good one, and 
may adorn the columns of " N. & Q-," here it is, 
from an original " slip " copy in my private col- 
lection, marked, in MS., 1802 : 

If hush'd the loud whirlwind that ruffled the deep, 

The sky if no longer dark tempests deform ; 
When our perils are past shall our gratitude sleep ] 

No ! Here 's to the Pilot that weather'd the storm ! 

At the footstool of Power let Flattery fawn; 

Let Faction* her idols extol to the skies; 
"To Virtue, in humble retirement withdrawn, 

Unblam'd may the accents of Gratitude rise. 

And shall not his mem'ry to Britainf be dear 
Whose example with envy all nations behold 

A statesman unbiass'd by int'rest or fear, 
By power uncorrupted, untainted by gold? 

Who, when Terror and Doubt through the universe 


While Rapine and Treason their standards^; unfurl'd, 
The heart and the hopes of his country maintain'd, 
And one kingdom preserv'd 'mid the wrecks of the 

'Unheeding, unthankful we bask in the blaze, 

While the beams of the sun in full majesty shine ; 

When he sinks into twilight, with fondness we gaze, 
And mark the mild lustre that gilds his decline. 

So, PITT, when the course of thy greatness 5s o'er, 
Thy talents, thy virtues we fondly recall ! 

Now justly we prize thee, when lost we deplore; 
Admir'd in thy zenith, but lov'd in thy fall ! 

O ! take, then for dangers by wisdom repell'd, 
For evils by courage and constancy braved 

O ! take, for a throne by thy counsel upheld, 
The thanks of a people thy firmness has saved ! 

And ! if again the rude whirlwind should rise, 
The dawning of peace should fresh darkness deform, 

The regrets of the good, and the fears of the wise, 
Shall turn to the Pilot that weather'd the storm ! 

The author of this spirited and loyal song was 
-George Canning, afterwards Premier. It was 
sung at a public dinner, among 925 guests, on 
May 28, 1802. Other copies of it are preserved in 
English Minstrelsy, 1810, ii. 199, and in The Lyre, 
1824, iii. 8. It looks ill for the gratitude of the 
country when " rnusicsellers and booksellers" have 
forgotten the existence of such a song. 


Molash, by Ashford, Kent. 

* Misprinted " Fashion " in later copies. 

;< Britons " in a later version, 
t " Ensigns " in later copies. 

Misprinted "praise thee " afterwards; and "be- 
lov'd," for " but lov'd." 

Canning's song in honour of Pitt gave the idea 
for a political song that I often heard in the days 
of " The Conservative " (see 5 th S. x. 126, 336), 
each verse terminating with the line, " With Peel 
for our pilot we '11 weather the storm." 


TRADESMEN'S TOKENS (5 th S. xi. 28, 139.) 
I am much obliged to MR. W. S. JONES for his 
reference to Batty's Catalogue, which I have found 
most useful. It is very curious to observe for what 
a long time after their prohibition these tokens 
continued to circulate, showing how futile are pro- 
clamations and Acts of Parliament to coerce or 
regulate trade and commerce. Sir John Barnard 
obtained an Act to keep up the price of the Funds, 
but after being in abeyance for a century and 
a quarter it was repealed. One hundred Leeman's 
Bills could not have prevented the City of Glasgow 
Bank from failing. CLARRY. 

"SEEING is BELIEVING" (5 tb S. x. 229, 318.) 
In this part of the country we say, " Seeing is 
believing, but feeling is the truth." Gayton has 
a line which seems to sanction this form of the 
saying : 

" Things are not as they seem, but as they feel." 
Pleasant Notes on Don Quixote, 1654, p. 260. 

You may often hear the full proverb in the 
streets when two acquaintances meet unexpectedly. 
" Ah ! is that you, Tom ? But seein 's beleevin', 
isn't it 1 " " Aye, me lass, and feelin 's the truth 
ge' us owd o' your hand." E. R. 


While thanking W. T. M. for his quotation 
from Plautus, which no doubt expresses the mean- 
ing of the above proverb in other words, I can 
hardly consider the " Pluris est oculatus testis 
unus, quam auriti decem" as really being the 
origin of it. I find that I have given but half the 
proverb, the whole being as follows : " Seeing is 
believing, but touching is the truth." Perhaps 
this may help towards a solution of the difficulty. 

W. M. B. 

A "FussocK" (5 th S. x. 349,521 ; xi. 56.) 
I have never heard a donkey called a " bussock," 
but in the neighbourhood of Pudsey and Dudley 
Hill, near Bradford, Yorkshire, " fuzzock " is not 
an uncommon name for this animal. B and/ are 
interchangeable. "Fussock" is defined in Carr's 
Craven Glossary as " a large, gross woman." 

F. W. J. 

Bolton Percy, Tadcaster. 

v. 507 ; vi. 19, 33, 106, 150, 210, 237 ; x. 295, 
316, 355.) The tradition in the Danish family of 
Bille as to " a shaggy-looking dwarf having pre- 
sented himself to a member of that family, holding 
in his hand a sapling, and undertaking to show 



XI. FEB. 22, 79. 

him a spot where he might build mills which 
should never lack water to turn them," is correctly 
stated by the REV. G. S. STREATFEILD. Allow 
me to add that the legendary benefactor of my 
family is to this day commemorated in the family 
arms by the Troll figuring in the shape of a wild 
man as the sole supporter of the arms. 


YATELEY, HANTS (5 th S. x. 307, 475 ; xi. 31, 
91, 113.) In Scotland there is a clear and dis- 
tinct difference between gait or gate and yett. 
Thus, " Gang yer gate an' steek the yett ahint ye" 
would mean " Go on your way, and fasten the 
gate behind you," but one gate would never be 
mistaken for another. J. R. HAIG. 

PERCY BYSSHE SHELLEY (5 th S. xi. 45, 70.) 
The Baron de Bogoushevsky has kindly favoured 
me with a narrative as to the Shelley letter 
formerly in his possession, but which some years 
ago he presented to a museum at Moscow. It is 
unnecessary to quote the letter fully, since the 
baron feels that he has been imposed upon. He is 
satisfied Mr. Naylor has the genuine letter, and is 
resolved to be more careful in examining auto- 
graphs offered him for purchase. 


Grampian Lodge, Forest Hill, S.E. 

TURNIP-STEALING (5 th S. xi. 126.) I know of 
no authority for the story that the Iron Duke 
executed a man while on the march for stealing 
a turnip out of a field. May it not have originated 
from the circumstance that on the army entering 
France, in the spring of 1814, a soldier was 
summarily hanged by the roadside close to a turnip 
field, and remained suspended there whilst the 
division to which he belonged marched past, and 
the report was that he had been hanged for steal- 
ing a turnip ? This did not, however, deter some 
of the servants and followers from taking what 
they had not seen probably since they left their 
own country, notwithstanding the cry, " You will 
be hanged next for stealing a turnip," which 
became a saying with the soldiers afterwards ; and 
a not clear discrimination may easily bring the 
story to its present state. The man's crime was 
understood to be robbery with violence, and I 
imagine he must have been taken in the act, as the 
whole affair was over in a very short space of time. 
The duke was determined the inhabitants should 
not be molested, and another summary execution 
took place on the same day on another line of 
march. W. DILKE. 


WELSH PROVERBS (5 th S. xi. 8, 98.) The 
proverb, " The nearer the church the further from 
heaven," is attributed to a Welsh satirist of the 
last century. An older Scotch form is claimed for 

it ; but it was well known in 1622, when Bishop 
Lancelot Andrewes thus spake in his sermon on 
the Nativity before King James I. : " With us 
the nearer, lightly the farther off : our proverb is, 
you know, ' the nearer the church the farther from 
God.'" DEO DUCE. 

THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY (5 th 'S. xi. 29.) If 
A. H. will look into S. Redgrave's Dictionary of 
Artists of the British School, he will find a notice 
of John Sanders, a portrait painter who resided 
for a time and first exhibited in London, but who 
removed to Norwich in 1778. In the same worfc 
there is also a notice of a Thomas Bardwell. Pos- 
sibly these may be two of the artists about whom 
information is desired. Jos. J. J. 

The following is from Bryan's Dictionary of 
Painters, &c., London, H. G. Bonn, 1845 r 
" Thomas Bardwell, an English portrait painter, 
who died about the year 1773. He painted some 
portraits of the principal characters of his time, 
and published a book entitled The Practice of 
Painting and Perspective made Easy." 


The Temple. 

" OST-HOUSE " (5 th S. x. 227, 392, 476 ; xi. 96;) 
Ost, curd for cheese, is found in Westmorland 
and Cumberland Dialects, 1839, and in Ferguson's 
Cumberland Words, 1873, as oast or hoast, that is 
an inn. In Dickenson's Glossary, woast-housz. 
The words were pronounced alike nearly, though 
so different in meaning. It is ost-house which is 
not there. It is a Kentish word, I hear, and 
appropriately a drying-house for hops. M. P. 

In the paiois of Poitou an inn is called hosteau 
or houstau, derived from the Celtic hostiz, the 
master or proprietor of an hotel. 


THE PAVIOR'S " HOH " (5 th S. x. 344, 477.) If 
the regulation groan is departing from this more 
than ever matter-of-fact world, it is some con- 
solation to reflect that it is dying out at a good old 
age. If we are to believe one of the countless 
legends attached to the relics conserved in various 
depositories on the Continent, the " han " of St. 
Joseph is, or was, carefully stored up in a bottle 
for the edification of the faithful at Couchiverny, 
near Bio is. This legend is thus alluded to by 
Bishop Wilkins (Secret and Sivift Messenger, edit. 
1708). After noticing the wild notion of Walchius- 
that it might be possible " so to contrive a Trunk 
or hollow Pipe that it should preserve the voice 
entirely for certain hours or days, so that a man 
might send his Words to a Friend instead of his 
Writing, which tube when received and opened 
the Words should come out distinctly and in the 
same order wherein they were spoken," he pro- 

' S. XI. FEB. 22, '79.] 



ce. ds : " Which conceit (if it have any Truth) may 

e; ve somewhat to extenuate the gross Absurdity 

of that Popish Relick concerning Josephs [Hah] 

or the Noise that he made (as other Carpenters 

us 3) in fetching of a Blow ; which is said to be 

pr3served yet in a Glass among other Ancient 

licks." J. ELIOT HODGKIN. 

BEQUESTS IN OLD WILLS (5 th S. x. 307, 451, 
476.) _I ani obliged to J. T. M. for his suggestion 
that the " Westgate daunce " and the " Southgate 
daunce " (x. 452) may have been ales, but I do not 
think they will bear that interpretation. _ Speak- 
ing from memory, I think that the inscription on 
the west gallery in Cawston Church is given in 
full in the Norwich volume of the Royal Archaeo- 
logical Institute. I have some very curious 
information on religious dances on festal days, and 
I am anxious to ascertain whether the lights of the 

daunces " of Westgate and Southgate were 
supported by a company of dancers or by a collec- 
tion made on the occasion of one of these dances. 

J430.) With reference to the punctuation in 
iHeb. x. 12, I beg to send extracts from the folio w- 
iing authorities. In Erasmus's edition of the Bible 
(1522) : " Hie vero, una pro peccata victima, per- 
ipetuo sedet." In my copy of Edvv. VI.'s Prayer 
Book (1549) : " But this man, after he hath offered 
lone sacrifice for sinnes, is set down for ever at the 
ryght hande of God." In Beza's Latin edition of 
the New Testament (1589) : " Hie vero, una pro 
peccata oblata in perpetuum consedit," and no 
punctuation is used. Burkitt, in his notes, says : 
" One sacrifice for sins, for ever sat down." 


The punctuation of Heb. x. 12 in the Authorized 
Version appears more consistent with the statement 
if St. Stephen (Acts vii. 56), just before his death, 
hat he saw Christ " standing on the right hand of 

DR. HURDIS'S PRIVATE PRESS (5 th S. x. 348, 
418.) The following from a catalogue of books 
m sale by Mr. John Kinsman, Penzance may 
issist in determining the question of the " local 
habitation " of Dr. Hurdis's press : " Hurdis (Rev. 
Jas., D.D.), Sermon before the University of 
Oxford, 1797, 4to., scarce, 2s. Bishopstone, 
Sussex [1797]." EDWARD H. MARSHALL. 

The Temple. 

wish I could answer this question, for I am 
descended, in the female line, from the Wrights 
who were implicated in the Gunpowder Plot, so 
that the existence of a Swedish Wright, claiming 
the like descent, is of interest to me. All I can 
say of the matter, however, is this : The arms of 

Wright, blazoned in stained glass on a large oval, 
dating from the end of the seventeenth century, 
hang in our house, and are as follows (I give them 
from memory, but I am certain of the bearings 
and of most of the tinctures) : Vert, a chevron 
ermine, between three boars' heads argent. Crest, 
not a horse's head, but a demi-boar, sable, ram- 
pant, hoofed and gorged or, in his mouth a branch 
of oak with acorns. A. J. M. 

AUTHORS OF BOOKS WANTED (5 th S. ix. 309 ; 
xi. 49, 79, 99.) 

The. Book of Familiar Quotations, formerly published 
by Whittaker & Co., is now issued by Messrs. Routledge. 

J. H. 

9, 39.) 

" I have culled a nosegay," &c. 
This quotation, from Montesquieu or Montaigne, appears 
thus upon the title-page of Flowers : their Moral, Lan- 
guage, and Poetry, edited by H. G. Adams (London, 
H. G. Clarke & Co., 1845) : " I have gathered a nosegay 
of culled flowers, and brought nothing of my own but the 
thread that ties them " (Reminiscences of Genius). In 
the preface the author says, " The motto chosen for the 
title-page of this little volume will best explain the 
nature and plan of it." He does not mention the name 
of the writer of his motto. CUTHBEKT BEDE. 


Dante: an Essay. By R. W. Church, M.A., D.C.L. 

To which is added a translation of De Monarclda by 

P. J. Church. (Macmillan & Co.) 

IN a volume of great and varied interest, published so 
far back as 1854, by Mr. Church, of Oriel, under the 
nowadays somewhat deceptive title of Ettayt and 
Reviews, those who knew where to look for it found a 
charming companion to the study of the Divina Corn- 
media. But it may be questioned whether the younger 
generation of students of this matchless poem were aware 
of the help which had been provided for them by the 
master pen of the Rector of Whatley. An<J, indeed, 
perhaps few save Oxford men remembered what Church 
of Oriel had been in the great days of old, when lie was 
suddenly brought once more to the front by his appoint- 
ment to the inheritance of Milman and Mansel. That 
in the literary atmosphere which has so long surrounded 
the deanery of St. Paul's some steps should have been 
taken by Dr. Church to rescue his essay on D.mte from 
the undeserved obscurity into which it had fallen, was 
not to be wondered at. Our only wonder and, we must 
add, regret is that some fresh touches have not been 
added by the pen that had long ago written so lovingly 
of that sad, stern prophet, that lonely, way-worn viator, 
who laid down his burden of prophecy and entered into 
the rest of a comprehensor by the shore of the Adrian 
Sea. It is something, however, to have the dean's 
essay in the convenient and accessible shape in which 
it is now presented to us, and it is no little addition to 
our satisfaction that we have to welcome in the same 
volume what seems to be a first English version of the 
De Monarchia. For the study of mediasval political 
science this work of Dante is most valuable. The light 
which it throws on mediaeval conceptions of the religious 
and secular aspects of what was then believed to be the 



5 th S. XL FEB. 22, '79. 

divinely appointed order of government here below, 
ought to make Mr. F. J. Church's share in the present 
work very acceptable to many who may have been 
deterred from its study by the difficulties of the mediaeval 
Latinity under which alone they had hitherto known 
this celebrated essay. But to send it forth almost with- 
out note or comment was to make a very heavy demand 
upon the previous knowledge of its readers. We trust that 
in a future edition Dr. Church and his son may fee their 
way to giving us something fresh from the pen of each, 
by way of addition to the obligations under which they 
have already laid both lovers of the Divina Commedia 
and students of the De Monarchia. We should class 
Dean Church as a commentator on Dante with Long- 
fellow, Ozanam, and Maria Rossetti ; his lightest touches 
are worthy of being dwelt upon with the respect due to 
a master hand. 

DebretCs Peerage, Baronetage, and Knightage for 1879. 

Library Edition. (Dean & Son.) 

THIS handsome volume is no doubt already on many a 
drawing-room table, ready for constant reference on the 
many points connected with the hereditary and personal 
honours borne by distinguished names throughout the 
United Kingdom. But we fear that the present issue 
gives evidence of a decay in the taste for genealogical 
studies among the public for whom the editor of Debrett 
has to cater. Comparing the present with some of the 
older issues, we miss nearly the whole of the genealogy 
which used to form a feature of Debrett, ami which can 
now only be had, conjointly with the necess-ary infor- 
mation concerning existing members of the various 
families, in the pages of Sir Bernard Burke. We sup- 
pose, therefore, that even peers have come to think that 
dead ancestors are of little use, and that it is only the 
living who need some attention. The translations of 
mottoes are, we regret to say, sometimes astoundingly 
careless, and even the originals have in some cases been 
sadly mauled by the engraver. "Secuiter Victoria 
forteis " is a piece of Latinity which we entirely fail to 
recognize as classical. Again, " Firm en foi " ia an odd 
mixture of languages, but scarcely more odd than 
" Families firmat pietas." But the rendering of " Quse 
supra " by " Who is above " seems to us one of the most 
remarkable feats which Dr. Mair's translator of mottoes 
has achieved. Was he thinking of the Antiphon " Salve, 
Regina/' when he executed this totir deforce ? On the 
other hand, we gladly note the general excellence and 
fulness of the knightage, and observe that the information 
contained in it is well brought down to date, including 
the appointment of Sir James Stephen as a judge of the 
High Court, in succession to Baron Cleasby. 

Correspondence of the Family of Hatton. Edited by 
Edward Maunde Thompson. (Camden Society, 1878.) 
OP such material for history and biography as is con- 
tained in these two volumes the world cannot have too 
much. From the voluminous Hatton Papers now in the 
British Museum Mr. Thompson has apparently made a 
judicious selection, and there is hardly a letter that does 
not throw some light upon the private, social, or public 
manners and customs of the seventeenth century. Not 
infrequently, also, they serve to establish some fact 
hitherto resting only upon reasonable conjecture. We 
may presume that Mr. Thompson has given us the cream 
of the collection, but it is evident from what he states, 
and from the public positions occupied by the various 
writers of the letters, that the large number still un- 
printed must contain much valuable information respect- 
ing the political history of the country, and the present 
publication will serve to direct public attention to them. 
Mr. Thompson's copious annotations greatly enhance the 
value of the text. 

THE Rev. John S. Brewer, Rector of Toppesfield 
Essex, and late Professor of English Literature at King's 
College, London, who has just passed away, deserves notice 
as the editor of one or two historical works for the 
University of Oxford, and still more as editor of the 
Calendars of State Papers relating to the reign of Henry 
VIII., under the authority of the Master of the Rolls. 
These are well known to scholars, and their value has 
been gratefully acknowledged by Lord Macaulay, Mr. 
Froude, and other historians. He was also preacher at 
the Rolls Chapel. Prof. Brewer was a first class man of 
Queen's College, Oxford, where he took his degree in 
1833; his edition of Aristotle's Ethics is still highly 
valued by students at the University. 

ST. MARY-AT-HILL, EASTCHEAP. The Union of Bene- 
fices Act has been the unfortunate means of destroying 
several remarkable churches in the City, but this time iti& 
the District Railway (Extension) that wishes to demolish 
the church and churchyard of St. Mary-at Hill, the 
promoters having included it in their line of deviation, 
though the new railway will be so far distant as seventy- 
five feet. Consequently the City Church and Churchyard 
Protection Society (the honorary secretaries of which 
are Messrs. Trowen and Wright, to whom communica- 
tions on the subject should be addressed at the Ractory, 
St. Mary-at-Hill, Eastcheap, E.G.) have determined to- 
employ all legitimate means to prevent any such appa- 
rently unnecessary destruction. 

As will be seen from our advertising columns, our good 
friend Mr. W. R. S. Ralston will tell stories to children 
(of all ages) with a framework of comparative mythology 
for matured intelligences, on the afternoon of Wednesday, 
March 5, at 3 P.M. From his mastery of the subject Mr. 
Ralston's hearers may be sure of receiving information 
and instruction on a subject which, owing very consider- j 
ably to hia own books and papers, is now attracting I 
a great deal of attention. 


We must call special attention to ihe following notice: 
ON all communications should be written the name and 

address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 

as a guarantee of good faith. 

J. HAWKS. See " N. & Q.," 5 th S. v. 67, 93, 137. 
Major Peirson's sister was mother of the late Lady 
Chelmsford. At the second reference will be found a 
note on the subject from the late Lord Chelmsford. 

S. K. S. asks what is the length of time occupied by ' 
the story of Ivan/we ? 

JOHN J. A. BOASE (Exmouth). We conclude that the 1 
reply ante, p. 139, met all requirements. 

M. A. H. It has been impossible to comply with yourj 
wish this month. 

FRED. WALCOT (Dublin) is referred to pp. 31 and 69 of 
our present volume. 

T. W. B. need be under no apprehension. 

W. WYCHERLEY.- Consult " N. & Q.," 5* S. x. 7, 96, 456,' 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to " The 
Editor of ' Notes and Queries ' "Advertisements and 
Business Letters to "The Publisher "at the Office, 20,' 
Wellington Street, Strand, London, W.C. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print; and 
to this rule r.'e can make no exception. 


XI. MAR. 1, 79.] 





NO' 'ES : Murder of the "Bonnie Earl of Moray," 161 The 
PJague, 162 A List of Anti-Usury Books, 163 The City 

I Cl mrches, 164 W. Hazlitt's Contributions to the "Edin- 
burgh Review "Symbols of the Months Milton and Mr. 
J. R. Green, 165 Leonard McNally Primitive Method of 
Counting Colour in Disease Rosemary "Shroving" 
Tie "chapeau de paille" of Rubens A Good Hint, 166. 
U 3RIES : St. David's Day, 166 Highland Plant and other 
Superstitions Mary "Wollstonecraft Godwin Luther and 
C/anach The Ancestors of the Zulu Tribe, 167 " Limb "= 
Scamp" Bovgge the Bere " " England's Day " Austin 
Bernher Frs. Eginton Scambling Days Religious Society 
or St. Catherine's Leigh Hunt's " Reading for Railways " 
Latimer and Ridley Crowe of Meriden, 168 Landeg Family 
The Marquis de Fontenay Heraldry Parr Family, 169. 

REPLIES : Poems on Towns and Countries, 169 Rare 
Editions of Shakspeare, 170 Divination by Crystals" Hart 
Hall, now Balliol College," 171 Bickerton Lady Anne 
Hamilton's " Secret History," 172 Cyprus : Hogarth's 
Frolic-The "Merrythought," 173 The Rev. T. Brancker 
"Tutlieu" "The Spirit of Despotism" "The upper ten 
thousand" "Blooming" "Haysel," 174 English Provin- 
cial Dialects Tapestry formerly at Whitehall Chancellor 
Erskine The Wesleys and Colleys Old Songs Wanted Dr. 
Newman's "Loss and Gain" Lines attributed to Byron 
Turnip-stealing, 175 Boswert the Engraver Seal of 
Richard III. " Feather "Sixpenny Handley An Irish 
Highwayman Obscure Expressions MS. Hist, of Fer- 
managhSacramental Wine Severe Winters, 176 Boyle 
Godfrey Style and Title Proverbs Durnford Family- 
Heraldry" Candidacy "Local Weights and Measures, 177 
Funeral Armour "Viewy" Shrewsbury Names Curious 
Epitaph West Indies : Barbadoes, 178-Shelley, 179. 

SOTES ON BOOKS : Middleton's " Descriptive Catalogue of 
the Etched Work of Rembrandt Van Rhyn "Mortimer 
Collins's "British Birds "" Journal of the Royal Institu- 
tion cf Cornwall" "Lancashire and Cheshire Historical 
and Genealogical Notes." 

The complicity of James VI. in the murder of 
ais nobleman in February, 1591-2, though ap- 
arently founded only on popular surmise at the 
ime, has not been denied by historical writers, 
'he cause alleged by rumour was jealousy of the 
arl's favour with the queen, Anne of Denmark, 
s is expressed in the old ballad : 
the bonny Earl of Moray ! he was the queen's luve." 
"Whatever the cause, there is no doubt that the 
dng was an enemy to the handsome earl, and his 
eniency towards the principal murderer, the Earl 
fHuntly, in relation to the event affords some 
ground for believing that he had been privy to the 
cheme by which it was brought about. Thus 
lalderwood (v. 146) writes : " The king and the 
hancellor [Maitland of Thirlstane, whom Gregory 
hows to have been a fellow conspirator with 
Huntly to procure the death of Moray and others] 
went from Edinburgh to Kinniel to the Lord 
Hamilton, to eschew the obloquy and murmuring 
}f the people. Hardly could they be assuaged. 
The provost and magistrates of Edinburgh with 
great difficulty stayed the crafts from taking arms 
to stay the king from riding and to threaten the 
chancellor." Again, the king " sent for five or six 

of the ministers, made an harangue to them where- 
in he did what he could to clear himself, and 
desired them to clear his part before the people. 
They desired him to clear himself by earnest 
pursuing of Huntly with fire and sword. A pro- 
clamation was made with beating of drums to de- 
clare the king innocent, but no word of pursuing of 
Huntly." So loud did the outcries of the Protestant 
party become, however, that James felt compelled 
to take some measures, and Huntly was confined 
in Blackness Castle from the 12th to the 20th 
March. He was then liberated, on giving bail for 
his appearance to stand his trial on receiving fifteen 
days' notice (which he never received), and made 
the best of his way to the north. 

The following letter from the king to Huntly 
appears to afford at least a strong probability that 
the popular surmise as to James's share in the 
death of the Bonnie Earl was correct. It is No. 5 
in a series of " Gordon letters " printed in the third 
volume of the invaluable Spalding Club Miscellany : 

" I troue ye are not sa unuyse, milorde, as to misinter- 
prete my exterioure behavioure the last daye, seeing 
what ye did ye did it not without my allowance, and 
that be your humilitie in the action itself, youre honour- 
ing of me serued to counteruaile the dishonouring of me 
be otheris before, but perceauingby my expectation that 
baith noblemen and counsailloris to uasche thaire handis 
of that turne, and laye the haill burding upon me, I 
thocht the hurting of myself and thair looping free 
coulde be na pleasoure, nor ueill to you ; for" gif that 
impediment had not bene, assure yourselfe I ualde fainer 
haue spoken with you than ye ualde with me, for manie 
causis that uaire langsume to writte. Alluayes assure 
yourself and the rest of youre marrouis that I am ear- 
nister to haue your daye of tryall to haulde forduart than 
yourselfis, that be your seruices thaireftir the tirranie of 
thir mutins ms.y be repressit; for I protest before God in 
extremitie, I loue the religion they outuardly profess, 
and hatis thaire presumptuouse and seditiouse behauioure, 
and for your pairt in particulaire I trou ye haue hadd 
proofe of my mynde towardis you at all tymes, and gif 
of my fauoure to you ye doubt, ye are the onlie man in 
Scotlande that doubtis thairof, sen all your ennemies 
will needis binde it on my bake. To conclude, halde 
forduart the suiting of youre tryall as the berare will in- 
form you, and use the aduice that I haue commandit him 
to giue you in youre proceedingis, and moue your mar- 
rouis to omitt na diligence in balding forduart this dyet. 
Let nane see this lettir. Fairueill. Your aulde friend, 
J. R. I hope to see you or this moneth be endit (gif ye 
use yourself ueill) in als gude estait as ever ye was in." 

This letter is undated, as are Nos. 3, 4, 7-10 in 
the series. All, including the one just given, says 
the learned editor, the late Dr. John Stuart, 
"obviously relate to the incident known in our 
annals by the name of the Spanish Blanks" 
(Pref., p. xx). I think it will be evident to any 
one who carefully examines the letters that No. 5 
should be excluded from this category. The 
difference ia regard to address between No. 5 and 
the rest (" milorde " in the one, " good sonne " in 
the others) is perhaps of no importance, though, if 
the rest do all relate to the Spanish Blanks, 
would seem to argue that No. 5 was written 



[5*8. XL MAR 1,'79. 

a different time from them. But the terms of the 
letter fit into the circumstances consequent on the 
death of Moray in such a manner as to leave 
small room for doubt that the document was 
penned either between the murder and Huntly's 
imprisonment, or during his week's confinement 
in Blackness. "My exterioure behavioure the last 
daye " no doubt refers to an assumed coldness on 
the king's part towards his friend in the presence 
of some of the ministers ; he would of course be 
careful before them to disguise his desire to serve 
the man who was their principal enemy. The 
remainder of the paragraph refers to something 
which James had done with the concurrence of 
his nobles and counsellors, of which these were 
anxious to wash their hands and to lay the whole 
blame on him. This cannot possibly refer to the 
affair of the Spanish Blanks, neither is it likely to 
refer to an alleged conspiracy by Huntly in 1589 
to co-operate with the Spanish Armada, for there 
was nothing in these on account of which the 
Council need have wished to wash their hands. It 
seems tolerably clear to me, on the other hand, 
that it does refer to the Commission of Fire and 
Sword under which Huntly's expedition had been 
taken against Moray, and which had been issued 
in the usual way by the Privy Council. This 
commission was against Francis, Earl of Bothwell, 
and his accomplices and abettors; and Huntly, the 
instrument chosen for its execution, who had for 
some time previously been at feud with Moray, 
chose to consider that noble as among the abettors, 
probably with the connivance of the king (" what 
ye did, ye did it not without my allowance "), and 
certainly with that of the chancellor. The Privy 
Council, in granting the commission against Both- 
well and his abettors, had of course never imagined 
that the Protestant Earl of Moray would suffer as 
an abettor, and they were of course ignorant 
that the commission was a concerted scheme 
between Huntly and the chancellor, and no doubt 
the king himself, to bring about the death of that 
noble. Consequently, on learning that their com- 
mission had resulted in the death of the popular 
favourite, they would naturally wish to wash their 
hands of it, or, at all events, of any part in the 
mode in which it was carried into effect. 

The words "youre honouring of me serued to 
counteruaile the dishonouring of me be otheris 
before" may indicate a ground for believing that 
the king was moved by jealousy. Whether they 
do or not, however, it by no means follows that any 
blame attaches to the queen. 

That this letter relates to the murder of Moray 
is perhaps open to question, though, as I have 
tried to show, it is highly probable ; but that it 
does not relate to the Spanish Blanks is certain 
from the main facts which it states, viz., that 
Huntly had done some action with the king's per- 
mission, although the king was afraid openly to 

avow his share, and that this action or " turne " 
had been undertaken by the ordinary process of 
law, although the Council who had helped to direct 
this process were anxious to evade the responsi- 
bility of it. In any case the letter affords one 
more example of the meanness and duplicity of 
the " British Solomon." A. M. S. 


Perhaps at a time when " The Plague " has a 
place almost every day in the newspapers, the 
following document may be of sufficient interest 
for insertion in " N. & Q." It is copied from a 
broadside in a volume of " Proclamations and 
Broadsides " in the Forster Library in the South 
Kensington Museum. It has no date, but the 
contents of the volume in question range in time 
from 1632 to 1688. 

A Few special! receipts composed chiefly for preserving 
those that are well from the Plague, and also by the 
helpe of God to cure those which are infected, and 
some of the said receipts may be used in time of other 
infectious Diseases. 
Preservative from infection: 1. By Smell. 2. By 

Drinke. 3. By Foode. 

1. By Smell. Take white sponge soaked in Herbe of 
grace water, which water is thus made : Take a quarte 
of vinegar, halfe a pinte of Rose-water, put in a haridfull 
of Rue, and halfe a handfull of wormewood, and boyle it 
to a pinte : then take and dip the sponge in it when it is 
cold, and hold it to your nose when you goe abroad: 
and this is a good preservative. 

Another by Smell. Take of the best Cedar wood, and 
grate a small Box full, and let the lid be full of holes 
and smell to it. 

2. By Drinke. Take Wormewood and Herbe of grace, 
of each five ounces, and steepe them all night in a pinte 
of Beere, with a Lemmon sliced, and drinke thereof in 
the Morning fasting two spoon-fulls. 

Another by Drinke. Take a handfull of Wormewood, 
or by weight ten ounces, and cut it small, and steep it 
in a quarte of White- wine-vinegar, arid after it hath 
beene steeped 24 houres, let every one of your house take 
a spoone-full thereof fasting in the Morning, and fast 
two houres, or an houre after ; and this used constantly 
in time of Infection, will with the helpe of God, preserve! 

3. By Foode. Take a Wallnut kernall, a come of 1 
Salt, foure leaves of Herbe of grace; cut all very small, 1 
and put them in a Figge and roast it, and after it be 
eaten faste one houre, and so use it dayly. 

Another by Foode. Take a toast of Bread, and spread! 
it over with Treacle and Butter; and Herbe of grace 
eaten with it is very good. 

To cure when infected : 4. By Sweating. 5. Bj 
ripening the Sore. 6. By ayreing Clothes. 

4. By Sw eating. Take Endive water a quarte, Gen; 
tury water a pinte, Ivye berries halfe a handfull bruised , 
Boyle these together gently a quarter of an houre, anc ; 
when you take it from the fire, dissolve therein as mucl 
Treacle as the bignes of a Wallnut, and a little Sugar 
also put thereunto three spoon-fulls of vinegar. Af| 
soone as the patient doth complaine, and nature beinj; 
yet strong, give him fasting one good draught thereo 
warme, and let him keepe his bed, and sweat ten houre; 
or something lease, as the strength of the patient wil 


h S. XI. MAR. 1, 79.] 



3are. In his sweating give him now and then Ale 
arifyed, and into every draught put two or three spoon- 
ills of the decoction : When hee riseth, give him some 
roath, not made over-strong, neither with much spice ; 

and be very carefull to keepe him from the ayre. This 

decoction thus used will either force out the sore, or else 
' the patient sweat throughly well, it will cure him 

ivithout any sore ; and if you finde he be not greatly 
ased within eight houres after his sweating, the next 

tiay use the like againe, and with the helpe of God it is 
gpeciall remedy. 

5. To ripen the Sore. Take cloves of Garlike 18 
>emiywei#ht, of fresh Butter 3 ounces, of Lemmon the 
veight of a shilling, a white onion cut in pieces, a hand- 
ull of Mallowes, and a handfull of Scallions, or Onions ; 
>oyle these in a pottle of water, Jind make of them a 
>oultis. and lay to the Sore very warme, and renew it 

every day. 

Another to ripen the Sore. Take a hot loafe newly 
Irawne and lay to it, but when you take it away lay a 
resh, but be sure to bury that which you take away. 

6. By Ayreing. To ayre a house, take Cedar or 
Tuniper, Lavender, and dry Bayes, and old Rosemary, 

put them on a pan of coales in the midst of the roome. 

To ayre Beds or Cloathes. Take the same with Rose- 
water and Vinegar, and lay the Bed upon a Hurdell, or 
frame of a Table, with staves to stay it up, and two or 
three Chafing-dishes under with some of this burning in 
them, and this is an excellent receipt to ayre Cloathes. 
K. F. S. 


(Continued from p. 64.) 

_ Powel (Gabriel). Theologicall and scholasticall posi- 
tions concerning usurie. Set forth by definitions and 
partitions ; framed acoording to the rules of a naturall 
method. At Oxford, printed bv Joseph Barnes, and are 
to bee soldo in Fleete Streete at the signe of the Turkes 
Head by John Barnes. An. Do. 1602. 16mo. pp. 14+72. 
Dedication signed. P. 9, Usurie is a gaine which by 
composition, compact, and agreement going before, is 
taken for the verie dutie of lending, not adventuring the 
principall ; and that not onelie in money but in meate, 
ware, or anything that is valuable by money. (Entered 
May 27, 1605 : T. S. R., iii. 291, also see 333.) M. 

Downame (George), Bishop. Lectures on tho xv. 
psalme; read in the cathedrall church of St. Paule, 
wherein besides many other profitable matters the 
question of usurie is plainely and fully decided. London, 
1604. 4to. B. 

Pie (Thomas). Usuries spright conjured ; or a scho- 
lasticall determination of usury by Th[omas] Pie doct. 
of divinity, being moderator at the disputing thereof 
by certeine bachelers of divinitie and other learned 
preachers : with his answere to a treatise, written in 
defence of usurie.,.. Seene and allowed. London, printed 
by Melchisedech Bradwood, dwelling in the Little- Old- 
Bailie in Eliot's Court. 1604. 4 to. pp. 8+92. P. 4, The 
action is thus denned : Usurie is lending with gaine for 
it. The effect thus: Usurie is gaine for lending anie 
thing. (Also published anonymously]) M. 

Ugolinus (Bartholomaeus). Tractatus de usuris. 
V'enetiis, 1604. 4to. B. Another edition, 1607. 

21st Nov. 1606. John Wright. Entred for his copie 
under th[e h]andes of Master Gabriel Powell and the 
Wardens. A booke called A spectacle for usurers. &c., 
vjrf. (T. S. R., iii. 333.) 

A spectacle for usurers. &c. London, 1606. 4to. 
black-letter. (Bohn's Lowndes.) 

Canisius (Henricus). Praelectionea academic* in duos 
titulos singulares juris canonici ; 1. de decemis primitiis 

et oblationibus : 2. de usuris in quo et de antichresi et 
censibus sive reditibus annuis. Iiigolstadt, 1609. 8vo. B. 

18th December, 1609. Master William Leake. Entred 
for his copy under th[e hjandes of Master Richard 
Etkins and th[e] Wardens, a booke called Morsus foene- 
rutoris, or the usurer's bite, \\d. (T. S. R., iii. 426.) 

15th July, 1611. William Aspley. Entred for hia 
copy under tli[e h]andes of Doctor Mokett and th' wardens, 
a booke called A treatise of usury devided into twoo 
tookes, the first defyneth what it is, the second deter- 
mined! whether it be lawfull, by Master Roger Ffenton, 
vid. (T. S. R., iii. 462.) 

Penton (Roger), D.D. A treatise of usurie ; 3 bookes. 
London, 1611. 4to. Another edition, London, 1612. 
4to. B. 

Baudius (Dominicus). Dominici Baudii J. C. de foenore 
commentariolus. Lugduni Batavorum, apud Godefridum 
Basson, 1615. 8vo. pp. 26. At end of "Epistolarum" 
same place and date. Several later editions. M. 

Webbe (George), Bishop. Agurs prayer; or the 
Christians choyce, for the outward estate and condition 
of this present life ; describing the miserie of povertie, 
the vanitie of wealth, the excellencie of a middle estate, 
and the way to true contentation ; on Prov. 30. 7-9. 
London, 1621. 8vo. B. 

Sanderson (Robert). Ten sermons preached I. ad 
clerum 3, II. ad magistraturn 3, III. ad populum 4, by 
Robert Saunderson.... London, printed [by R. Y.] for 
R. Dawlman...l627. 4to. pp. 12+470. Ad populum, 
sermon 4, 30, pp. 439-442, Against usury (on 1 Co- 
rinthians vii. 24), Preached in St. Pauls, London, 4 Nov., 
1621. Forty years later R. S. writes in favour of 

Anonymous. Usurie araigned and condemned. Or a 
discoverie of the infinite injuries this kingdome endureth 
by the unlawfull trade of usurie.... London, printed by 
W. S, for John Smethwicke, and are to be sold at his shop 
in Saint Dunstans Churchyard in Fleet-street : under the 
Dial!, 1625. 4to. pp. 2+28. (Entered Oct. 25, 1624 : 
T. S. R., iv. 126.) M. 

Wilkinson (Henry), B.D. of Merton College. The debt 
book ; or a treatise upon Rom. 13. 8, wherein is handled, 
the civill debt of money or goods, and under it the mixt 
debt, as occasion is offered ; also the sacred debt of love. 
London, 1625. 4to. B. 

Gerardus, Senensis. Quodlibet primum qusestiones 
philosophicas, theologicas ac de usuris et restitutionibua 
multas complectens; una cum R. P. Fabiani tractatu 
de cambiis, item theolog. discursu morali circa decem 
precepta divina Angli Vancii; curavit Angelus Vancius. 
Bononise, 1626. 4to. B. 

Quodlibet secundum, complectena quaestiones variaa 
ex philosophia, sacra theologia, ac de usuris, et prsescrip- 
tionibus ; ex edit. Ang. Vancii. Catenae, 1630. 4to. B. 

Boucher (Jean), Canon of Tournay. L'usure ensevelie 
ou defence des monts de piete de nouveau erigez aux 
Pais Bas pour exterminer 1'usure. Divisee en iii. livres. 
Par M. Jean Boucher docteur en s. theol. de la Sorbonne 
de Paris, chanoine et archidiacre de Tournay. Avec une 
repartie a Jfean] D[e] L[illers] M[aistre] pretendu 
docteure en theologie. [Motto.] A Tournay de 1'impri- 
merie d'Adrien Quinque, 1628. 4to. pp. 22+176+32. 
Portrait, Title engraved. M. 

Adams (Thomas), D.D. The workes of T. A. London, 
Printed by Thomas Harper and Augustine Mathewes for 
John Grismand, 1629-30. Folio, pp. (12)+1240+(12). 
Tw unnumbered sub-title pages 1'ollowpp. 920 and 1068. 
P. 993 is a sub-title page, and is dated 1630. There is an 
hiatus between pp. 514-529. Pp. 55-56, 96, 120, 453-455, 
503, 584, 644, 1058, Against usury. M. 

Taylor (Thomas). The progresse of saints to full holi- 
nesse....By Thomas Taylor.... London, printed by W, I. 



|5' S. XL MAR. 1, 79. 

for John Bartlet...l630. 4to. pp. (20)+410+(14). Pp. 
95-97, Usury. M. 

Bolton (Robert), Puritan divine. A short and private 
discourse betweene Mr. Bolton and one M. S. concerning 
usury. Published [with a preface] by Efdward] B[ag- 
shawe] by Mr. Boltons owne coppy.... London, printed 
by George Miller, dwelling in Blacke Friers, 1637. 4to, 
pp. 8+78. M. 

Capel (Richard). Tentations : their nature, danger, 
cure. By Richard Capel, sometime fellow of Magdalen 
Colledge in Oxford. To which is added a briefe dispute, 
as touching restitution in the case of usury... London, 
printed by R. B., 1633. I2mo. pp. 36+456. Pp. 433-456, 
Of usury. M. 

Tentations : their nature, danger, cure. By Richard 
Capel, sometimes fellow of Magdalen College in Oxford. 
To which is added a briefe dispute, as touching restitu- 
tion in the case of usury. The second edition, corrected. 
...London, printed by R. B. for John Bartlet, and are 
to be sold at his shop in Cheapside at the signe of the 
Gilt Bible, 1635. 12mo. pp. 36+456. Pp. 433-455, Of 
usury. M. 

Tentations : their nature, danger, cure. The fourth 
part.... To all which is added an appendix touching 
usury. By Richard Capel.... London, printed by T. R. & 
E. M. for John Bartlet, living long since at the Gilt Cup 
in the Goldsmiths Row in Cheapside ; of later times at 
Austins Gate in Pauls Churchyard; now at the Gilt 
Cup on the south side of Pauls neer Austins Gate, over 
against the drapers [August 4th J, 1655. 8vo. pp. 14+298. 
Pp. 288-298, An appendix touching usury. M. 

Tentations : their nature, danger, cure. By Richard 
Capel. ...The sixth edition. The fourth part of the work 
left enlarged by the author, and now there is added his 
remains to the work of Tentations. To which thou hast 
prefixed an abridgement of the authours life by Valentine 
Marshall of Elmore in Gloucestershire.... London, printed 
by Tho. Ratcliffe for John Bartlet, long since living in 
the Goldsmiths Row in Cheapside, at the Gilt Cup; 
since at St. Austines Gate ; now in the new buildings on 
the south side of Pauls, near St. Austines Gate, at the 
sign of the Gilt Cup ; and at the Gilt Cup in Westminster 
Hall over against the upper bench, 1658. 8vo. Parts i. 
and ii. pp. 26+276 ; part iii. pp. 265-388 ; part iv., printed 
by T. R. & E. M. for John Bartlet... 1655, pp. 14+298; 
Capel's remains... printed by T. R. for John Bartlet... 
1658, pp. 48+118. Part ii. pp. 262-275, Of usury. Part iv. 
pp. 288-298, An appendix touching usury. M. 

F. W. F. 
(To It continued.) 


There is a proverb about shutting the stable 
door after the steed is stolen. Ten valuable steeds 
have lately been stolen from the City of London ; 
and npw there ariseth a great sound, as of shutting 
of empty stables. The Times, the Standard, the 
Church Times, and perhaps other papers also, have 
had articles protesting strongly, but too late, 
against the desecration and destruction of churches 
built by Wren or by his pupils and early successors. 
In one case, that of St. Antholin's, an influential 
deputation of architects actually arrived on the 
scene within less than four months after the fair at 
which the steed that was to be stolen had been 
" conveyed " ; or, to drop metaphor, more than 
three months after the tower of St. Antholin's had 

been doomed by Order in Council, that deputation, 
and other considerable authorities also, attempted 
to save it. Prevention is better than cure, especi- 
ally (as an Irishman might say) when there is no 
cure ; and perhaps the Society for the Protection 
of Ancient Buildings, and its junior in the City, 
may be able to preserve something of what is left. 
Meanwhile, the subject is worth attention in 
" N. & Q." ; and the note of my friend MR. TRE- 
POLPEN as to St. Dionis Backchurch (5 th S. xu 
57) has indeed already introduced it. 

The following (arranged in order of destruction) 
are the churches in London which have already 
been destroyed since the Union of Benefices Act 
of 1860 was" passed. 1. St. Bene't Gracechurch. 
Destroyed entirely, and a range of big warehouses 
built on its site. Bodies carted away, I believe, 
to the City of London Cemetery at Ilford. 2. St. 
Mary Somerset. Destroyed all but its tower, 
which, by much effort and a special Act of Parlia- 
ment, was preserved, but is not, I fancy, much 
cared for by the mayor and commonalty and 
citizens of the City of London, who are now its 
legal owners. Bodies carted away (I think) to 
Ilford, as above. 3. St. Mildred, Poultry. De- 
stroyed entirely, and abig warehouse now a-building 
on its site. Bodies carted to Ilford ; not without 
risk of scandal, for I believe there were hundreds 
of them. 4. St. Martin Outwich. Destroyed 
entirely. Site I believe built on, but I have not 
been privileged to behold the result. Bodies 
carted to Ilford. 5. St. James, Duke's Place, 
Aldgate. Destroyed entirely. Very much carting 
away to Ilford in this case as in St. Mildred's. 

6. St. Antholin's. Destroyed entirely, and a big 
warehouse built on its site. Tower, a beautiful 
work of Wren's and the church itself was a 
masterpiece of apt design was to have been pre- 
served ; but, by a happy afterthought, it also was 
destroyed before any one came to its rescue. 
Bodies, some shovelled in again, some carted away. 

7. St. Michael, Queenhithe. Destroyed entirely ; 
but the gate of the tower has been worked 
up into a parsonage. Bodies, I think, put back j 
again. 8. All Hallows, Bread Street. Milton's 
church. Destroyed entirely ; but the Milton stone 
is, I believe, in custody somewhere. Site built 
over, or building. 9. St. Dionis Backchurch. 
Destroyed entirely, or about to be so. Bodies 
carted to Ilford. 10. All Hallows Staining. 
Destroyed under a special Act. Tower left 
standing. Bodies, unknown to me. 

It will be noticed that the remains of our kins- j 
folk and ancestors have been somewhat freely dug j 
up and bandied about, after the modern English i 
method (brought to perfection by the Midland 
Railway in the case of Old St. Pancras), during i 
these wholesome and restorative operations ; and j 
also, that those bones and skulls that have been 
fortunate enough to enjoy this resurrection have 

)tt> S. XL MAR. 1,79.] 



IB )st of them gone to Ilford a cemetery which, 
ui .til they arrived, was supposed not to be a very 
p; ying concern. 

Thus endeth (for it is already too long) my first 
le ?son on the subject ; and I hope, as Izaak 
Walton says, the reader will be sorry. 

A. J. M. 

" EDINBURGH REVIEW." Prefixed to the Memoir 
of William Hazlitt, by his grandson, Mr. W. 
Carew Hazlitt, 2 vols., 1867 a most interesting 
work, of which the readers of Hazlitt would be glad 
to see a second and enlarged edition, containing 
the additional matter which, I believe, the editor 
has accumulated during the last twelve years is a 
list of that writer's contributions to the Edinburgh 
Review. The following are the titles and dates 
of the articles : 

Dunlop's History of Fiction, Nov., 1814. 

Standard Novels and Romances, Feb., 1815. 

Sisinondi's Literature of the South of Europe, June, 

Schlegel's Lectures on Dramatic Literature, Feb., 1816. 

Leigh Hunt's poem A Story of Rimini, June, 1816. 

Coleridge's Biographia Literaria, Aug., 1817. 

Horace Walpole's Letters, Dec., 1818. 

Farington's Life of Sir J. Reynolds, Aug., 1820. 

Byron's Sardanapalus, Feb., 1822. 

The Periodical Press, May, 1823. 

Shelley's Posthumous Poems, July, 1824. 

Lady Morgan's Life of Salvator Rosa, July, 1824. 

Flaxman's Lectures on Sculpture, 1829. 

Wilson's Life of Defoe, Jan., 1830. 

There are five articles besides those included in 
the above list which I think may, without doubt, 
be attributed to his pen. They all exhibit his 
unmistakable characteristics of style and thought. 
Of one of them there is no doubt as to his being 
the author, as will presently be shown. These 
five articles are as follows : 

Wat Tyler and Mr. Southey, March, 1817. 

The History of Painting in Italy, Oct., 1819. 

Lander's Imaginary Conversations, March, 1824. 

American Literature Dr. Channing, Oct., 1829. 

Godwin and his Writings, April, 1830. 

The article "American Literature Dr. Channing" 
is referred to in a privately printed volume of 
absorbing interest, entitled Selections from the Cor- 
respondence of the late Macvey Napier, Esq. (editor 
of the Edinburgh Review from 1829 to his death 
in 1847), edited by his son, Macvey Napier, 1877. 
Francis Jeffrey, writing to Napier, Nov. 23, 1829, 
speaks disparagingly of the writer of this article, 
which in a foot-note is stated to be by Hazlitt. 
Jeffrey seems to have been unaware of the author- 
ship, for he says, " I have no notion who he is." 
'On the other hand, Thomas Carlyle, writing to 
Napier, Jan. 27, 1830, and seemingly also unaware 
of the authorship of the article, says, " The review 
of Channing seemed to me especially good." The 
article is interesting, as giving Hazlitt's estimate of 

the genius and writings of Irving and Cooper, as well 
as of Charles Brockden Brown, the early American 
novelist, author of those forgotten stories of horror, 
Wieland, Carwin the Biloquist, Edgar Huntly, 
&c. As regards Dr. Channing, it would have been 
too much to expect impartiality in Hazlitt's treat- 
ment of the author of the Analysis of the Character 
of Napoleon Buonaparte. To so idolatrous an 
admirer and partisan of Napoleon as Hazlitt, Dr. 
Channing's stern Analysis must have been gall and 
wormwood. ALEX. IRELAND. 

Inglewood, Bowdon, Cheshire. 

calendars give headings to the months which were 
frequently transferred to carvings upon portals, 
misericords (notably at Worcester), and ceilings 
(as at Salisbury), and will account for what, at 
first sight, may appear inappropriate to the place. 
The occupations of the months are illustrated, from 
a MS. in the Chetham Library, in the Transactions 
of the Historical Society of Lancashire and Che- 
shire, 3rd ser. vol. v. (vol. xxix.). I now send the 
headings from a Utrecht Missal, 1515, which are 
identical with those in the Breviary of St. Alban's : 

1. Pocula Janus amat. 

2. Et Februus algeo clamat. 

3. Martius arva fodit. 

4. Aprilis florida nutrit. 

5. Ros et flos nemorum Maio sunt fomes amorum. 

6. Dat Junius fena. 

7. Julio resecatur avena. 

8. Augustus spicas. 

9. September content uvas. 

10. Seminat October. 

11. Spoliat virgulta November. 

12. Querit habere cibum porcum mactando December. 


MILTON AND MR. J. E. GREEN. In Mr. Green's 
Short History of the English People a curious sentence 
runs thus : " Milton, who after the composition of 
his Lycidas had spent a year in foreign travel, but 
had been called home from Italy by the opening of 
the Parliament, threw himself into the theological 
strife " (p. 527). Such a statement as this should 
scarcely appear in a book of history. Milton was 
back in England early in 1639, but the Short 
Parliament did not meet till April of the following 
year, so that he can hardly be said to have been re- 
called by its opening. From Mr. Green's language, 
further, we should imagine that immediately upon 
the poet's arrival he sat down and began to write 
furious theological treatises. But we know that he 
did nothing of the kind. On the contrary, at the 
beginning of the struggle he abode quietly in his 
Aldersgate Street house, betaking himself to his 
neglected studies, "trusting the issue of public 
affairs to God in the first place, and to those to 
whom the people had committed that charge." It 
was not until May, 1641, nearly two years after 
his return to England, that Milton published his 



[5'i' S. XL Mxn. 1, 79. 

first pamphlet, Of Reformation touching Church 
Discipline in England and the Causes that have 
hitherto hindered it. Then, indeed, he flung him- 
self into the fight. WILLIAM GEORGE BLACK. 

LEONARD MCNALLY. In many late numbers 
of "N. & Q.," on the subject of the Lass of 
Richmond Hill, the name of Leonard McNally 
occurs. It may not, however, be so generally 
known that Leonard, although an ardent patriot 
and accomplished orator of the school of Grattan 
and Curran, was a paid spy and informer, in the 
pay of the Castlereagh administration, of Dublin 
Castle for many years ; and at the very time when 
he was earning golden opinions with all the Irish 
National party as counsel for the Sheares, Emmet, 
&c., he was betraying all his clients' confidential 
communications to him as their counsel to the 
Government law officers. McNally died about 
1820, in poor circumstances ; and some interesting 
details about him may be found in Fitzpatrick's 
Sham Squire a,nd Ireland before the Union, also in 
the pages of Barrington and other writers, of that 
period, although the fact of his being a paid spy 
and informer was not, I believe, discovered until 
after his death. As a patriot, therefore, he must 
be placed in the same list as Watty Cox, Father 
O'Leary, and other recipients of the almost irre- 
sistible Castle seductions. As a convivial com- 
panion, even now a few contemporaries describe 
Leonard as irresistible. He was, I believe, one 
of the original " Knights of the Screw." 


Lavender Hill. 

ference to your review of the Transactions of the 
Cumberland, &c., Arch. Soc. (5 th S. x. 459), I note 
from Best's Rural Economy of Yorkshire in 1641 
(Surtees), p. 83, a curious description of the mode 
adopted by shepherds for counting their sheep, "as 
for example this marke * standeth for 20, this 
marke x for 10, and this, which is called faggett- 
inarke, 11 for 5," all of which were marked on 
a stick. G. LAURENCE GOMME. 

When I was a pupil at St. Bartholomew's, forty 
years ago, one of our lecturers used to say that within 
a recent period there were exposed for sale in a 
shop in Fleet Street red tongues, i.e. tongues of 
red cloth, to tie round the throats of patients 
suffering from scarlet fever. N. H. C. 

ROSEMARY. Rosemary was used at funerals in 
the southern counties as well as in Yorkshire. In 

a As the printer may not be able to represent this, I 
describe it as four upright strokes with a line drawn 
diagonally across them from the top of the first stroke to 
the bottom of the fourth. 

the reign of Elizabeth Stowe tells us that it was 
strewn before brides on their way back from 
church, cvnd it did not go out of fashion in London 
until the close of the last century, and then owing to 
a dearth of the plant. I can remember that it was 
used for washing the hair of children. 


" SHROVING." The village children have just 
come to my window singing this delectable ditty : 
" Pan hot, 
Knife cut, 

We are come to shroving ; 
Little bit of truckle cheese, 
Some of your own making." 

R. N. 

Beechingstoke, Wilts. 


ftemaine Franpaise remarks that the hat is not of 
straw, but of felt ; paille being here a corruption 


A GOOD HINT. Your correspondent's threefold 
hint (ante, p. 146) refers to each of the three 
departments of " N. & Q." : 1. Notes ; 2. Queries ; 
3. Replies. Might not this have been added, so 
as to bring the lesson home " all round " among us 
your contributors 1 If " brevity is the soul of wit," 
and if " wit " is akin to " wisdom," it must be 
equally acceptable in each department. LEX. 


[We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct] 

ST. DAVID'S DAY. Everybody knows that the 
1st of March is St. David's Day ; and that the 
wearing of a leek on that day has long been a 
national practice of the Welsh we know from 
Shakespeare, Henry V., Act iv. sc. 3, "I do 
believe your majesty takes no scorn to wear the 
leek on St. Tavy's day." But will any of your t 
readers explain the fourth of the following lines, 
taken (at second hand) from Poor Robin's Almanac | 
for 1757, under the month of March? 
" The first of this month some do keep, 
For honest Tajfto wear his leek ; 
Who patron was, they say, of Wales, 
And since that time, cuts-plutter-a-nails 
Along the street this day doth strut 
With hur green leek stuck in hur hat, 
And if hur meet a shentleman 
Salutes in Welch ; and if hur can 
Discourse in Welch, then hur shall be 
Amongst the green-horned Taffys free." 
Again, what is the meaning of the custom of 
hanging Taff, thus described a little further on 

5 1 S. XI. MAR. 1, 79.] 



" But it would make a stranger laugh 
To see the English hang poor Taff ; 
A pair of breeches and a coat, 
Hat, shoes and stockings, and what not ; 
All stuffed with hay to represent 
The Cambrian hero thereby meant ; 
With sword sometimes three inches broad, 
And other armour made of wood, 
They drag bur to some public tree 
And hang hur up in effigy." 

Hampstead, N.W. 

-1. In the Popular Superstitions and Festive 
Amusements of the Highlanders of Scotland, by 
W. Grant Stewart (Edinburgh, 1823), occurs the 
"olio wing (p. 136) : 

Go to the summit of some... mountain,... and gather 
if that herb in the Gaelic language called ' Mohan.'... 
This herb you will give to a cow, and of the milk of that 
:;ow you are to make a cheese, and whoever eats of that 
Cheese is for ever after, as well as his gear, perfectly 
Isecure from every species of fairy agency." ' 

jDoes any Scottish reader of " N. & Q." know 
what plant is meant here, and what is the correct 
'J-aedhilic or English name? Stewart (whose style 
is as affected as his matter is valuable) wrote from 
' Congash, Strathspey." "Mathan" (which would 
mean " good herb ") is perhaps the right name. 

2. It is, I think, into the mouth of Meg Mer- 
:ilies that Scott puts the old rhyme, which I must 
*ive from memory : 

" St. Bride and her brat, 
St. Colm and his cat, 
St. Michael and his spear, 
Keep this house frae rieve and wear." 

The " brat " of St. Brigit is her cloak (Irish brat), 
;hat spread over the Currach-Life. The association 
f the spear with St. Michael is also easy to under- 
tand. But what is the tradition associated with 
he " cat " of the other Irish saint, Coluui-Chille ? 
s the rhyme current in Scotland now, and with 
,ny variations of form 1 

3. In a very interesting little work, An Echo of 
he Olden Time from the North of Scotland 
Edinburgh and Glasgow, 1874, pp. 106-107), the 
lev. Walter Gregor gives two love charms, (a) 
With orchis roots. The orchis is used for the same 
aurpose in Ireland in Donegal, I understand, 

nder the name cailleach-bhreac-bhrcagaidhe (the 
ied deceiving old woman). The juice is mixed 
with dough, so at least said an informant from 
whom I have it only at second hand. In Limerick 
he name of the orchis is earball-cuitin (little cat's 
^ail). Another Irish name is magairlin meadhrach. 
By this name it is referred to by the jovial author 
that best sustained effort of the later Irish 
nuse, Cuirt an Mheddhain Oidhche, the able and 
anedifying "Midnight Court" of Bryan Merri- 
inan. (6) Two lozenges were given to the one 
tvhose love was sought. DAVID FITZGERALD. 

LUTHER AND CRANACH. Will you help me to 
obtain information on the following points in con- 
nexion with some investigations I am making ? 

Where were Luther and Cranach Oct. 31, 1544? 

Was Luther's portrait painted after the year 
1543 ? if so, by whom, and where are copies or 
descriptions of the same to be found ? 

Is there a more complete or accurate list of 
Cranach's works than that given by Schuchardt 
in his Lucas Cranach des Aelteren Leben und 
Werke ? Does the supplement to the above- 
named work contain a portrait answering to the 
following description? A man of about sixty, 
clean shaven, thin, care-worn face, wearing an 
academical dress, with small cap on head, looking 
to his left. G. G. B. 

offered for sale a day or two since a cast from the 
face of Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin, supposed to 
have been taken after death. It had been recently 
purchased at a sale in Kent, and I saw the cata- 
logue in which it was so described. I could not 
recognize in the mask any likeness to the charming 
portrait which is prefixed as a frontispiece to her 
Memoir by William Godwin. Added to this, 
both catalogue and a pen-and-ink inscription on 
the reverse side of the cast gave the name as 
"Mary Wollastoncroft (sic) Godwin." Now is 
there any record of such a cast being taken, or do 
any of your readers know where such a cast can be 
seen ? A. 

American missionary Dohne, in his Zulu-Kafir 
Dictionary (Cape Town, 1857), explains the 
original meaning of the name Zulu as "a vagabond, 
one who has no home." He further supposes that 
the people who speak the Zulu language once must 
have possessed a far higher cultivation than at 
present. The same opinion is advanced by Calla- 
way, in his Nursery Tales of the Zulus (Natal, 
1868). "Their tales," he remarks, "point out very 
clearly that the Zulus are a degenerated people, 
having sunk from a higher state." Where can I 
find an earlier ethnological authority throwing 
further light on the descent and first appearance 
of the Zulu tribe and Kafir race at large ? 

Having just come across the Grammar of the 
Zulu Language, endeavoured by the American 
missionary Lewis Grout (Natal, 1859), I learn 
from his historical introduction " that the Zulu 
nation, according to the memory of their oldest 
inhabitants, formed originally but a small tribe, 
reported to have come down from a more inland 
region on the west and north-west." But this 
remark does not answer my query concerning the 
earliest reports about the Zulus and their ethno- 
graphical connexion with the Caffres in general. 
Their national name does not seem to have been 
mentioned before the present century. Or does it 



* S, XL MAR. 1, 79. 

occur in Van Riebeek's (the founder of the Cape 
Colony in 1652) first description of the native 
population of South Africa ? What was Living- 
stone's opinion about the Zulus 1 H. KREBS. 

"LiMB" = SCAMP. This word seems now to be 
often used and fully understood as a slang term. 
" He is a regular limb " seems to be equivalent to 
saying he is a good-for-nothing fellow. With this 
meaning I think it is not admitted into dictionaries, 
though Holloway, Dictionary of Provincialisms, 
1838, has "Limb, a determined sensualist, Nor- 
folk " ; and Grose (1785) gives, " Limb of the law, 
a pettyfogging lawyer," seeming to imply that a 
limb was something small and mean. When was 
the word first thus used I The earliest use of it 
which I have noted is 1767. Foote, in the epilogue 
to his comedy of The Minor, has these lines : 

" Let 's go see Foote ! ah, Foote 's a precious limb ! 
Old Nick will soon a football make of him." 

There is of course in this a pun, but was " limb " 
at that time considered as equivalent to " leg " ? 

" BOVGGE THE BERE." It appears from a docu- 
ment of the time of Mary L, printed in the twenty- 
third volume of the Archceologia, that "Bovgge 
the bere" was a nickname given to John Dudley, 
Earl of Warwick and Duke of Northumberland, 
and that his son Guilford Dudley, husband of Lady 
Jane Grey, was called Lylborne. Can any one 
explain these names? "The bere" is clearly an 
allusion to the bear and ragged staff, but what 
about "Bovgge"? Of Lylborne I can make 
nothing. See pp. 40-42. ANON. 

" ENGLAND'S DAY." Is it known who was the 
author of a splendid little poem which appeared 
under the above title some six or seven years ago 
in the form of a sixpenny pamphlet? I think 
Strahan & Co. were the publishers. It was worthy 
of the Poet Laureate, but it seems to have been 
withdrawn from circulation, probably on account 
of its warlike tone. J. W. W. 

AUSTIN BERNHER. It has been supposed by 
some, and also stated by Gresley, in his tale The 
Forest of Arden, that Austin Bernher, a Swiss, 
the companion and friend of Latimer, was pre- 
sented to the rectory of Southam soon after the 
accession of Elizabeth. I cannot find it so in 
Dugdale or in the books of the parish, and shall 
be glad if any one will inform me what foundation 
there is for the statement. NERQUIS. 

FRS. EGINGTON. I am in possession of a stained 
glass window, dated 1802, by the above-named 
artist, subject "Bebekah at the Well," figures 
life size. I shall be obliged to any one who will 
inform me where the artist lived, who are his 

successors, and where other works of his are to be 
found, whether in churches or colleges. 


SCAMBLING DAYS. "Days in Lent, when no 
regular meals were provided, but every one 
scambled (i.e. scrambled), and shifted for himself 
as he could" (HalliwelTs Diet.). For scambling= 
scrambling, cp. Peacock's Glossary, dialect of 
Manley (Lincolnshire). In Somerset scamblin= 
an irregular meal. Can any of your corre- 
spondents supply me with an instance of the use 
of this term as a name for Lent ? Halliwell gives 
no example. A. L. MAYHEW. 


This fraternity (?) appears to have been a sort of 
what would now be styled Anglican " Guild." 
Is there anything more known about it than the 
following advertisement in the Dublin Chronicle 
of May, 1790, informs us? 

" Just published, a Friendly Letter to all Young Men 
who are desirous to live Godly Lives, and are true Mem- 
bers of the Church of England. To which are added 
Rules and Orders observed by the Religious Society of 
St. Catherine's, formed by his Grace William King, Lord 
Archbishop of Dublin, with the approved consent of Mr. I 
Henry Echlin, Vicar; Mr. Ralph Darling, and Mr. 
Henry Disminiere (Des Megnieres), Curates. Printed 
by J. Jackson, 1746, and now reprinted by J. Charrurier, 
No. 128, Capel Street (price 4d. or 3s. 3d. per doz.). The| 
original copy may be seen at the Printer's." 

C. S. K. 

Kensington, W. 

The first volume, of 136 pages, was published by 
C. Gilpin, without any date on the title-page, but 
the preface is dated, "Kensington, Dec. 1, 1849.' ; 
In that preface Leigh Hunt states that, if thej 
volume met with success, he would give the public' 
"another for the year, or the half year, ensuing,! 
and so on at like successive periods, if life andj 
health permit him." Was this design ever carried, 
out ? Did a second volume ever appear ? 


extant any of their autographs, and where ? 

E. J. TAYLOR, F.S.A.Newc. 

can I find a pedigree of the above family ? Dug; 
dale says that in 1532 Roger Wigston purchcosec 
certain lands in Meriden "of one Robert Crowe" 
and it appears from the Willington pedigree ii 
the Visitation of Warwickshire, 1619, that James 
son of Thomas Willington, of Hurley, marriet; 
" . . . filiani . . . Crowe de Meriden," and hac 
issue a son William, then aged nineteen years 
Again, Richard Greisbrooke, of Meriden, in hi: 

S. XI. MAE. 1, 79.] 



wil , dated 1621, speaks of his godson " Humfrye 
Cn we, son of my cosin John Crowe, of Meriden, 
it." H. S. G. 

FAMILY OF LANDEG. Can any of your readers 
giva me suggestions as to the derivation of this 
very uncommon surname 1 I shall be very much 
obliged for any references as to its history, county, 
arms, &c. The family of Baron, of Gloucester 
and Hereford, is connected with the Landeg family 
by marriage. R. T. SAMUEL. 


yard of St. Peter's, Dublin, there is a flat stone 
with the following inscription : 

" Gloria in excelsis Deo. Memento mori. Here lieth 
I the body of Justine Elizabeth De Fontenay, only child 
j of the Marquis and Marchioness De Fontenay. Born on 
[the llth day of March, 1787. A beautiful and amiable 
;girl, she was forced by disturbances of France to emigrate 
| with her family from her native land, and to take refuge 
! amongst strangers, who, though they cannot repair the 
i losses, sympathize in the sufferings of a noble, but un- 
I fortunate family. She died on the 16th day of January, 

Will any one kindly refer me to any source or 
i sources of information regarding this family? If 
! so, I shall feel much obliged. ABHBA. 

HERALDRY ON OLD ARMOUR. I have a suit of 
| armour, of about the time of Henry VIII., on the 
top part of the breastplate of which is engraved a 
coat of arms : Or, a bend between three trefoils, 
apparently azure. What family bore this coat ? 


any one help me to the ancestry of John Parr, 
who married Elizabeth Williton (both were of 
iPowderham, Exeter) in 1775 ; of Thomas Parr, 
jwho married Esther Woolacott (both of Powder- 
jham) in 1780 ; and of William Parr, who was 
living at Powderham and married in 1785 ? I 
cannot trace the Parr family of Powderham prior 
to the year 1775. FRANK JOHN PARR. 


[Address direct to querist.] 


A Leqende of y Castle at Huntynqdune. This small 
work of thirty-nine pages, " Collected and set forth by 
an Lsquire," was published in 1854 at " Huntyngdune : 
Imprynted by R. Edis, at y e sign of y e Bible and Crowne 
in y e High Street," and the profits of the sale were to be 
given to the fund for the enlargement of St. Mary's 
Church. Who was the author '{ CCTHBERT BEDE. 

"The Muse commenc'd Preacher; or, A Plain, Prac- 
tical, Poetical Sermon on Ephes. ch. iv. v. 32, ' Forgiving 
one another, even as God for Christ's sake hath forgiven 
you. By a Young Divine. Market-Harborough : 
Printed and Sold by W. Harrod ; S. Crowder, in Pater- 
noster-Row, London, and all Country Booksellers. 
H.DCC.LXIV. Price One Shilling." JOHN TAYLOR. 

(5 th S. vii. 148 ; viii. 194.) 

In replying thus tardily to the inquiry of 
IGNATIUS, I cannot pretend to do more than 
indicate some few of the sources of the informa- 
tion he requires as they occur to me. I need 
hardly remind him of the epigram of Sannazarius, 
De Mirabili Urbe Venetiis, celebrated alike for 
its elegance, the golden reward it obtained for its 
author, and the numberless translations and 
adaptations which it has suggested. It was this, 
for instance, which served as a model to James 
Ho well in the " Encomium on London Bridge," 
prefixed to his Londinopolis. 

The following little book will be of special 
interest to IGNATIUS : 

"MusaCanicularis sive Iconum Poeticarum Libritres, 
qui continent Icones Heroicas, Icones Gentium, Icones 
Varias et Epigrammatum. Centurise tres. Auctore D. 
Josepho Silos, &c. Parisiis, M.DC.LV." Small square 8vo. 
pp. 428. 

An extract from lib. ii., " Icones Gentium," may 
be thought worthy of transcription : 
Icon X. 

Par Italis Anglus, genioque affinis, et ore, 
Dissita ceu formet pectora sydus idem. 
Fronte hilaris, vultu roseus, flavusque Capillo est 

Arduus et grandis mole, habilisque manu. 
Ingenio, et dives lingua ; mendacia inaurat, 

Nulla sed ingenio divite lingua duplex, 
Totus in ore Anglus ; pura velut amnis in unda, 

Vultibus ingenuis pectoris ima vides. 
Aut brevis, aut nullus mceror : necat, excutit omnem 

Curam animo, festis exhiliratque jocis. 
Delicias inter genius terit impiger horas, 

Gaudia, et alternant irrequieta vices. 
Pocula nunc ardent, nunc plauditur aula chorzeis, 

Mox jactat faciles scena diserta sales, 
Atcum bella tonant ; Anglus generosior, acri 

Pectore, et objectat saeva per arma caput, 
Jactatur talus, mora nulla : nee ignea durat 

Dextra, sibique parit plurima, pauca tenet. 
Hospes munificus : Gens est sed prona superbis 

Pompis, seque eifert ambitiosa nimis. 
Centenus lateri verna est, luxuque supellex 

Regifico, Phrygius fulget ubique labor. 
Aurum tecta vomunt rutilum, stratisque tapetis 

Dum pede calcatur, picta superbit humus. 
Doctus et Oceanum puppi praenare Britanna, 

Et pelagi elatis turribus ire vias. 
It, redit, impavidus ; nunc asportare Canopum 

Gestit, nunc gaza Perside vela tument. 
Angle, deest pietas : audin'? tuus obstrepit undis 

Oceanus, noxas increpat ille tuas." P. 105. 
Besides these, here and there in the same volume, 
and especially in the " Epigrammatum Centuria 
Secunda," will be found numerous epigrams on 
the various cities of Europe, including Venice. 

One entire section of the Latin poems of Julius 
Scaliger, pp. 543-573, entitled " Urbes," consists 
of some hundred epigrams of various length on 
different important cities, beginning with Rome, 



[5'h s. XI. MAE. 1, 79. 

and ending with Jerusalem. The following is 
entitled : 

Urbs anirnis, numeroque potens, et robore gentis, 

Vel cunctos prae se despicit uria Decs. 
Torva peregrinis, sed non et inhospita, merces 

Vicinis patrias aggerit, atque petit. 
Contemnis, cui das, tanquam isto munere major. 

Odisti unde petLs ne videare minor. 
Dicat. quid bello valeas, Aquitania, quid non 

Et Nortman, et cum Saxone Roma vetus." P. 552. 

See Julii Ccesaris Scaligeri Viri Clarissimi 
Poemata Omnia. In Bibliopolio Commeliniano, 
1600, Svo. 

Grotius should be mentioned here as having 
left us four epigrammatic quaternions, "In 
Pretoria qusedam Regia Anglise." These are 
" Nonswicb," " Hamtincovrt," " Windsoor," and 
"Richemont" (p. 370). Hugonis Grolii Poemata 
Colleda, &c., edita a frativ Gulielmo Grotio, 
Lugd. Bat., 1617, Svo. 

Barlseus has given us in a series of epigrams 
" Urbium Prsecipuarura Holland ite Encomia." 
See Caspciris Barlcei Antverpiani Poemata, 
Amstel., 2 torn., M.DC.XLV., torn. ii. p. 402. 

Epigrams on Amsterdam, Rotterdam, &c., will 
be found in Gidielmi Hornii Poemata ad Guli- 
elmum III. Magn. Brit. liegem, &c., Rotersedami, 
MDCXVIL, 8vo., pp. 880. This curious volume 
contains a host of epigrams of special interest to 
ourselves. The following are neat if not flatter- 
ing : 

" lli>soLUTio AD ANGLUM. 

Angelus est Anglus facie : sed corde dolosus ; 

Cum tibi dicit ave ; sicut ab Loste cave." P. 446. 


Est, puto, sic dictus; quod sit, velut Angelus, Anglus : 
At bonus, est anceps, Angelus ; anne malus." 

P. 455. 

We are indebted to the industry of Dr. J. A. 
Giles for a volume in which are collected into one 
corpus all the allusions by classical writers to our 
own country. This is entitled Excerptn ex Scrip- 
toribus Greeds et Latinis de Rebus Britannids a 
primo initio usque ad seculum post Christum 
sextum, London, 1846, 8vo. The compiler says in 
his preface, " The number of authors from whose 
works it is compiled is so great, that hardly a 
Latin author remains of whose writings a specimen 
is not given in this volume." The list of these, 
indeed, numbers no less than 124, beginning with 
Orpheus, B.C. 560, and closing with Nicephorus, 
A.D. 1333. 

Epigrams on some few cities, from authors 
whose books may not readily be found, are ex- 
cerpted in a delicious little tome entitled Delitias 
Delitiarum sive Epigrammatam ex optimis qui- 
busq. hujus et novissimi seculi poetis in amplissimd 
Hid Bibliothecd Bodleiand, &c., Opera Ab. Wright, 
Art. Bac., &c., Oxonire, 1637, 12rao. 

Reference should also be made to Eortus 

Variarum Inscriptionum, Veterum et Nova/rum, 
videlicet Urbium, Templorum, Sacellorum, 
Altarium, &c., a P. Ottore Aicher, &c., Salis- 
burgi, 1676-1684, 2 vols. 8vo. 

A twelve-line poem, " De Aberdonia Urbe," 
will be found in Arturi Johnstoni Parerga et 
Epigrammata, or in Delitice Poe,tarum Scotorum 
hujus O3vi illustrium, Amsterdauii, 1637, 2 rols. 
12mo. (vol. i. p. 599). 

I shall not here further attempt to pursue a 
subject which is nearly inexhaustible ; nor shall 
I mention poetical monographs on various towns 
and countries, as I infer that the query of IG- 
NATIUS rather refers to epigrams, sonnets, and 
smaller pieces. WILLIAM BATES, B.A. 


511 ; xi. 95, 114.) I have now ascertained that the 
volumes ii. iii. and iv. of the so-called Scott's edition 
of Shakespeare in the Boston Public Library are 
not the only extant fragments (collections of proof- 
sheets) of that edition. Mr. R. F. Sketchley, the 
librarian of the Dyce and Forster collections at 
South Kensington Museum, was so obliging as to 
inform me, nearly two months ago, that the Dyce 
collection contained vols. ii. and iii. of an edition 
lettered " Proof Sheets of Lockhart's Shakspeare." 
These belonged to Andrew Shortrede, whose name 
is in each volume, and are from the press of 
Ballantyne & Co. At the end of each volume is 
a ticket with these words : " Left in custody of 
Theodore Martin on my departure for China, May, 
1844. And. Shortrede." Mr. Sketchley, on writ- 
ing to Mr. Theodore Martin, received from him 
this explanation : 

" The book you mention was given by me many years 
ago to Mr. Dyce. I received it from Mr. Andrew Short- 
rede, formerly a well-known printer in Edinburgh. He } 
had been in the office of Messrs. Ballantyne, I think, the 
printers, at the time these volumes were at the press. 
The work was, I understood him to say, not proceeded 
with, and these were the only set of the sheets in exis- | 
tence. Mr. J. G. Lockhart, he told me, was the editor, i 
and the corrections on the sheets were in his handwrit- i 
ing. Mr. Dyce subsequently informed me tbat there was 
nothing in the work of special value. He had thoroughly 
examined both volumes." 

Mr. Martin adds, that he had a vague remera- 1 
brance of having been told by Shortrede that this 
was the edition projected by Sir Walter Scott, that 
Scott was an old friend of Shortrede's family, and ; 
had been kind to him as a boy indeed, his father 
is mentioned in Lockhart's Life of Scott. 

At my request Mr. Sketchley furnished me ^yitll | 
some collations from both volumes for comparison' 
with those in the Boston Public Library. A few 
days ago I received the report of Mr. Jas. M. J 
Hubbard, the assistant librarian there, who writes : 

" I have made the comparison which you desired with 
our Scott's edition of Shakespeare. You were quite 
correct in your surmise : the volumes in the Dyce and 

S. XL MAR. 1, 79.] 



For ;ter Library are the same as curs. We have, h 
eve; , a vol. iv., which seems to be wanting in the South 
iKersington Library." 

o that is the end of the matter, so far as I am 
ncerned. Sir Walter Scott never edited Shake- 
spevre at all, but Lockhart revised certain prooi 
sheets of an edition to be floated under favour ol 
Scctt's great name, those sheets covering sixteen 
of the plays; the whole work to be in eight (or 
nine) volumes. It was stopped when Constable 
became insolvent, and probably only one set of the 
proof-sheets and one set of the revises were pre- 
served. I am not informed whether the Boston 
copy is of uncorrected proofs or revises. 

Athenaeum Club. 

DIVINATION BY CRYSTALS (5 th S. x. 496.) An 
sarly description of the use of a crystal ball for 
divination may be seen in A Relation of what 
\passed for Many Years between Dr. John Dee and 
wme Spirits, with a preface by Meric Casaubon, 
Lond., 1659, and in Dr. Dee's Apology sent to the 
'Abp. of Canterbury, 1594-5 ; or, a Letter contain- 
ing a most Brief Discourse Apologetical, Lond., 
1599 (Lowndes). But the most recent occasion 
ion which there was a public inquiry into the 
use of .such a crystal was when " Zadkiel," 
R. I. Morrison, sued Admiral Sir E. Belcher for 
libel in the Court of Q. B. for a letter to the Daily 
Telegraph in Jan., 1862. The following summary 
[is taken, with some omissions, from the report 
which appeared in the Guardian. The plaintiff 
stated that in Zadlciel's Almanac for 1862 there was 
a notice that the author had been so fortunate as 
'o obtain four adult seers, two of whom as artists 
aad represented what they had seen. The plaintiff, 
being examined, said he had heard that Lady 
Blessington had a curious crystal ball with wonder- 
ful properties, and he bought it of a dealer in 
curiosities in Brompton in 1849. The crystal ball 
vas here produced amidst much merriment, and 
landed round the court. It was about four inches 
n diameter with several flaws in it. A piece of 
slue ribbon was attached to it, by which it was 
aken up, and when produced it was taken with 
uuch veneration and respect from a plum-coloured 
velvet bag by the plaintiff for the inspection of the 
ury. The plaintiff then went on to state that 
mving set the crystal before his son he saw Arctic 
scenery, and the event of Franklin's expedition, of 
vhich he wrote an account which appeared in the 
Athenmuni, and that among others Baron Bun sen 
iad requested to see the ball, several countesses, 
it one time as many as eight in the room, a bishop 
md archdeacon, and several members of Parlia- 
ment. The drawings of the artists were produced, 
^.nd there is the evidence of Lady Harry Vane, 
L-ady Tatton Egerton, the Bishop of Lichfield, 
Irchdeacon Robinson, the Marchioness of Ayles- 

bury, Lord Wilton, Sir E. L. Bulwer, Mr. Kent, 
proprietor of the Sun, and others, who all deposed 
to having seen the ball at different places, and that 
the plaintiff had never taken money from them. 
There was an amusing cross-examination by Ser- 
jeant Ballantine. The Lord Chief Justice told the 
jury that to support the defendant's plea of justi- 
fication they must be satisfied that the plaintiff 
exhibited the ball knowing it to be an imposture, 
and for profit. The exhibition for money was not 
made out. There was a verdict for the plaintiff, 
damages 20s., certificate for costs refused. In 
"N. & Q.," 3 rd S. iv. 108, 155, 218, there are 
articles on Zadkiel's crystal ball and other earlier 
usages, but not to the same effect as abr,ve. 


I remember that some few years ago there was 
a curious case concerning a crystal divining ball in 
one of the law courts, in which a good deal of light 
was thrown upon this caliginous subject. The ball 
had been exhibited in private society in London, 
and among the witnesses (who saw nothing in it) 
were Bishop Lonsdale of Lichfield and Lord Chief 
Baron Pollock. The case was reported in the 
Guardian. The crystal ball is, I suppose, an in- 
strument of divination of the same kind as Count 
Cagliostro's bottle of pure water, into which the 
" arch-quack " made his pupils look, and wherein 
the said pupils were wont to see many marvellous 

The Temple. 

xi. 85, 133.) I said that " Balliol College never 
was Hart Hall." I say so again. I said I thought 
" the absurdity too great to have life." Perhaps 
some persons may begin to hesitate when they are 
assured by GENERAL EIGAUD that he cannot 
think that the venture of " Hart Hall, now Balliol 
College," announced a new fact. GENERAL 
RIGAUD pleasantly inquires, " Would he [D. P.] be 
urprised to hear that there were two Hart Halls 
certainly, perhaps a third, and that one of them 
was connected with Balliol through its first master, 
and therefore it is not impossible that, in the 
earliest times of Balliol College, one of its members 
may have been a student resident in that Hart 

Surety no one need be surprised now. The sur- 
prise which Oxford men must be awaiting is to be 
told which of the Hart Halls is " now Balliol Col- 
ege," and also to have it explained to them how 
William of Wyrcestre, born in 1415, happened 
;o be sent to the other side of Oxford, to a house 
which had ceased to exist before 1424, by the first 
[not Master, but) Principal or Gustos of Balliol 
not College, but) Hall, Foderingey, who became 
Principal in 1282. 

What the writer in the Saturday Review said 
was intended to give, and did give, the impression 



[5"> S. XI. MAR. 1, 79. 

that Balliol College stands on the site of Hart 
Hall. Until we receive our new surprise, the fact 
that Balliol (College) Hall possessed an obscure 
tenement on the other side of Oxford has nothing 
to do with the matter. William Wyrcestre was 
of the historical Hart Hall, the colony from Glas- 
tonbury. With the sack and plunder of that 
illustrious house its supplies failed. " Quibus," 
says Twyne, in his Apologia, " nunc diu orbata, 
temporum ac hominum iniquitatem deplorat." 

As Peshall's book has been mentioned, it may be 
as well to say that any one who can compare it 
with Wood's MS., now in the Bodleian, will soon 
perceive how badly Peshall did his work. That 
precious MS. deserves, and will, I hope, some day 
have, a competent editor. D. P. 

Stuarts Lodge, Malvern Wells. 

BICKERTON (5 th S. x. 289.) One would have 
thought that some old Oxonian would have 
answered before this the question of who Bickerton 
was, who is alluded to in the Oxford Spy as " un- 
happy Bickerton " and as " poor Bickerton." The 
question was asked on Oct. 12, and yet, though I 
wondered, I found that when I came to frame 
an answer it was not easy to do so. Even now, 
although there are some two or three old men who 
recollect seeing him when they were boys, it has 
not been easy to learn much accurately about him. 
At length, however, the representative of the 
family here, a legal practitioner, Mr. J. J. Bicker- 
ton, has assisted me with such facts as he could 

The Bickerton alluded to was a member of 
St. Edmund Hall, Oxford. He graduated quite at 
the end of last century, and went to the Bar. It 
is said that he practised with some success, but 
became eccentric and unfit for the profession. 
Luckily, though not rich, he had some means. 
Leaving London he returned to Oxford, and took 
up his abode in a set of rooms in old Hertford 
College, then deserted. He remained here until 
about 1820, for there are portraits of him in the 
Bodleian, on one of which is the date 1819, and old 
Magdalen Hall was burnt down in January, 1820, 
and rebuilt on the site of Hertford College, the old 
buildings of which were incorporated with new 
Magdalen Hall. The original drawing of " Coun- 
sellor Bickerton " (by which title he was always 
designated) is said to be an excellent likeness by 
Burt. There is a copy of the same in water-colours, 
and a good etching of it by Whessel, all in the 
Bodleian Library. Counsellor Bickerton is de- 
picted in cap and gown, and carrying a very large 
green umbrella, confined about half way up by 
a large brass ring like a curtain ring, such as I 
can recollect when a child. Counsellor Bickerton, 
though eccentric, was very harmless. The boys 
who played about the Kadcliffe Square and the 
last houses of Cat Street would laugh at him as he 

passed in and out of Hertford College with the 
great green umbrella and his gown tucked under 
his arm, and he was, in short, one of " the old 
characters " of Oxford in the early part of this 

One of his fancies was for driving, and he would 
drive out of the city and fill his carriage with 
market women whom he met walking with their 
goods to the Oxford Market, and bring them to 
their destination. 

Counsellor Bickerton claimed to be of a good 
family, from the county of Cheshire or borders of 
Wales, and of this old family he compiled the 
history and traditions, and printed them in a 
volume which he called 

" Multum Desideratum, | or | a Few Hints | concern- 
ing the | Bickertons, | who lived in Cheshire after they 
came into England with William the Conqueror, | and 
respecting S. Bickerton, A.B., C.P., | Queen's College, 
Oxford, | of the same Family. | Together with a Concise 
Address to Friends, &c. | to inform Them how they 
may be Rich and Happy in the Time Present and Future, 
| with | a Representation of the Three Broad Arrows, 
the Family Coat of Arms and of the aforesaid Person. | 
Second Edition. | Reprinted by the Desire of and to 
Accommodate the Friends who live at a Distance." 

This book is not in the Bodleian, nor have I any 
idea as to where a copy might be seen. 

When "poor" but harmless and eccentric Bicker- 
ton had .to leave the shelter of Hertford College I 
cannot exactly learn, but he was lost sight, of, and i 
eventually died at the advanced age of nearly eighty I 
years, alone and desolate, in a hovel at a place i 
called the Five Chimneys in Vauxhall Eoad.i 
He seems to have lived in a squalid state, and was I 
looked on as a " miser " by the neighbours, who 
showed him trifling kindnesses. He had bought 
the freehold, of which his poor dwelling formed 
part, for 3801. He died Oct. 7, 1833, the wondeij 
of his poor neighbours, who, in spite of the miser- 
able and starved appearance of the old man, coulc 
not but see that he was a superior person, who, ii 
was rumoured among them, was very highly con| 
nected, but who had left society in disgust! 
Boone's epithets of "poor" Bickerton, "unhappy 5 ! 
Bickerton, are very appropriate. 


18, Long Wall, Oxford. 

(5 th S. viii. 58, 99, 227, 277 ; x. 347 ; xi. 4, 50, 98. 
There is, I believe, but one edition of th 
Authentic Records, namely, that the title-page c 
which is correctly described by H. S. A., but i 
the account of the trial of Phillips, the publisher 
for the libel (London, Hatchard, 1833) it is state 
that " it was published at No. 334, Strand, ti 
office for sale of the Satirist newspaper, and sul 
sequently at 13, Wellington Street." 

In a copy in the possession of the late Mr. Job 
Forster there were several MS. notes, of which tl 
following is a specimen : " Written by a lady < 

th S. XI. MAR. 1, 79.] 



th s name of Wood, who was residing in th 
pa ace. Suppressed, bought up, and destroyed 
Vt ry few copies in existence." 

The suppression, if suppression there was, wa 
doubtless on the part of the writers and publisher 
wl.o in the same year, 1832, printed the enlargec 
edition of it, viz., The Secret History, with Lad} 
A. Hamilton's name on the title-page, which state 
thit it was "published by William Henry Steven 
soa, 13. Wellington Street, Strand, 1832,'' but o 
which I do not believe copies were circulated unti 
1838, when advantage was taken of the interest 
excited by Lady Charlotte Bury's Diary of the 
Times of George IV. to try and get a respectable 
publisher to issue it, failing which it was sole 
clandestinely, the party trying to negotiate such 
| sale being, I have been informed, a Mrs. Wood- 
I ward. Who was Mrs. Wood ? who was Mrs 
Woodward 1 whose names are thus mixed up 
with this disreputable work. 


CYPRUS : HOGARTH'S FROLIC (5 th S. xi. 106, 
149.) The point raised by MR. NORGATE, and 
! the statement of S. P. (following Hotten's reprint) 
i that " this brochure was originally published in 
! 1732," induce me to think a short account of its 
first appearance may be of service. The five 
travellers, it will be remembered, set out from the 
"Bedford Arms," and their "peregrination" lasted 
I from May 27 to May 31, 1732. Forrest wrote the 
j journal, Thornhill prepared the map, Hogarth and 
| Scott made the drawings. On the second night 
after their return, according to Nichols, the book 
was produced bound, gilt, and lettered and read 
at the " Bedford Arms " to the members of the 
club then present. Nichols does not say "printed"; 
and this " book" was doubtless the original journal 
with the accompanying sketches. In 1781, when 
Nichols issued the first edition of his Anecdotes, 
Hogarth, Scott, Tothall, and Thornhill were dead, 
and the journal and drawings were in the pos- 
session of Forrest, who (says Nichols, p. 68*) was 
[willing to permit etchings to be made from the 
latter, " provided they are done in such a manner 
as will not disgrace the memory of his late friend 
Mr. Hogarth." This announcement appears to 
have attracted immediate notice, and brought to 
the front an imitation of the tour in Hudibrastic 
verse, which had been made many years previously 
by Hogarth's friend, the Eev. W. Gostling, of 
Canterbury. Of this rhymed paraphrase twenty 
copies were printed by Nichols in 1781, "as a 
iterary curiosity." a In the same year (vide date 
3n plates) the drawings were engraved by E. Live- 
ly (mentioned in my former note), and printed 
ay him in 1782 to accompany Forrest's prose 
ournal under the following title : " AN ACCOUNT 

l It afterwards appeared in the second edition of the 
Anecdotes, 1782, pp. 403-27. 

of what seemed most remarkable in the Five Days 
Peregrination of the Five following Persons, viz. 
Messieurs Tothall, Scott, Hogarth, Thornhill and 
Forrest, etc.," 1782. The illustrations are nine in 
number, and correspond with plates iv. to xii. of 
Hotten's reprint. The portraits of Mr. Gabriel 
Hunt and Mr. Ben. Eead and the crest, which make 
plates ii., iii., and xiii. of that work, were also 
engraved by Livesay, but they form no part of the 
original tour series ; indeed, they were all produced 
after 1732. So was " Hogarth painting the Comic 
Muse," which becomes Hotten's plate i. The title- 
page of that book, which speaks of the sketches in 
sepia as " from the original drawings illustrating 
the tour," is therefore misleading. The " London, 
Published in 1732" of Hotten's title-page to the 
prose journal is not, of course, on the title-page to 
the original MS. book in the British Museum, to 
which I have referred. The date, if given at all, 
should be 1782, as shown above. 

10, Kedcliffe Street, S.W. 

THE " MERRYTHOUGHT " (5 th S. xi. 86.) The 
derivation of this word given by Dr. Johnson is 
certainly not satisfactory ; it is, in fact, only that 
put forth in the British Apollo (No. 84, Nov. 26, 
1708), that the word was derived from the merry 
thoughts which arise on the breaking of the bone. 
There were two distinct forms of divination con- 
nected with this bone : the one, when two persons 
cmll it asunder, when the one who secures the 
'arger portion of it is " sure to be the first to be 
married" ; and the other when, only the two ends 
of the broken bone being shown, the inquirer is 
desired to wish for something and then choose one 
of the two bones : if the longer piece is thus by 
chance taken, the wish is sure to be gratified ; if 
the shorter, a disappointment will ensue. Now in 
neither of these two fond superstitions was there 
necessarily anything merry ; indeed, if the inquirer 
)elieved in the omen, the thoughts arising must 
lave been quite as often sad as merry. There is, 
'. think, a story in the Spectator of a gentleman 
who thus finding that his wish was not to be 
gratified turned pale and lost all appetite. 

I would venture to suggest, as ZERO observes, 
hat perhaps the word may be a corruption, and 
jossibly of meritot. Chaucer, in the Miller's 
Tale, 1. 662, has : 

" What eylith you, some gay gerl, God it woto 
Hath brought in you thus on the meritote." 

meritot is drfined in old dictionaries, such 
as Blount's Glossioy mphia, 1656, and Phillips's New 
~Vorld of Words, 1658, as a sport used by children 
>y swinging themselves in bell-ropes, or such like, 
ill they be giddy ; in Latin oscillum, swinging on 
rope to which is tied a little beam, across which 
hey sit. Now the merrythought bone, both in 
egard to its shape and the mode of its attachment 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [5'" s. xi. MA*, i, 79. 

might fairly be called the swing-bone, or meritot, 
and if this were so, the transition from meritot to 
merrythought is not very far-fetched. Whether or 
not, as Skinner suggests, meritot was only a de- 
generation of veritot is not of much importance, 
for anyhow meritot seems to be an older word 
^than merrythought. Of course, in the illustration 
from Echard, 1670, quoted by Johnson, though 
'the passage refers only to breaking merrythoughts 
with cousin Abigail under the table, it practically 
meant thereby giving rise to v " marry-thought " 
between the young people. EDWARD SOLLY. 
Sutton, Surrey. 

41.) I never before heard of Braricker, but MR. 
BAILEY'S note enables me (thanks to " N. & Q.") 
to recognize in him the author of a curious key to 
a cipher or cryptograph in my possession, which 
I exhibited and described at a meeting of the 
Society of Antiquaries on Feb. 8, 1877. The 
description may be seen in their Transactions of 
that date. That it is by Brancker and in his 
handwriting I have no doubt. His name " Thos. 
-Brancker " occurs in an example to one of the rules 
for the use of the cipher, written on the back of 
'it, and his initials are in several other places. The 
invention and construction of such a cryptograph 
would be a congenial and very probable occupation 
to a mind of his mathematical turn. The writing 
is very minute, but singularly well formed and 
legible. I have also a kind of metaphysical 
treatise or essay entitled "An dentur principia 
innata," which is apparently in the same hand- 
writing. J. H. COOKE, F.S.A. 

"TUDIEU" (5 th S. xi. 44.) It is extremely 
candid of DR. CHANCE to give the circumstances 
under which he arrived at his etymology of tudieu. 
I will give that which I think to be preferable. Is 
it not tete-dieu ? Scott, in Quentin Dumvard, 
.makes Louis XI. swear tete-dieu. 

C. F. S. WARREN, M.A. 

D.D. (5 th S. xi. 43.) The Spirit of Despotism is j 
included in the collected edition of Knox's Works, 
7 vols., 8vo., printed for J. Mawman, Lond.,1824. ' 
The author of the memoir prefixed to this edition 
says : 

" At the beginning of 1795 he wrote The Spirit of 
Despotism. He composed this treatise under a conviction 
that the continental confederacy to crush the rising 
liberties of France was directed against the best interests 
of mankind, and that it received its principal support 
from England. Shortly after the work was finished the 
war assumed altogether a new character, and the French 
in their turn became the aggressors, in the name of 
liberty seeking military glory, destroying the indepen- 
dence of neighbouring nations, and undermining all the 
foundations of freedom. He determined, therefore, to 
postpone the publication until a more favourable oppor- 
tunity, which, from the course of political events, did not 

occur during his life. It happened, however, that a copy 
of this work escaped the custody to which it was con- 
ided, and without his knowledge was published." 

The book is not even mentioned by Lowndes or 

"THE UPPER TEN THOUSAND" (5 th S. x. 348, 
436.) I remember reading a book on the Island 
of Jersey, which must have been written some 
forty years ago (I forget both name and author), 
where an "upper ten" is described, i.e. certain ten 
Families assumed the position of a select aristocracy, 
ind' rigidly excluded others from their circle. 
This doubtless is the origin of the " upper ten 
bhousand " when imported to America. Americans 
like big things, so " ten" became " ten thousand." 

THE WORD " BLOOMING " (5 th S. xi. 46.) Are 
we not indebted to the Californian coast for this 
ornamental addition to our expletive vocabulary] 
It will be found in Col. John Hay's ballad, " The 
Mystery of Gilgal," in the same volume (J. Cam- 
den Hotten) which contains the famous poems of 
" Little Breeches " and " Jim Bludso" : 
" He went for his 'leven inch bowie knife : 
' I tries to foller a Christian life, 
But I '11 drap a slice of liver or two, 
My lloomin' shrub, with you.' " 

" Blooniin' " or " blooming " is now colloquially 
used by the lower classes. F. D. F. 

As this ludicrous and ugly word has beenj 
admitted into " N. & Q.," one may be allowed to 
protest against the assertion made by WHITEHALL 
(whose own note is enough to confute him) that it 
is a word now used by gentlemen. Posterity, who 
may possibly have a gentleman or two among 
them, ought not to be thus deluded ; and I beg 
to assure posterity, through " N. & Q.," that the 
word is not used, in the euphemistic sense in- 
tended, by any persons higher than those to whom 
WHITEHALL has referred its origin the music- 
hall "cad " and his friends. A. J. M. 

Just as we were leaving the comfortable Queen's 
Hotel at Port Madoclast summer, the fishmonger's 
cart drove up. We heard the landlord bewailing 
the perplexity of having to provide for visitor^ 
who might or might not come, or who might o: 1 
might not stay. Of course he could not buy an; 
fish that morning, and he added, " Last night wi 
were full, and now every blooming visitor is gone. 

Norton Hill, Runcorn. 

"HAYSEL" (5 th S. xi. 149.) Sel or seel i 
a general term meaning " season," like the A.-S 
sad, of which it is a survival. The seel of the da 
is the time of the day ; hay-seel is hay-season, haj 
harvest ; wheat-seel is wheat-time, wheat-harves 
It is well known in East Anglia and probably els< 

5. S. XI. MAK. 1, 79.] 



he e. It is rather discouraging to find that after 
le English Dialect Society has existed for some 
ear > questions are so often being asked upon the 
ubject of provincialisms. We have answered 
utry of them over and over again, and many of 
ur reprints are indexed. WALTER W. SKEAT. 

Halliwell gives haysele as an Eastern Counties 
rori for hay-time, and sele as equivalent to time 
r soason. W. T. M. 


-See the Bibliographical List of all works relating 
o English dialects, published for the English Dia- 
sct Society. All books published for the society 
an be had separately by non-subscribers at the 
.rices marked upon the covers. The publisher is 
fa. Triibner. WALTER W. SKEAT. 


i. 47.) A pamphlet, Eapliad Vindicated, by 

V. Trull (Hookham, London, 1840), gives a full 

ccount of the tapestries to which W. M. M. 

lludes. It is therein stated that Leo X. ordered 

wo sets. One was presented to Henry VIII. 

liter the death of Charles I. " they were sold, in 

649, to Don Alonso de Cardenas, at his decease 

evolved to the noble house of Alba, were bought 

y Mr. Peter Tupper in 1823, by whom they were 

rought to England," and in 1833 passed, by 

urchase, into the hands of Mr. William Trull, a 

lerchant in London, with whom they remain. I 

w them hanging in the Crystal Palace, in the 

,rt which was burned, but I think they were 

ved. I am under the impression that more than 

svo sets of these tapestries were made, and that 

ere was one in France in Louis XIV.'s time. 

Ashford, Kent. 

is very usual among friends of the Erskine 
mily, especially to the north of the Tweed, to 
onounce (not to write) their name as Aresldne. 
le prefix of /// must be regarded as a vulgarism, 
rdonable in Voltaire. E. WALFORD, M.A. 
Hampstead, N.W. 

THE WESLEYS AND COLLEYS (5 th S. xi. 65.) 

is pretty clear that the note in Swift's Works 
at Mrs. Wesley was a daughter of Sir Dudley 
)lley is an error. The inscription on the tomb 

Carbery, which is given in Lodge and Archdull's 
eerage of Ireland, 1789, vol. iii. p. 65, describes 
in as "Dudley Colley, alias Cowley, Esq., great- 
'andson of Sir Henry Colley, alias Cowley, of 
astle Carbery, Knt., who built this chapel." But 

MR. WALFORD satisfied that Swift's friend 
rs. Wesley was this Elizabeth Colley, the wife 

Garrett Wesley 1 Did not that lady die many 
;ars previously, namely, in 1678? and was not the 

Mrs. Wesley in question Catherine Keating, who 
married Garrett Wesley, of Dangan, M.P. for 
Meath, who died s.p. 1728 ? From the pedigree 
in Burke (Mornington) it would, I think, appear 
that this Mrs. Wesley was a niece by marriage of 
Henry Colley, of Castle Carbery, and not his 
sister. Garrett Wesley the younger, as a second 
son, was of course not the head of the family in 171(\ 
but only became so on the death s.p. of his elder- 
brother William. EDWARD SOLLY. 

OLD SONGS WANTED (5 th S. xi. 126.) In The- 
Merry Companion, or Universal Songster, second 
edition, London, 1742, p. 366, is a short song 
beginning, " He that has the best wife." Is this 
one of the songs MR. CHAPPELL is in search of,, 
and which he says begins with " He that hath 
a good wife " ? ALEX. IRELAND. 

Inglewood, Bowdon, Cheshire. 

DR. NEWMAN'S " Loss AND GAIN " (5 th